Archive | March 17th, 2017

Saudis Zio-Wahhabi Attack Boat, Kill 42 Refugees Off Yemen

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UN: Dead Included Refugees With UNHCR Documents

Saudi Zio-Wahhabi invasion of Yemen has not only produced a humanitarian calamity in that country, but appears to be extending to people who are even adjacent to Yemen, as a Saudi Zio-Wahhabi military helicopter attacked a boat full of Somali refugees aiming to reach the Yemeni port city of Hodeidah, killing at least 42 of them.

Hodeidah is a Red Sea port that has been the primary point of entry for humanitarian aid into Shi’ite northern Yemen, and subsequently has been regularly attacked by Saudi Zio Wahhabi  itself, with regular airstrikes badly damaging port infrastructure.

Somali refugees have long flocked to Yemen, just a relatively short boat ride away, though the Saudi invasion has obviously made that trip both riskier, and lower-reward, since Yemen itself is facing major humanitarian shortages because of the Saudi blockade.

The UN High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) reported that the slain refugees, whose bodies arrived in Hodeidah along with some survivors, included people who had official identifying documents from the UNHCR confirming their refugee status.

Posted in Saudi Arabia, YemenComments Off on Saudis Zio-Wahhabi Attack Boat, Kill 42 Refugees Off Yemen

EXCLUSIVE: The REAL Syria Civil Defence Exposes Fake ‘White Helmets’ as Terrorist-Linked Imposters

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Posted by: Sammi Ibrahem,Sr

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me-and-scd2Vanessa Beeley
21st Century Wire

“I am a director not only of a Syrian Civil Defence Unit, but of brave human beings, volunteers who risk their lives, despite the terrorism that is invading Syria, to maintain security for Syria. I give thanks from my heart for the courage of my men who have lost their comrades in terrorist attacks but they keep working despite the risks. They are true soldiers, their equipment and their spirit are their only weapons”
~ Director of Tartous’ REAL Syria Civil Defence

Did I hear a pin drop?  The real Syria Civil Defence? Are the west’s iconized ‘White Helmets’ not the only emergency first-responders inside Syria?

For the REAL Syria Civil Defence you call 113 inside Syria.  There is no public number for the White Helmets.  Why not? Why does this multi-million dollar US & NATO state-funded first repsonder ‘NGO,’ with state of the art equipment supplied by the US and the EU via Turkey, have no central number for civilians to call when the “bombs fall”?

Before we introduce the real Syria Civil Defence, who are Syria’s real ICDO certified civil fire and rescue organisation, let’s first take a closer look at the imposters; terrorists in white hats, and agents of war – NATO’s pseudo ‘NGO’ construct, embedded exclusively in terrorist-held parts of Syria…

We’re told that the White Helmets routinely scale the walls of collapsed buildings and scrambling over smouldering rubble of bombed out buildings to dig a child out with their bare hands. Of course, never without a sizeable camera crew and mobile phone carrying entourage in tow.

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Screenshot from one of the multitude of NATO’s White Helmets promotional videos, as per usual – with fans and camera crew in attendance.

So who, and what exactly are the White Helmets?

“Founded in 2013, the White Helmets, officially called the Syria Civil Defense, are often the only emergency first-responders available in rebel-held areas of Syria and claim to have saved more than 58,000 lives.” ~ The Slate

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White Helmets ‘Team’ Photo: Screenshot from recent Soros funded, Netflix promotional documentary.

The western media mythology goes as follows:

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British Military officer James Le Mesurier

They are made up of former bakers, builders, taxi drivers, students, teachers, pretty much anything apart from rescue workers,” according to the much repeated phrase used by their British ex-military, USAR (Urban Search & Rescue) trainer, James Le Mesurier who specialises in outsourcing warfare – the kind of private security operations exemplified by the likes of Blackwater (now known as Academi) and DynCorp, and other well-known global suppliers of mercenaries and CIA outreach assassination experts.

“Running operations through Blackwater gave the CIA the power to have people abducted, or killed, with no one in the government being exactly responsible.” ~ The Atlantic, 2012

White Helmets founder Le Mesurier, who graduated from Britain’s elite Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst, is said to be an ‘ex’ British military intelligence officer involved in a number of other NATO ‘humanitarian intervention’ theatres of war, including Bosnia, Kosovo and Iraq, as well as postings in Lebanon and Palestine. He also boasts a series of high-profile posts at the UN, EU, and UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Not to mention his connections back to the infamous Blackwater (Academi).


The White Helmet network showing primary funding sources and James Le Mesurier connections back to deep state  (Image: UK Column)

The streaming giant, Netflix, recently launched the documentary meant to elevate the White Helmets to a Hollywood level of Madison Avenue-styled demagoguery. As an interesting aside: a major shareholder in Netflix just happens to be the Capital Research Global Investors who hosts a number luminaries of the military industrial complex on its books including Lockheed Martin and Boeing. In 2015, George Soros, billionaire, criminal hedge-fund manager, bought up 317,534 shares in Netflix said to be worth $32.79m.  Curiously in 2016 Soros, dissolved those shares.

For further information on the George Soros role as the anti-Syria NGO impresario read 21WIRE article: George Soros: Anti-Syria Campaign Impresario

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Variation on the Netflix promotional poster for the NATO White Helmet documentary. Poster by: Cory Morningstar of WrongKindofGreen.

Later, in Part III of this article, we will go into depth concerning the recent awards, including an objectionable nomination for the Nobel Peace Prize, that have been bestowed upon this group of US, UK, EU backed fifth columnists, or as they would have you believe, “first-responders.”

With over $60 million in their back pocket courtesy of USAID, the UK Foreign Office and various EU nations like the Netherlands, this group is possibly one of the most feted and funded entities within the west’s anti-Syrian NGO complex, a pivotal part of the clandestine shadow state building enterprise inside of Syria.

Like many other ‘NGOs’, the White Helmets have been deployed by the west to derail the Syrian state, first  by undermining existing civic structures and by disseminating staged PR to facilitate regime change propaganda, through western and Gulf state media outlets. Despite the fact that they were started, and are still generously funded by NATO members states, particularly from the US and UK, the White Helmets’ official statement still claims categorically that they are somehow “fiercely independent” and “have accepted no money from governments, corporations or anyone directly involved in the Syrian conflict“. This is both farcical and deeply misleading.

RELATED: ‘Aleppo Media Centre’ Funded By French Foreign Office, EU and US

They claim they are not “tied to any political group in Syria, or anywhere else”, yet they are embedded with Al Nusra Front, ISIS and affiliated with the majority of US allied terrorist brigades infesting Syria.  In fact during my recent trip to Syria, I was once again struck by the response from the majority of Syrians when asked if they knew who the White Helmets were.  The majority had never heard of them, others who follow western media noted that they are a “NATO construct being used to infiltrate Syria as a major player in the terrorist support network.”

For further details on the White Helmets and their role in supporting US & NATO state-sponsored terrorism in Syria please refer to the compilation of articles contained in the 21WIRE article: WHO ARE SYRIA’S WHITE HELMETS?

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The REAL Syria Civil Defence

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Let us now focus upon the very real heroes inside Syria, the real Syria Civil Defence that have been usurped by the NATO mountebank White Helmets who also call themselves the “Syria Civil Defence” – a mere simulacra of the REAL Syria Civil Defence who have been saving lives in Syria, and further afield for decades.

The REAL Syria Civil Defence was established as an organisation, in 1953, some 63 years before the White Helmets were a glimmer in the eyes of CIA and MI6 operatives.

The REAL Syria Civil Defence is a founding member of the ICDO (International Civil Defence Organisation). Other ICDO partners include the UN Department of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), Secretarian of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR), International Search and Rescue Advisory Group (INSARAG), World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations of Geneva (UNOG), Red Cross and the Red Crescent.

To our knowledge and according to the Head Quarters of the REAL Syria Civil Defence in Damascus, the White Helmets are NOT a member of the ICDO. The REAL Syria Civil Defence have received awards for their participation in the training of other member states in USAR (Urban Search and Rescue) and for their contributions to the Civil Defence community, prior to the NATO dirty war on Syria that began in earnest, in 2011.

Later in Part II, we will go into further detail regarding this affiliation with the ICDO and the role the REAL Syria Civil Defence has played in global civil defence developments for the last 63 years – which is tremendous, and something the White Helmets could never lay claim to in reality, despite all the superficial accolades being rained down upon them by the US and NATO fueled organisations, foundations and cosmetic award bodies.

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This is an introduction to the unsung heroes who, unlike the counterfeit White Helmets, do truly risk their lives every day, working not only in government controlled areas, but forging deep into terrorist strongholds to rescue civilians living under the brutal US-NATO-backed terrorist siege and occupation that engulfs all of Syria.

When Syrian civilians are at risk, injured, or buried under the rubble of homes, schools and hospitals destroyed by terrorist mortar showers, it’s not Le Mesurier’s White Helmets who rush to their aid – it’s the REAL Syria Civil Defence, a real civic organization who, up until the publication of this article, have never been mentioned by any western media outlets.

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The REAL Syria Civil Defence, stationed in Syrian government held West Aleppo (Photo: Vanessa Beeley August 15, 2016)

The REAL Syria Civil Defence: Aleppo

My first stop on my investigation to discover the REAL Syria Civil Defence units in as many Syrian governorates as I could during my time in Syria, was Aleppo. I focused on those units that were in closest proximity to the terrorist held areas of Syria, particularly, Aleppo and Idlib. Damascus which is the home and headquarters of the REAL Syrian Civil Defence was my last port of call, and is surrounded on two sides by Jaish Al Islam, another US-NATO protected terrorist clique.

Because of the the encroachment of the US Coalition terrorist entities, Aleppo city has been carved into two cities with the major occupier of the eastern portion being the universally feared Al Nusra Front. Spurious attempts by the US to rebrand this organisation as a lesser evil in an attempt to separate them from their Al Qaeda affiliation, have failed. People in Syria from all walks of life refuse to accept any differentiation between the titles accorded the terrorist brigades, insisting there is no difference in the way they all kill, maim, torture, rape, behead and destroy at the behest of their paymasters and controllers in the US, NATO states, Turkey, Gulf States and yes, Israel.

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Decimated areas of Sheikh Maqsoud, the northernmost, Kurdish held, entry point into the government held West Aleppo (Photo: Vanessa Beeley August 14, 2016)

For further information about the real situation in Aleppo, my journey to this terrorist besieged city and the debunking of the fictional US-NATO narrative, please read Part I of my article published at Mint Press: Journey to Aleppo: Exposing the Truth Buried under NATO Propaganda.

On the 15th of August, I entered the work yard of Aleppo’s REAL Syria Civil Defence and was greeted by an exhausted team of about fifteen crew-members.  That morning from 11am until around 3 pm, just before our visit, they had been fighting a fire in a cement and plastics factory which had been ignited by Al Nusra Front mortar fire.

They were understandably wary, but they still gathered around us (my colleague and independent journalist, Eva Bartlett and our translator) in the searing arid summer heat. Over the course of this 5 years and 6 months of this dirty war against Syria, not one western media journalist had ever asked to speak to them.

This extraordinary omission and failure to follow the most rudimentary journalist text book rules by the western media is staggering, but hardly surprising considering the level of spin and propaganda employed daily by the likes of the BBC, CNN, FOX News, The Guardian, New York Times, and Washington Post. Sadly, western media lap dogs end up simply wagging their tails to their masters voice and turning somersaults with the truth to merit reward.

Unfortunately for the Syrian people, western pundits have only reported on crucial and pivotal events in the war on Syria based largely on ‘evidence’ supplied by the US-UK-NATO construct, the White Helmets, who are ensconsed only in Al Nusra Front aka Al Qaeda and ISIS held areas.

As a result of western media outlets not bothering to make contact with the volunteer Syrians in the REAL Syria Civil Defence, western audiences never received a balanced view of the situation. Instead, western media only disseminates what amounts to a biased, one-sided view which mirrors anti-Syrian state and Syrian Arab Army rhetoric issued by the US State Dept and British Foreign Office.

I explained in detail, why I had come to talk with them, that my objective was to find out who were the real heroes inside Syria, the multi million NATO funded White Helmets created in 2013 or the Syrian Syria Civil Defence established in 1953.

Aleppo’s REAL Syria Civil Defence informed us there are 150 volunteers working across all units in Aleppo, the headquarters are in the Hamadaniya area which is one of the most severely targeted civilian areas, by Al Nusra Front Hell Cannon mortar fire and explosive bullets. The volunteers ages range between 25-45 years old, and the minimum age for training is 18.

All members of the crew were genuine volunteers. They spoke proudly of the intensive training process they undergo before they can be accepted into the unit. They are fully trained in urban search and rescue techniques (USAR).  They are also fully qualified paramedics.

A glance around their yard revealed that their equipment is tired and worn. The fire trucks were gleaming in the sun but showed signs of heavy use. Tattered jackets hung from the fenders and wing mirrors of the trucks and a Syrian flag had been draped across the radiator of one truck, perhaps in honour of our visit.

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West Aleppo REAL Syria Civil Defence unit (Photo: Vanessa Beeley August 15, 2016)

I was told immediately, that I would not be able to photograph the crew themselves or to use their names. Aleppo is a city under siege, not by “Assad and his army“, as the western media would have you believe, but by an assortment of up to 22 different terror brigades many of whom are armed, funded, and trained by the US, UK, France, Norway, Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Turkey, to name only a few of the west’s ‘coalition.’ The REAL Syria Civil Defence crew-members are under constant threat of being targeted by any one of these terrorist brigades – including the White Helmets, as they later explained to us.

Chemical Attacks

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MODERATE WEAPONS: ‘Rebel’ Terrorists in East Aleppo shell civilians indiscriminately with their crude munitions, and then blame it on “The Regime” via misleading social media imagery. 

The crew told us about a call out they had responded to on the 2nd August. There had been a terrorist Hell Cannon attack on the Old City of Aleppo, which lies right on the border with the Al Nusra front lines and is a regular target for their indiscriminate attacks. Terrorist Hell Cannons use an assortment of containers – gas canisters, water heater tanks packed full of explosives, glass, metal and any other limb-shredding materials.

As the crew entered the area, they said there was a pungent smell in the air that suggested the use of a toxic gas by Nusra Front, possibly chlorine. The concentrations were so high that they immediately experienced breathing difficulties and their flimsy paper oxygen masks were not sufficient to prevent the devastating effects of inhalation.

One of the crew, 36 year old Mohammed Ahmed Eibbish, succumbed to the fumes and eventually died while trying to rescue one of the 25 affected civilians. Both civilians and crew suffered with dizziness, nausea, burns on their body, spasms and respiratory difficulties. Four civilians died that day too, all women. This attack and many others like it, are being intentionally ignored by the western media agencies, politicians and partisan UN officials, desperate to attribute any such attacks to the Syrian government and its national army.

A very salient fact so often mislaid in the stampede to produce lies, is that the only chemical factory in Aleppo (producing chlorine among other substances) was actually captured by the Al Nusra Front coalition in 2012. It is located about 10km east of Aleppo’s airport on the road towards Raqqa.

“The chemicals factory was taken over by Nusra Front and allies three years ago, they emptied everything out of it including potential ingredients for use in chemical weapon attacks. Part of the facility was shipped to Iraq.  They destroyed the factory completely.” ~ Voice from Aleppo

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Painful skin blisters caused by an ISIS chemical weapon attack in Northern Aleppo 17/9/2016 (Photo: Press TV article)

The crew told us that the worst injuries they have ever witnessed, are children who have been hit by the terrorist Hell Cannon mortars. Their little bodies are eviscerated and literally torn apart. At least 54 children had been killed and many others maimed by the Hell Cannon attacks in a two-week period alone, between the July 31st and August 14th. These figures were provided by the Aleppo Medical Association during our time in West Aleppo. In total, 143 civilians, 23 women, 54 children and 66 men, were killed by US-backed “rebels” occupying East Aleppo.

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Aleppo REAL Syria Civil Defence Fire Engine parked in their yard (Photo: Vanessa Beeley August 15, 2016)

The West Aleppo crew is forced to attend missions without the standard issue equipment and to deal with situations like chemical weapons attacks with only the ineffectual paper breathing masks.  This is another result of the EU-US sanctions being enforced against Syria, and effectively against the Syrian people. The REAL Syria Civil Defence is unable to replace equipment or replenish supplies, unlike the NATO White Helmets who enjoy an endless stream of kit and replacement materials via the Turkey supply chain that has remained unbroken for much of the four years that Aleppo has been under terrorist siege.

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US EQUIPPED: White Helmets showing off their brand new equipment in Idlib (on borders with Turkey) supplied by US Equipment company, Bobcat (Photo: screenshot from White Helmet promotional video)

The White Helmets: Criminals, Kidnappers and Killers

When we got on to the subject of NATO’s White Helmets, the West Aleppo REAL Syrian Civil Defence crew became animated.  One of them, stepped forward and began to talk excitedly to our translator. He had been stationed in East Aleppo at a REAL Syrian Civil Defence unit based in an area that has since been overrun by Al Nusra Front and their associate terrorist gangs.

Again, we are unable, as we have said, to provide names of the men we spoke with. They are prime targets for the Al Nusra Front and company in East Aleppo. This crew member, lets call him ‘Khaled,’ described what happened when the terrorists (western media still call them “opposition” or “moderate rebels”) started to invade East Aleppo in 2012.

“They came in and they drove us out of our homes and they came to the Syria Civil Defence yard and they killed some of my comrades, they kidnapped others.  They wanted to force me to work with them.  I escaped at night.  I was forced to leave my teenage sons behind. They burned my house to the ground and they put my name on all the terrorist checkpoints so if I go back, they will kill me.”

Khaled went on to explain how those men who later became the White Helmets were among this first wave of terrorists:

“They are terrorists, not rescuers.  They stole our ambulances and three of our fire engines. They don’t do any rescue work.  They drive round with guns in the back of their car like any other terrorist.  Some are from East Aleppo, some are from Syria but not from Aleppo and some are even coming in from abroad.”

Granted, this might come as a shock to anyone who has already bought into the public relations image of the group that’s already been developed over three years by various agencies in New York, Washington DC and London, but these are the real accounts regarding what one might say is the true unmasked nature of the west’s White Helmets.

At this point other crew members interjected and told me that they had watched the White Helmet “rescue” videos.

“They are fake.  They don’t carry out any correct procedures, either as paramedics or as search and rescue experts.”

They described how the White Helmets use a heavy-duty power drill to dig down for civilians buried under the rubble of homes allegedly targeted by “Syrian or Russian airstrikes.”

“It’s the wrong equipment to use.  It is not sensitive enough and because it vibrates powerfully,  it can displace the rubble which is dangerous if anyone is genuinely buried beneath it.”

They went on to describe other aspects of the White Helmet videos that they believe contravene all standard procedures that are followed by genuine search and rescue experts, paramedics and first responders.

In the following very recent video made by a White Helmet camera crew, men pretending to be genuine rescuers attack an area of rubble where they seem to know where a body buried. They start with a mint condition JCB digger, which attacks the heap of rubble with gusto.  Then, alarmingly, they begin to pound the rubble with a heavy duty mallet without employing any devices to actually determine where the body is located, under the impenetrable concrete blocks. Finally, the JCB digger returns to the mound of rubble and enters the teeth of its bucket into the rubble without any hesitation, surely not standard procedure if there is a chance of a body being under the debris.

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Miraculously, as with all White Helmet videos, they seem to find exactly where the bodies are, despite having displaced the majority of the rubble in the process. They also, miraculously, avoided staving in the first body’s head with the mallet. There is no intention to downplay or belittle the deaths that have obviously occurred but we do ask the questions:

1.  How did the White Helmets know the bodies would be exactly where they found them?

2.  Where is this rescue being filmed?

3.  “Activists”, “citizen journalists”, the White Helmets and western media would have us believe that East Aleppo is under almost constant Russian or Syrian aerial attack yet the White Helmets make, on average, 4 or 5 films per day and we never see or hear any sign of an attack, only the “aftermath”. 

4. Where do these bodies come from? Are they victims of air strikes as we are told by these NATO funded “activists” and “first responders” or are they taken from among the thousands of “disappeared” that have been kidnapped by Nusra Front and other terrorist gangs in East Aleppo? Are they gruesome props being used inhumanely, to polish the image of this faux NGO embedded in East Aleppo, HQ for Al Nusra Front.

I would not ask these questions without good cause and that cause was given to me by the crew members of the REAL Syria Civil Defence, in West Aleppo, some of whom were driven from their homes in East Aleppo and whose families, left behind, remain under threat, while they are unable to return, for fear of being assassinated by the Al Nusra terrorists and their associates the White Helmets.

A further cause for this question is the previous proven use of props and crisis actors by the BBC (just one example) in one of their most dubious reports on Syria, Panorama’s piece entitled, “Saving Syria’s Children”.  Robert Stuart’s quite brilliant investigation into this chilling charade revealed some very disturbing evidence of the lengths to which, the mainstream media are prepared to go, to produce the propaganda required to execute yet another war on false pretenses. Propaganda that best serves the NATO and US intelligence agencies who continue toiling away to facilitate regime change and a ‘No Fly Zone.’

“Why do you do it?” I asked an obvious question of the REAL Syria Civil Defence, essentially, volunteers who survive on a paltry government salary or public donations, who work with dilapidated equipment, under terrorist, indiscriminate, shell, mortar and explosive bullet fire, and with no recognition for the heroic work they do from western media or ‘humanitarian’ NGOs.

“It is humanitarian work for our country. We were there in the good times, and we are here when the times are bad and we are needed most. It’s our duty”

No emotive, Manhattan based PR agency #hashtag headlines for these firefighters and life savers. Instead, we get simple words to convey a simple message.  They told me they often work 24 hour shifts, without sleep. One man sat on the wall behind me told me he had broken both legs falling from a collapsing building after terrorists had shelled the area. Another showed me that he had lost an eye in a Hell Cannon mortar attack. In the background, their uniforms billowed on the washing line ready for the next shout.

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The badge of honour, the REAL Syria Civil Defence badge sewn on to the sleeves of the uniforms in West Aleppo (Photo: Vanessa Beeley August 15, 2016)

My final question to the REAL Syria Civil Defence in West Aleppo,  was to ask them for their message to the outside world.  The world that is unaware they even exist, many of whom are blinded by the propaganda glare that surrounds the White Helmet media circus. They responded thus:

1. Please lift the sanctions so we can keep working and saving lives.

2. Stop the terrorists from entering Syria, and stop funding and arming them.

3. If terrorists keep entering Syria, eventually it will affect the world, not just Syria. There has been enough bloodshed. It needs to stop now.

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The staple equipment of fire crews and first responders. Visit to the West Aleppo REAL Syria Civil Defence (Photo: Vanessa Beeley August 15, 2016)

The REAL Aleppo Medical Association

One of the other meetings we had during our time in Aleppo, was with the Aleppo Medical Association.  We met with the Director, Dr Zahar Buttal and Dr Bassem Hayak, who is in charge of the medical teams assessing refugees from East Aleppo who fled to West Aleppo via the Russian and Syrian state humanitarian corridors, created on the 29th July, which have allowed over 2000 people to escape the terrorist strongholds to safety, food and medical care in government-protected West Aleppo. These figures were given to us by the Aleppo Medical Association on the 15th August 2016.

One of the questions I asked Dr Hayak, who spoke good English, was what he knew of the White Helmets.  His response was concise and without preamble.  His family is still in East Aleppo and although he has not been able to get back into East Aleppo for the last year, his family have told him that the White Helmets are not known in East Aleppo.  I asked again to be sure, and was told again, people, civilians do not know of the White Helmets in East Aleppo. Any actual first response work is carried out by foreign workers from various countries, Pakistan and the Gulf region among them. These foreigners work with Syrian people who are not properly trained in first response. They might only receive 2 or 3 months training before being allowed to work.

Dr Hayak says, “Even with our relationship with WHO (World Health Organisation) and the UN, we still didn’t hear about the White Helmets.”

Are the White Helmets, NATO ghosts?

Dr Hayak also states quite clearly, he has a cousin, working as a surgeon in East Aleppo. ISIS and other terrorist factions have forced her to stay in East Aleppo by threatening to kill her family, should she leave for West Aleppo.

Dr Hayak also said that the majority of civilians in East Aleppo are “hostages”of the NATO/US allied terrorists.

In East Aleppo, civilians living under Al Nusra Front occupation, do not know the White Helmets. Watch:

It is not unreasonable to speculate that the White Helmets are not first responders at all, except when required to don the white hats for a staged photo or promotional video, or to produce western news propaganda for the likes of CNN or the BBC, courtesy of their ever-present film and media crew.

It is not unreasonable, based upon the statements given by eminent members of the Aleppo medical fraternity and crew members of the REAL Syria Civil Defence in Aleppo, to draw the conclusion that the White Helmets are nothing more than common terrorists, being paid to present themselves as respectable first responders when the need arises for “reports from inside Aleppo” or elsewhere in Syria.

Later, in Part II of this story, we will travel to the northwest Syria regions of Lattakia and Tartous and speak to REAL Syria Civil Defence units there, before finally visiting the Syria Civil Defence Headquarters in Damascus, right in the heart of Jaish Al Islam, terrorist strongholds in Jobar and the surrounding suburbs of Damascus.

Every one of these units has a tale to tell about NATO’s White Helmets and each tale is a further nail in the coffin of the west’s multi-million dollar White Helmet mythology – nails which can’t be extracted by any number of NATO sponsored prizes, awards or accolades.

In the end, the REAL Syria Civil Defence will be recognised as extraordinary “ordinary” human beings who deserve the title “Hero” and whose service to their people and their country will be applauded by all those who are not taken in by the by the obscene parody of terrorists dressed-up as saviours and saints.

The REAL “saints” do indeed come marching in….

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The REAL Syria Civil Defence, Lattakia, next stop on the tour of the true heroes inside Syria. Photo: Lattakia Fire Brigade FB page

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SEE ALSO: WHO ARE SYRIA’S WHITE HELMETS?

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‘Imperial Interests’ Behind UN Call to Release Political Prisoners in Venezuela

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  • Venezuelan ambassador Jorge Valero speaks at the U.N.
    Venezuelan ambassador Jorge Valero speaks at the U.N. | Photo: UN
Many so-called political prisoners are high-ranking opposition leaders who have instigated violence in the country, leading to the deaths of many citizens.

Venezuelan Ambassador Jorge Valero has called out a high-ranking U.N. official who demanded the release of “political prisoners” as acting in favor of imperial interests.

RELATED: 74 Percent of Venezuelans Don’t Trust the Opposition: Survey

U.N. official Zeid Ra’ad Al-Hussein expressed “concern about the extreme polarization in Venezuela with continued restrictions on freedom of movement, association, expression and peaceful protest,” as Venezuela Analysis reported. He called for the alleged political prisoners’ release and parroted mainstream media’s condemnations of Venezuela and the supposed lack of fundamental rights for all in the country.

Valero rejected the high official’s comments, describing them as an echo of “the international media campaign against Venezuela, hatched by imperialist interests,” as reported by Venezuela Analysis.

“It is deplorable that those responsible for crimes are presented by you (Al-Hussein) as peaceful demonstrators and political opponents,” Valero said, addressing Al-Hussein during the U.N. Human Rights Council session.

He also added that “human rights and fundamental freedoms are respected in Venezuela. Everyone can freely express their own viewpoints. Peaceful declaration is a constitutional right.”

RELATED: The Venezuela ‘Opposition’ We Never Hear About

According to the Venezuelan Penal Forum, FPV, there are 97 “political prisoners” in the country. But in fact, many are high-ranking opposition leaders who have instigated violence in the country, leading to the death of many citizens in their attempt to remove the elected government of President Nicolas Maduro.

Of these alleged political prisoners, Leopoldo Lopez has gained the most international attention after he was sentenced to 13 years and nine months in jail in September 2015 for his role in the violent anti-government protests known as “The Guarimbas” in 2014, which led to the death of 43 people.

Last month, Lopez’s wife Lilian Tintori visited U.S. President Donald Trump and other U.S. congressmen to demand his release. Since then, the United States has ramped up sanctions against Venezuela.

Posted in VenezuelaComments Off on ‘Imperial Interests’ Behind UN Call to Release Political Prisoners in Venezuela

Ecuador Denies Entry to Venezuela Opposition Figure Visiting to Campaign for Right Wing

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  • U.S. President Donald Trump has met with Lilian Tintori, an outspoken opponent of Nicolas Maduro.
    U.S. President Donald Trump has met with Lilian Tintori, an outspoken opponent of Nicolas Maduro. | Photo: Twitter / Donald Trump
“Change is coming to Ecuador,” Tintori said, referencing the campaign slogan of right-wing presidential candidate Guillermo Lasso.

Ecuador denied entry Wednesday morning to Venezuelan opposition figure Lilian Tintori, traveling to meet and campaign with right-wing Ecuadorean presidential candidate Guillermo Lasso — an activity that is banned by the country’s immigration law.

IN DEPTH: Ecuador Elections 2017

Tintori, wife of jailed Venezuelan opposition politician Leopoldo Lopez, arrived at the airport in Guayaquil from Miami at 1:30 a.m. local time Wednesday morning. On her social media accounts she reported that immigration authorities had retained her passport and denied her entry, a move she claimed amounted to a violation of her “human rights.”

An official immigration document circulated online by local journalists showed that Tintori’s entry was denied for her failure to justify her immigration status and explain the reason for her visit.

According to Ecuador’s Human Mobility Law, “Temporary visitors in Ecuador will not be able to interfere in matters of Ecuador’s internal politics.” The law also states that foreigners can be deported for eight reasons, including for “being a temporary visitor in Ecuador who engages in issues of Ecuador’s internal politics.”

The law also outlines that lack of a valid visa when required or failure to justify immigration status — as in Tintori’s case — will result in “immediate departure of the inadmissible person” from the country “without the need for administrative processing.” It also states that such travelers can return to the country when the reason for which they were denied entry is resolved.

On social media, Tintori made references to her political motivations for visiting Ecuador, writing on her Facebook account that Ecuadoreans “have an opportunity for change” on April 2, referring to the date of the presidential runoff election between governing party candidate Lenin Moreno and opposition leader Guillermo Lasso. “They are not letting me enter because they know that change is coming to Ecuador,” she said in a video posted on her Facebook and Twitter accounts, referencing the Lasso’s campaign slogan. “They are not letting me in because they do not want me to help my Ecuadorean brothers and sisters.”

In response to Tintori being denied entry, Lasso also confirmed that the Venezuelan had planned to enter the country to support his bid for president. “A few weeks ago we agreed that she would come for a few days to accompany Maria de Lourdes and I in this campaign,” Lasso said in a video message, referring to his wife, who stood beside him in the video.

RELATED: Ecuador Indigenous Movement Split as Leader Embraces Right-Wing Presidential Candidate

In a press conference on Tintori’s case in Quito Wednesday, Interior Minister Diego Fuentes explained that when immigration authorities asked Tintori about the reason for her travels, she stated that she was “going to perform certain acts within a political agenda at the invitation of right-wing candidate Guillermo Lasso” and intended to enter with a tourist visa.

Fuentes stated that immigration authorities had acted in accordance with the law. He highlighted the article of the Human Mobility Law banning foreigners from participating in political activities and also pointed to a separate article of the same law stating that the Ecuadorean state has the power to “deny entry to a foreign person on the basis of an action or omission committed.”

Tintori, who arrived in Ecuador on an American Airlines flight from Miami, was put on a flight back to Miami at 6:45 a.m. local time Wednesday.

Fuentes confirmed that Tintori returned to Miami on the earliest available American Airlines flight. He welcomed Tintori to return to the country on a tourist visa if she intended to conduct tourist activities, saying, “she is invited with her tourist visa to carry out the activities she would like to carry out within the framework of the law and for the activist and political activities she must process the corresponding visa.”

On her Twitter account, Tintori, who frequently describes Venezuela as a “dictatorship,” claimed that she was denied entry to Ecuador because the country is “complicit in (Venezuelan President Nicolas) Maduro’s dictatorship.”

Leopoldo Lopez was jailed in 2013 for his role in violent protests that claimed the lives of 43 Venezuelans. Since then, Tintori and leaders from Lopez’s right-wing Popular Will Party have been campaigning around the globe for his release, calling him and others involved in the violent protests “political prisoners.”

Lasso, a former banker who came in distant second to front-runner Moreno in the first round of presidential elections last month, said the denial of Tintori into the country was evidence of “dictatorship.”

“Not allowing the entry of Lilian Tintori, wife of Leopoldo Lopez, confirms the dictatorship Ecuador is living the dictatorship of a political party,” Lasso said in his video message.

Lasso also misleadingly referenced the article of the constitution that allows foreigners to vote — a civil right accorded to foreign residents “as long as they have resided legally in the country for at least five years,” according to the constitution — as well as the principle of “universal citizenship,” which promotes free movement to “transform the unequal relations between countries, especially those between North and South.” While Ecuador’s widely celebrated “no one is illegal” policy — applauded by the U.N. Refugee Agency — offers a framework to decriminalize irregular immigration status, not override other sections of the immigration law barring foreigners from interfering in local politics.

RELATED: ‘In Second Round, We Will Defeat Them Again’: President Correa

A high-profile case amid opposition protests in 2015 brought similar migration laws to light and offers a precedent for application of Ecuador’s law barring foreigners from participating in local politics. French-Brazilian academic Manuela Picq, living in Ecuador with a cultural exchange visa, was deported in August after participating in opposition protests that at times turned violent. Her visa was revoked, according to then-Foreign Minister Ricardo Patiño, for “carrying out political activities” not allowed under the cultural exchange immigration status. Picq’s case similarly sparked accusations of human rights violations from the ranks of the opposition, including Lasso’s running mate Andrez Paez, who accompanied Picq during the legal process leading up to her deportation.

Despite Lasso’s defense of the legality of Tintori’s planned visit, as the governor of Guayas in 1999, he ordered a foreigner be expelled for less. Months after the 1999 banking crisis — which Lasso is also accused of played a role in — the then-governor called for the deportation of Venezuelan economic analyst, Jose Luis Cordeiro. The Venezuelan analyst had criticized the economic policies of the government of then-President Jamil Mahuad, under whom Lasso went on to serve as minister of finance. Lasso argued at the time that Cordeiro’s statements showed a “lack of respect” against Mahuad, adding that “it is not possible to allow foreigners to threaten the national honor” of Ecuador.

Tintori’s main political activities have also including building relationships with other right-wing figures in the region, including conservative Argentine President Mauricio Macri and more recently, U.S. President Donald Trump.

Just weeks ago, she met Trump, Vice President Mike Pence and Florida Senator Marco Rubio in the White House. After the meeting, she thanked Trump on her Twitter account for “standing with the Venezuelan people.”

Posted in VenezuelaComments Off on Ecuador Denies Entry to Venezuela Opposition Figure Visiting to Campaign for Right Wing

A History of Dutch Populism, from the Murder of Pim Fortuyn to the Rise of Geert Wilders

NOVANEWS
  • In the wake of the Brexit referendum and Trump’s unexpected victory in the United States, populism now seems destined to conquer Europe’s mainland, starting with the Netherlands.
    In the wake of the Brexit referendum and Trump’s unexpected victory in the United States, populism now seems destined to conquer Europe’s mainland, starting with the Netherlands. | Photo: Reuters

    The famous Dutch tolerance and progressiveness, if ever it existed, has turned into intolerance and a prolonged and painstaking search for Dutch identity.

The 2017 Dutch election has taken on a significance for the international media that we haven’t seen for a long time here in the Netherlands.

RELATED: Europe’s Far Right Got a Trump Boost, but Will They Govern?

Placed in the context of other European elections in France and Germany this spring and summer, the elections in the Netherlands are now often perceived as the first step in a populist revolution which has been shaking up Europe and the rest of the Western world.

In the wake of the Brexit referendum and Trump’s unexpected victory in the United States, populism now seems destined to conquer Europe’s mainland, starting with the Netherlands.

But all this analysis comes as somewhat of a surprise for the Dutch. There is no reason for us to talk about a new populist revolution at all. Ever since Pim Fortuyn’s revolt in the early 2000s, we have become all too familiar with the problems and anxieties of populism.

How Pim Fortuyn changed politics for good

Fortuyn, an openly gay sociology professor and publicist, rocked the boat of Dutch politics significantly more than the current representative of populism, Geert Wilders, is expected to do this time around.

Fortuyn ran on an anti-Islam, anti-immigrant platform. He claimed that Islam presented a threat to Western values of openness and liberalism, and wanted to restrict all immigration to the Netherlands.

He was killed on the campaign trail in May 2002 just days before the election. His assassin, Volkert van der Graaf, was an animal rights activist, who said he feared the effect Fortuyn would have on minorities in the country.

Fortuyn’s party, List Pim Fortuyn (LPF), went on to win 26 of the 150 available seats in the May 2002 elections, more than 17% of the electoral vote and enough to form a coalition with the Christian Democratic Appeal and the People’s Party for Freedom and Democracy. But the government of Prime Minister Jan Peter Balkenende was very short lived, mainly because of internal frictions in the LPF.

Fortuyn and the LPD broke open the political system with a force that still baffles Dutch political scientists and commentators.

At the time there was no indication that the centrist parties which had been in power for eight years, a coalition of social democrats and liberals (the Purple Coalition), were headed for a major defeat.

And the populist wave did not subside with the demise of the LPF – Wilders, a former conservative parliamentarian, has picked up where Fortuyn and his friends left off.

21st century populism

Look what the cat dragged in. Photo: Reuters

Look what the cat dragged in. Photo: Reuters

The central themes of the early 21st century right-wing populism of Fortuyn and Wilders have been fierce criticism of the political elite (usually portrayed as left-wing) combined with a steady flow of anti-Islam rhetoric and anti-EU sentiment.

Geert Wilders has repeatedly courted controversy, with his 2008 film Fitna, which compared Islam to Nazism, and a recent trial over his call to reduce the number of Moroccans in the Netherlands, expressed during a party rally just before the 2012 election, for which he was found guilty but not punished.

To acknowledge the fact that populism has been around in the Netherlands for quite a while already is not to underestimate its profound influence. As well as the far-right, it also affected some centrist parties, such as the and the Christian Democrats and People’s Party for Freedom and Democracy.

The famous Dutch tolerance and progressiveness, if ever it existed, has turned into intolerance and a prolonged and painstaking search for Dutch identity.

Public debate has taken a nasty turn, blaming and shaming “foreigners”, Muslims mostly, but also the elite and Europe for the problems people experience. This opened up tensions and rifts which had previously been covered by a soft blanket of “political correctness”, which used to be regarded as civilised behaviour but is now seen as treason and deceitfulness.

Wilders’s first taste of power

Wilders has played a role in the Dutch government before. He won 24 seats (16%) in 2010, which gave him a role as a minor partner supporting a coalition between the Christian Democrats and the People’s Party for Freedom and Democracy in the first cabinet of Mark Rutte. In 2012, Wilders refused to accept major budget cuts which the cabinet had to take in order to meet EU requirements. The government collapsed.

Since 2012, another Purple Coalition between the Labour Party and the People’s Party for Freedom and Democracy has been in power, headed again by Rutte. The current government can claim credit for financial and economic measures which helped the Dutch economy through the recent economic crisis.

But both parties, especially the Labour Party, are probably going to be punished by voters for the austerity measures they imposed on welfare and health care, as well as raising the retirement age from 65 to 67.

What to expect in 2017

A low election threshold means more right-wing minor parties could gain seats among a crowded field. Photo: Reuters

A low election threshold means more right-wing minor parties could gain seats among a crowded field. Photo: Reuters

This time around we can expect success, again, for Geert Wilders, despite the fact that his numbers in the polls have been dropping slowly since early January. The Dutch electoral system’s threshold of 0.7% makes it very open to new parties, so we may see a few new right-wing parties getting some seats alongside Wilders.

Wilders’s success however is not going to bring him into government, because none of the other centrist parties wants to collaborate with him. Another condoning role for Wilders in a right-wing coalition is highly improbable; everyone remembers the debacle of the first Rutte cabinet, when Wilders backed away from his responsibility to the government.

A left-wing coalition is also highly improbable, because even the most flattering polls show a collection of left-wing parties falling short of a majority.

The Christian Democrats, recovering from the 2012 debacle, have already made it clear they will not get on board with a left-wing coalition. So, the remaining centrist parties will have to build a new coalition which will probably take a considerable amount of time to materialise.

The new nostalgia

Most scholars tend to interpret populism as a reaction to increasing inequality in the Netherlands, both in terms of income and of education. However, the Netherlands is still one of the most egalitarian countries in the world, and the rift between levels of education is not a new phenomenon either.

The so-called “losers of globalisation” are not the only ones who vote for Wilders these days. Nor do these voters in many cases seriously believe that Wilders should rule the country. What matters is that he is tapping into the anxieties of many voters.

It is better to see these rifts and the turbulent public debate as the right-wing of the country calling to be heard and taken seriously. It involves people who don’t believe that things are going to get better. They long for the return to an imaginary former Dutch culture in which migrants, minorities and women don’t challenge the status quo and where the debate about blackface is not, as they see it, undermining Dutch culture.

Nostalgia is what moves them into the belief that new Dutch dikes are needed: to keep an ever-more-threatening outside world out of this low country.

Posted in EuropeComments Off on A History of Dutch Populism, from the Murder of Pim Fortuyn to the Rise of Geert Wilders

Coup Leaders Are Keeping Their Promises in Brazil

NOVANEWS
  • Brazilians protest the institutional coup against President Dilma Rousseff and the de facto government of Michel Temer.
    Brazilians protest the institutional coup against President Dilma Rousseff and the de facto government of Michel Temer. | Photo: AFP
They are protecting themselves from prosecution for corruption and carrying out neoliberal shock therapy for the country.

Source: Truthout

The social democratic, left-wing government of Brazil was removed in a coup.

RELATED: Brazil: Crisis and Societal Fascism

Though that striking statement could be ripped from the headlines of newspapers today, it also describes the headlines of half a century ago, in April of 1964.

The Brazilian coup gets forgotten in the crowd of Latin American coups. In discussions of Latin American interventions, it often gets lost in the press of the 1954 Guatemalan coup against Jacobo Árbenz or the 1973 Chilean coup against Salvador Allende. But the Brazilian coup that was sandwiched between them was significant and merits more attention.

In Who Rules the World, Noam Chomsky explains that in 1962, President John F. Kennedy made the policy decision to transform the militaries of Latin America from defending against external forces to “internal security” or, as Chomsky puts it, “war against the domestic population, if they raised their heads.” The Brazilian coup is significant because it may have been the first major manifestation of this shift in the US’s Latin American policy. The Kennedy administration prepared the coup, and it was carried out shortly after Kennedy’s assassination. Chomsky says that the “mildly social democratic” government of João Goulart was taken out for a “murderous and brutal” military dictatorship.

The evidence that the US cooperated in the coup that removed Goulart from power is solid. The field report of the CIA station in Brazil shows clear US foreknowledge of the coup: “A revolution by anti-Goulart forces will definitely get under way this week, probably in the next few days.” President Lyndon B. Johnson gave Under Secretary of State George Ball and Assistant Secretary for Latin America Thomas Mann the green light to participate in the coup: “I think we ought to take every step that we can, be prepared to do everything that we need to do.”

And the steps were substantial. Ambassador Lincoln Gordon told CIA Director John McCone, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara and Secretary of State Dean Rusk that those steps should include “a clandestine delivery of arms … pre-positioned prior any outbreak of violence” to the coup forces, as well as shipments of gas and oil. Gordon also told them to “prepare without delay against the contingency of needed overt intervention at a second stage” after the covert involvement. Rusk would then send Gordon a list of the steps that would be taken “in order [to] be in a position to render assistance at appropriate time to anti-Goulart forces if it is decided this should be done.” The list, sent in a telegram on March 31, 1964, included dispatching US Navy tankers with petroleum and oil, an aircraft carrier, two guided missile destroyers, four destroyers and task force tankers for “overt exercises off Brazil.” The telegram also lists as a step to “assemble shipment of about 11 tons of ammunition.”

This little-known historical record is interesting for its demonstration that the last time Brazil had a “mildly social democratic” government, the U.S. cooperated in its removal. The next social democratic government would be the now removed Workers’ Party government of Presidents Lula da Silva and Dilma Rousseff.

How do we know that the maneuverings that removed Dilma Rousseff from power were a coup dressed in the disguise of parliamentary democracy? Because the coup leaders have told us so. Twice now.

A published transcript of a 75-minute phone call between Romero Jucá, who was a senator at the time of the call and soon to be the planning minister in the new Michel Temer government, and former oil executive Sergio Machado lays bare “a national pact” to remove Dilma and install Temer as president. Jucá reveals that, not only opposition politicians, but also the military and the Supreme Court are conspirators in the coup. Regarding the military’s role, Jucá says, “I am talking to the generals, the military commanders. They are fine with this, they said they will guarantee it.” And, as for the Supreme Court, Glenn Greenwald reports that Jucá admits that he “spoke with and secured the involvement of numerous justices on Brazil’s Supreme Court.” Jucá further boasted that “there are only a small number” of Supreme Court justices that he had not spoken to.

RELATED: Temer Hikes Military Budget After Axing Social Spending

According to Greenwald, the Brazilian newspaper that first published the transcript, Folha de São Paulo, says that Jucá makes it very clear in the phone call that he believed the coup would “end the pressure from the media and other sectors to continue the Car Wash investigation,” the corruption investigations that were closing in on many members of the government, including many of the coup participants, leaders and the coup president, Michel Temer, himself.

According to Jucá, the head of Michel Temer’s party then, one of the intended purposes of the coup was to protect the coup leaders from the corruption investigation that was closing in on them.

According to Temer, the coup had a second purpose. In a post-coup speech in front of members of multinational corporations and the US policy establishment in New York on September 22, 2016, Temer brazenly boasted of his successful coup. Temer clearly told his American audience that elected President Dilma Rousseff was not removed from power for “violating fiscal laws by using loans from public banks to cover budget shortfalls, which artificially enhanced the budget surplus,” as the official charge stated. She was — the new, unelected president admitted — removed because of her refusal to implement a right-wing economic plan that was inconsistent with the economic platform on which Brazilians elected her. Temer’s economic plan featured cuts to health, education and welfare spending, as well as increased emphasis on privatization and deregulation.

Rousseff was not on board. So she was thrown overboard. In the words of Temer’s confession:

And many months ago, while I was still vice president, we released a document named ‘A Bridge to the Future’ because we knew it would be impossible for the government to continue on that course. We suggested that the government should adopt the theses presented in that document called ‘A Bridge to the Future.’ But, as that did not work out, the plan wasn’t adopted and a process was established which culminated with me being installed as president of the republic.

The second purpose, then, was the implementation of an unpopular right-wing economic plan.

So what’s happening now in Brazil? What did Jucá and Temer say would be happening in Brazil? They are protecting themselves from prosecution for corruption and making real a radically right-wing economic plan.

The attempt to insulate themselves from the prosecution that was sure to come if Dilma remained president began quickly with the Brazilian Congress’ attempt to pass a law that would retroactively protect members of the Congress from corrupt election financing. Temer and others have been implicated in the “caixa dois,” or second box scandal in which they accepted undeclared contributions as bribes. Temer himself interestingly declared that he would not veto the amnesty law.

The plan to protect themselves continued to unfold when, a few months later, the lower house of Brazil’s congress passed a law that would allow members of congress accused of corruption to accuse the prosecutors and judges of abusing their authority. This law, then, would allow politicians accused of corruption to pursue the prosecutors who were pursuing them. After protests on the streets of Brazil and legal challenges to annul the vote, the proposal is back at square one in the house. The progress of the bill will be decided after the ministers return from recess this month. The president of the senate has expressed the desire to continue with the proposal. Though the outcome is unknown, the introduction and the continued pursuit of the law clearly expose the coup government’s intent.

So, that’s part one of the coup plan unfolding according to plan. And part two is also predictably unfolding as Temer announced in New York. In his short time in office, Temer has ushered in a host of privatization and austerity measures. But the feature presentation was still to come.

RELATED: Police in Brazil Killed Close to 10 People a Day

In October 2016, the Chamber of Deputies approved the draft of a constitutional amendment that would limit annual increases in government spending to the inflation rate of the previous year for the next 20 years. What they passed was not just a draft of a law, but of an amendment locked into place for the next two decades by the constitution. The amendment would effectively freeze spending on social and welfare services, including health and education, just as Temer promised in New York, despite the government’s assurances that it will not affect health and education.

In December 2016, Brazil’s Senate passed the draft into law. Philip Alston, the UN special rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights, said, “This … radical measure … will place Brazil in a socially retrogressive category all of its own.” He went on to say that the “amendment would lock in inadequate and rapidly dwindling expenditure on health care, education and social security, thus putting an entire generation at risk of social protection standards well below those currently in place.” The UN special rapporteur condemned the amendment as “clearly violat[ing] Brazil’s obligations under the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, which it ratified in 1992, not to take ‘deliberately retrogressive measures’ unless there are no alternative options and full consideration has been given to ensure that the measures are necessary and proportionate.”

So, events in Brazil are unfolding exactly according to the expressed plans of the coup leaders. The removal of Dilma Rousseff was a coup, and the coup was executed to protect the coup leaders from corruption charges and to allow them to return Brazil to the regressive right-wing road it was on prior to the more socially progressive left-wing governments of Lula da Silva and Dilma Rousseff that the oligarchs and corporations so opposed.

Unlike the 1964 coup, the degree to which the US was complicit is not yet known. Though, according to Latin American expert Mark Weisbrot, “there is no doubt that the biggest players in this coup attempt — people like former presidential candidates José Serra and Aécio Neves — are US government allies.”

But the US is at least tacitly complicit, because the day after the impeachment vote, Sen. Aloysio Nunes of the new coup government began a three-day visit to Washington. Nunes is no small player in the coup government; he was the vice-presidential candidate on the 2014 ticket that lost to President Rousseff and a key player in the effort to impeach Rousseff in the Senate. Nunes scheduled meetings with, amongst others, then-chairman and ranking member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Bob Corker and Ben Cardin, as well as with Undersecretary of State and former Ambassador to Brazil Thomas Shannon.

The willingness to go ahead with the planned meetings with Nunes right after the coup suggests at least tacit acceptance or approval on the part of the Obama administration. And now, despite President Trump’s assurances that his government would not follow the interventionist path of Presidents Clinton and Obama, Trump has already offered Brazil the same tacit approval and support. In December 2016, Temer and Trump agreed on a phone call “to improve business relations.” According to Temer’s office, the two presidents “agreed to launch, immediately after the swearing in of the new American president, an agenda for Brazil-US growth.”

So, what’s happening in Brazil today? Just what the coup leaders said would be happening in Brazil today.

Ted Snider writes on analyzing patterns in US foreign policy and history.

Posted in BrazilComments Off on Coup Leaders Are Keeping Their Promises in Brazil

Most Important Battle Is Beating Demoralization

NOVANEWS
  • Cuban Minister of Culture Abel Prieto Jimenez.
    Cuban Minister of Culture Abel Prieto Jimenez. | Photo: Reuters
A conversation with the Cuban minister of culture reminds us, “The battle of consciousness and ideas must be won.”

The great battle underway today on a global level is taking place in the minds of each and every one of us, rather than in specific physical locations. Revolutionaries, warriors of ideas, are not lacking; but the forces are dispersed in the face of a powerful, compact bloc of mass media which looks to turn human beings into captives of their emotions, disconnected from their ability to think.

ANALYSIS3 Tactics Mainstream Media Uses to Attack Hugo Chavez’s Legacy

It is no coincidence that Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro called for a communication revolution in November 2016, one that includes traditional media, social networks, streets, and walls, inviting us to assume the intense, necessary task of progressive thinking.

It was precisely this urgent work which was discussed by the Network of Intellectuals, Artists, and Social Movements in Defense of Humanity during its 15th summit held March 6-7 in Caracas, with more than 60 thinkers from Venezuela and other countries in attendance titled, “Emancipatory Communication or Colonized homelands.”

Just minutes prior to the meeting’s second day, Cuban Minister of Culture Abel Prieto Jimenez dedicated a few minutes to a dialogue, speaking of the times in which we live, insisting on the importance of the fight for critical, revolutionary thinking, saying, “The battle of consciousness and ideas must be won.”

Alina Perera Robbio: You have commented during this meeting that the left has not constructed a paradigm, in terms of communication, which could provide an alternative in the face of right-wing media hegemony. Would you share some reflections on this issue?

Abel Prieto Jimenez: Intellectuals from Venezuela and other countries have spoken here about this traditional weak point of the left, in the sense of being able to create a kind of paradigm, in terms of communication, that could be effective in the face of the lying, defamatory machine — to which we could add any number of adjectives — but which is undoubtedly effective in domesticating consciousness, dampening critical thinking, imposing on the people, for example, candidates who offer villas and castles, but later betray them.

That’s why we see everyday people voting against their own interests, everyday people voting against their country’s future, against conquests won. These are chilling things that are related to the world in which we live today, in which a few media corporations control everything.

There has been talk during this workshop of the role of social networks, of how even in electoral processes, those targeted for messages are very clearly defined, based on the great database these social networks provide, from which psychological profiles are created and different messages crafted for each one of these persons. That is to say, this is where the machinery of manipulation and trickery is, an issue that has been constantly raised in discussions within the Network in Defense of Humanity.

I recalled a panel that was held at the Cuartel de la Montaña, in December 2004, when Chavez called on us to take the offensive, and he called on us to create a breach in the media wall. From that discussion, the idea emerged for teleSUR, which has had so much success and been so important. Since that era, we have been talking about the machinery of manipulation. But I would say that today, the concentration of the media, the use of people’s unconscious reflexes, has grown to an almost Orwellian level — thinking about that famous book of George Orwell, “1984,” in which he talks of a policed world. We are facing a tremendous challenge and most important are trying to create this new paradigm, which must be participatory, because it must be the revolutionary people, using social networks, who resist being hypnotized, being driven like a herd from one place to another. And at the same time, we must be able to generate content. We must be critical with respect to the system, and at the same time proactive.

Perera Robbio: Circumstances have changed dramatically since 2004. The difficulties, as you say, have increased.

Prieto Jimenez: Fidel, Chavez founded so many extraordinary things. Then Evo (Morales), (Rafael) Correa, Daniel (Ortega), ALBA joined in. The Free Trade Agreement of the Americas (FTAA) was defeated in Mar del Plata (Argentina) — a truly glorious moment for the left in our America. Nestor Kirchner participated in the defeat of the FTAA and later so did Cristina (Fernandez). It was a significant moment. In Brazil, the Workers’ Party was in power; it was a time that really awakened many hopes, that made Latin America a pole.

We see now how there is talk of a pendulum. One of the most sinister things one can do is accept the idea that there was a pendulum swing toward the left, and now a swing to the reactionary right is coming. It’s crazy because history does not move by way of pendulum swings. History is made by men, women, the people, and I think what is most important is to put an end to the demoralization, the discouragement, the worry among progressive forces — stop the idea that what is happening now is fate, that neoliberal ideas can survive another ten years, instead of going to the ideas of Bolivar, Jose Martí, of Fidel, Chavez, of the Cuban Revolution and the Latin American Revolution.

Everything that happens is inevitably affected by our ability to communicate in an effective manner, in a serious, profound manner.

RELATED:  ‘#IDon’tBelieve YouLasso’ Bashes Ecuador’s Right-Wing Candidate

Perera Robbio: How can the left meet this challenge, continue the struggle, not be discouraged?

Prieto Jimenez: Participants in this 15th Network meeting unanimously concur on the need to leave here with an agreement on concrete steps, an action plan.

One of the tasks the Network could undertake is linking the nuclei of cultural resistance, the alternative media, radio, the work of digital guerillas in social networks. There are many people who have not allowed themselves to be defeated and are fighting for liberation, against the neoliberal offensive, but they are not linked up.

I think the Network must take on the task of attempting to link these forces, so that people understand we are facing a global struggle, and that the little wars at a local level are not going to resolve the problem, even though victories may be won at this local level.

The idea of ethical monitoring of the media is important. During this workshop, one participant spoke about the slander of Fidel that appeared in Forbes magazine, according to which the leader of the Cuban Revolution had amassed a huge fortune, and was among the richest leaders in the world. I told this speaker that Fidel said something tremendous on Cuban television, in front of many compañeros, saying that if they showed him just one scrap of evidence, he would resign immediately. This reply was never published by Forbes.

The mass media lies, and if there is a reply, they never accept the fact that they lied, and the lie continues floating about. It’s Goebbels’ theory: repeat and repeat a lie until it becomes true. This is the philosophy of all the mass media at this time.

There has been talk in this forum about what Venezuela (mass media) did with the guarimbas (violent street protests), of how they circulated pictures of acts of violence, of throat slashings, of beatings which never occurred and were attributed to the police and the Bolivarian government, supposedly taking place during confrontations with opposition demonstrators. That is to say, they are constantly disseminating slanderous lies. Well, there is talk of post-truth politics, of totally invented events meant to create destabilization, which suddenly go viral on social networks, so people believe them.

The situation is terrible. The mass media has trained a massive group of people, mostly young who are very aware of what is going on, of what is moving around the web, and who are very credulous. That is why I believe that the other thing we need to do is to promote the critical study of these communications phenomena, especially among adolescents.

The use of intelligence must be promoted. Let us recall what Fidel said many times: They want to dismantle our ability to think. This is the great project: that the people don’t think; that the people don’t critically examine the lies that are everywhere.

Something else which has been discussed during these hours is that which is customarily referred to as the training of young cadres, revolutionary cadres. In this regard, the issue of new technologies must be included, the necessity of knowing how to use them, the issue of the battle of ideas on social networks.

During these times, we can ask a question: Are we going to allow the thinking of Fidel, allow generations in Cuba and Latin America, to be seen as something archaeological, something of the past? Are Venezuelans going to let the thinking of Chavez be put away in a museum, as something that happened but has no relevance? I think this depends a great deal on us.

 

Posted in CUBAComments Off on Most Important Battle Is Beating Demoralization

Karl Marx’s German Birthplace to Accept Chinese Statue

NOVANEWS
  • A monument to Karl Marx stands above his remains at the Highgate Cemetary in North London.
    A monument to Karl Marx stands above his remains at the Highgate Cemetary in North London. | Photo: Reuters.
A statue of the founding father of communism reading a book will mark his birthplace.

The German city of Trier has decided to accept a towering statue of Karl Marx from China marking next year’s 200th birthday of the founding father of communism.

The city council voted in favor late on Monday with 42 members in favor and seven against.

“The decision, however, does not stipulate the size of the sculpture or where it will be placed,” said the city council in a statement.

Chinese artist Wu Weishan has suggested the statue should be 4.9 meters tall atop a 1.4 meter high pedestal at the Porta Nigra, the city’s most famous landmark and one of the biggest and best-preserved Roman gates north of the Alps.

A model of the statue was put on display there for two days at the start of March. The council said it would talk to the artist and the Chinese consulate in Frankfurt to decide who will pay the roughly 70,000 euros needed for the pedestal.

Despite debate over the statue, which would feature Marx with head held high and holding a book in one hand, supporters call it a welcome acknowledgement of the city as the philosopher’s birthplace.

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The Birth of AI-Wahabi Movement And it’s Historic Roots

NOVANEWS

By: John Phoenix

Image result for AI-Wahhabi Movement CARTOON

The Birth of AI-Wahabi Movement and it’s Historic Roots

Preface

1. The purpose ofthis study is to learn about the history of AI-Wahabi Movement and the harmful elements it contains.

AI-Wahabi movement claims that; it strives to recant all kinds of polytheism, but such allegations at the time of practice have transformed into the killing of Muslims, destructing, demolishing, and promoting the turmoil. So we can say that such behaviour with its pure superficial and discriminating teachings is nothing but a deadly weapon in the hand of the occupation and the enemies of Islam who use AI-Wahabi Movement in the political arena to prevent the unity of Muslims.

We have to frankly say that; AI-Wahabi’s superficial and false teachings, and grasping on to the shell is the main obstacle standing in the way of Muslims’ goal to unit, and the biggest cause ofthe killing, dispersing, and breaking up of Muslims.

This kind of hostility towards Muslims, antagonising them, considering them disbelievers, hitting them, insulting them, and hurting them reveals an ugly and dangerous face of AI-Wahabi features which depicts it as a destructive and chaotic group raising the slogan of destruction, savageness and harshness. 1

The classification markings are original to the Iraqi documents and do not reflect current US classification.

2. AI-Wahabi today is subconsciously working in all its power on promoting occupation in all its power in order to achieve its despicable desires. The Wahabis have worn the Muslim robe inside out therefore; they couldn’t apprehend any of the Muslim goals, because how is it possible for someone who seeks the help of infidels to speak of unity? They sign treaties of peace and friendship with the criminals, surrender and bow in front of the masters of rotten politics.

3. Therefore; I wanted in my study to focus on the history of this movement from the stand point ofits relation with the British government and how Britain had employed all its spies in Muslim countries in order to establish and spread this movement to destroy Muslim religion and create heterodoxies in Islam.

I also wanted to touch on the creator of this movement; Muhammad Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab, his meetings with Muhammad Bin Su’ud and their agreement to support each other, and in conclusion show opinions of historians and writers who discussed this movement, and the history of the Su’ud Family which many have agreed that it is on of the destructive religious movements that is conceived, extreme and aiming to destroy Islam through Jews and British.

The Purpose:

4. To find the connection between this movement and the British government and how they found the so called; Muhammad Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab, and his meetings with the leaders of Sa’ud Family to facilitate their suspicious plans which aim at striking at Islam and create division among Muslim.

First Topic:

Britain and its animosity towards Islam

Britain and fabrication ofbeliefs to serve dispersion

Britain’s goals to weaken the Muslim religion

The British plans to dominate the Muslim countries

How Britain deployed its spies and created differences among Muslims.

 

Britain and making up of beliefs to serve dispersion:

5. Colonialism continues to look for ways to force its power, and still uses its old slogan (divide and rule), and one of the most important methods of achieve that is to create a decadent environment of disbelieving and immoral society therefore; colonialism tops the list ofimportant and major factors which create the environment of disbelieve and immorality in a Muslim society, and in creating a sense of distrust among Muslim groups and false accusations. We will not be exaggerating if we say that the most successful methods used by colonialism to weaken the strength of Muslims and demolish Islam; are the methods of dividing, discriminating and fabricating believes and creating profits.

In order to reveal the reasons which made the colonialism go this rout and the goals desired from it, and the methods used to achieve such goals; we have to mention few things before we go into our main topic.

Britain’s objectives from the weakening of the Muslim religion:

6. Colonialism countries face so many obstacles among each other when attempting to dominate powerless countries, for the purpose of plundering the material and immaterial wealth ofthese countries. It was never as simple as to occupy a country and have its people welcome them with open arms. At minimum, at the very beginning they are faced with many problems and obstacles. There were so many factors that made people oppose the colonialism such as; nationalism, language, culture, and religion. Some of these factors had temporary effects on the fight against colonialism, and lost their effectiveness gradually until they lost their impact eventually. The only factor remained as a well fortified barrier against the goals of colonialism is; the influence of religion on people, with Islam in the forefront. Since the day when the representative of colonialism stood in the British House of Commons holding the Koran in his hand saying: ( Europe has to know that; as long as this book is the guide to all Muslims, we will not be able to establish the foundations for our colonialism policy in these countries) and up to this day, Islam is considered the largest barrier facing colonialism, and the biggest threat to its interests because; Islam has distinguished characteristics each alone stands as a mountain in the way of achieving the goals colonialism the thing that all other religions lack.

The teachings of colonialism [I think that this is a misprint and the correct sentence should be the teachings ofIslam] and its political worship rituals, have always been a danger to colonialism and its objectives because; Islam refuses all forms of colonialism and exploitation in any shape or form 4 , condemn, motivate Muslims to fight injustice and tyrants, calls for struggle to bring social fairness in all areas on the face of earth, and to free the weak from slavery and occupation. And it goes without saying that this struggle is not only to free Muslims alone, but it is for saving all weak nations in the world and free them.

7. Therefore; Islam finds itself obligated to extend a helping hand to all liberation movements as much as possible “0 ye who believe! Take not my enemies and yours as friends (or protectors) – offering them your love”l, “These are the ones who wait and watch about you” 2, “Let not the Believers take for protectors Unbelievers, rather than Believers”3 then it puts forth the motto of adhering to God for he is the ultimate master “And hold fast all together, by the Rope which Allah stretched out for you, and be not divided among yourselves”4  “A Believer is a brother of another Believer, they are like one body if one part is in pain the rest of the body parts suffer the same way”. “Muhammad is the messenger of Allah; and those who are with him are strong against unbelievers, but compassionate amongst each other.” 5.  Muslims are responsible one to another and get angry at infidels and don’t get into compromises with them, “Truly Allah loves those who fight in his cause in battle array, as if they were a solid cemented structure”6. This meaning has always been the source of inspiration and strength for all Muslims in their struggle against tyrants and arrogant throughout history. Such content of Islam has created in the heart of Islam, all this movement, enthusiasm, creativity, change, and steadiness in fighting injustice. If we were to study all uprisings which took place in the recent century; we would have more dearly found the role of Islamic teaching in stirring those people against injustice, arrogance and oppression. Friend and enemy admit, for example, admit to the dynamics prompted by Islam in the liberation revolution of the Algerian people which threw the French occupation outside the 10 of 56 172 The classification markings are original to the Iraqi documents and do not reflect current US classification. -11- country. About this wrote two well known writers; (Collette) and (Francis Johnson)7 (No doubt that Islam had a great influence on the Algerians, demand for freedom, and the Algerians have become aware since day one of the French occupation’s objective to destroy Islam, and based on this they come to realise that Islam is their way to liberation, and they all have to hold on to Islam in order to be liberated). And when colonialism found it hard to penetrate Islam, it started to look for a successful way to fight it and started to use all its power and capabilities to remove this obstacle, and tried all kinds of methods to achieve its objective. Such methods are the following:

A. Direct confrontation First, by direct military confrontation such as the Crusaders war, and military occupation ofIslamic countries as in the case of Libya, Iraq, Afghanistan, Algeria and others. Second, by attacking Islamic teachings by means of; twisting and reversing their principles, accusing Islam, and slandering its sanctuaries.

B. Indirect confrontation First, promote immoralities and corruption among Muslims to weaken their adherence to religion. Second, promote feelings of nationalist and patriotism to divide individuals as well as groups into different parties in Islamic countries. Third, create division and dissimilarities by spreading accusations, mistrust, and suspension among Muslims.

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Foot Notes:
1 Al-Mumtahinah: 1 [CL: verse 1 from the Koran Chapter Al-Mumtahinah]
2 Al-Nisa’: 141 [CL: verse 141 from the Koran Chapter Al-Nisa’]
3 Al ‘Urnran: 28 [CL: verse 28 from Koran Chapter Al-‘Urnran]
4 Al ‘Urnran: 103 [CL: verse 103 from Koran Chapter Al-‘Urnran]
5 AI-Fath: 29 [CL: verse 29 from Koran Chapter Al-Fath]
6 Al-Saff: 4 [CL: verse 4 from Koran Chapter Al-Saff]
7 “2 schools” cited from Propagation and Colonialism in Arabic Countries by Dr. Mustafa Khalid; page 64. 5

 

The British Plans to Dominate Islamic Countries

8.In 1973, the autobiography of the British spy Humfer in regards to his work in Iraq and Istanbul was translated, and it included the British plans to dominate the Muslim countries. Great Britain has been, since long time ago, thinking about keeping its influence on its many colonies in India, China, the Middle East and others. It is true that it wasn’t actually controlling big parts of these countries because; it was in the hands of its own people, but its policy was a successful and effective policy, and it used to think twice. 1

a. Once to continue controlling what has been practically controlled.

b. And once to add to its properties what hasn’t been practically controlled. And based on this, the British government had allocated special committees in every part of these countries particularly to study the task:

First: India

Through the “Eastern Company of India”, whose apparent role was strictly commercial, yet deep inside was to strengthen the means to control India and the roads leading to these huge lands extending to the end of the continent. The British government was so sure ofIndia where the nationalities are different; religions are scattered, dissimilar languages, and conflicting interests. And this way the government was sure of China where; the Buddhism and the Confucianism, which is the most prominent in that country, both were not a threat for they are dead religions focusing on the spiritual side and have no connection with the living side therefore; it was far fetched to see a feeling of patriotism among people of these two areas. And that is why the British government had no concern when it came to these two countries, and it worked out long term plans to create division, ignorance, poverty, and sometimes keep these countries in sickness. They were applying an old Buddhist proverb (Let the patient crave his medicine even ifit tastes severely bitter).

 

Second: The Muslim Caliphs State:

What concerned the British government was the Muslim countries and they used to call them; the Sick Man. Many treaties were signed and all were for the advantage of the British government, and the outlook ofthe British Colonies’ Ministry is that the Man will breathe his last in less than a century.

 

Third: The Governments in the Persian States:

The British government had secretly signed many treaties with the Persian government and they set out spies and agents in it and resulted in bribery and corrupted administration and the engagement ofits kings in corruption and clotted the body of this country

Reasons for Britain’s fear of the Islamic countries:

9. In spite of planting spies and agents in the Islamic countries, and despite the spreading ofbribery and corrupted administration the British government was un-confident of the results due to the following reasons:

a. The strength ofIslam in the souls ofits followers against all schemes the thing that make Muslim Men different than men of other religions.Due to the fact that the Islamic features and characteristics are planted in the Muslim Man and the make him stand steadfast

b. Islam as a religion Whereas Islam is a religion of life and control, it is hard to tell the masters that you are slaves. The arrogance of supremacy pushes the human being to superiority no matter how weak or low he is. Therefore, the British government was unable to forge the history of Islam.

c. The awakening ofthe Islamic awareness The British government feared that Muslims in their hearts will become aware; the thing that if happens; will result in the failure of all its plans aiming to control. It is true that the Islamic country had reached a great deal of weakness but the existence of a centralized government which the people support and its aspiration is supremacy, money and arms makes the people unsafe.

d. Apprehensiveness of Muslim scholars The government was extremely apprehensive ofMuslim scholars, because AI-Azhar scholars, Iraq scholars and Persia scholars were the toughest barrier in facing the ambitions of the British government; they were extremely ignorant about the modem life principles. They made heaven, which the Koran had promised them of their number one priority so they would not compromise their principles and the people followed them and the sultan feared them.

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Footnotes:

I Humfer’s Autobiography

 

How Britain deployed its spies and created its different parties among Muslims

10. The British government held many conferences to remove all reasons for fear and to establish sufficient solutions for all these uneasy problems, but they have not reached a good solution yet and all the reports that they received from their agents and spies were disappointing as well as the results of all these conferences were not good. One time they held a conference in the Ministry that was attended by representatives from each of Britain, France, and Russia. It was discussed at the highest level and the attendees were diplomats and religious men. In this conference they mentioned ways to rip Muslims apart and strip them of their belief, but the results were not at the required level and(it is hard to pull the roots of a tree that had grown to the east and to the west of the Land, but man has to overcome difficulties at any cost)!

In 1710 A.D. the British Colonies Ministry sent its spies to each of Egypt, Iraq, Tehran, AI-Hijaz, and Estonia to gather information that will help tear apart Muslims and dominate Muslim countries. The ministry had already provided them with sufficient money, sufficient information, possible maps, names of governors, scholars, tribes and family chiefs.

Footnotes
1Taken with liberty from the autobiography ofHumfer

These spies started to learn the Turkish language and the language ofthe Arabs (The language of Koran) and the Persian language. Some of them pretended to be Muslims and attended the Muslim mosques and met with men of religion to learn all the Islamic rules, and they learned the holy Koran, the practice of ablution and prayer; they were taught by Muslim scholars. After they stayed for a period oftwo years spying in the Islamic countries they received orders from the Ministry to go back to London. There were ten spies assigned with the espionage duty, but only six of them returned and as for the other four, one of them became a Muslim and stayed in Egypt, one went to Russia where he was originally from, the third died in the outskirts of the city of Balad near by Baghdad because of a disease spread all over the country, as for the fourth, his whereabouts are unknown. The ministry had followed him until he got to Sanaa in Yemen and his reports were sent regularly to the ministry for a period of a year but was interrupted after that and the ministry has no information about him. The ministry considered the loss off our out often a catastrophe because they precisely accounted for each one of them.

11. The ministry had met with the six spies and listened to their reports, evaluated them, and advised them. After six months, the British Colonies’ Ministry sent the trained spy Mr. Humfer to the city ofBaghdad in Iraq in order to creat~ disorder between the Sunni and Shiites and find the weak point ofMuslims so he can penetrate his body to defuse the unity ofIslam. Also, his mission in this trip was to identify the conflicts among Muslims and create an atmosphere ofdisagreement, expiation, and mistrust among them as well as make up different faiths and form fake colonial religions to enable the colonizer to reach its objectives in creating division and spread disperse among Muslims instead of eliminating Islam and Muslims religious beliefs. the orders given by the British colonizer to its spies in the Islamic countries were in the following fashion (spread fake and made up faiths and beliefs in Islamic regions within fully considered, matured and organized plans where they preach after they evaluate upon suitable, intellectual background among the different classes ofpeople. There should be no rush…and should spread these beliefs and preach them, they should not be limited to only popular areas, rather they should be spread among the four groups of Sunni in order to create extreme differences and disputes among these groups hence each group would claim that they represent the true Islam and the others are renegades and infidels and must be killed)].

and according to these orders, the spies started carefully to study and to get familiar with the social and political sites in the Islamic societies and their extreme trends; they also started to create the necessary groups to achieve the objectives of their colonial masters. It is obvious that the colonizers didn’t do this first hand; yet to achieve their goals, they were looking for individuals who do not relish strength in faith and fear of God and possess different trends. The colonizer used to excessively offer these individuals financial and moral aids and urge them to establish the various groups. As an example to these, here we point to two groups that fit the subject we are discussing….

a. AI-Shaykhiyyah Group:

An extremist Shiite group which is active in Iraq, and was later called by the name of(AI-Shaykhiyyah), founded by a person called Sheikh Ahmad AI-Ihsani and his student Mr. Kazim AI-Rashti. This group started to praise the virtuous 15 of 56 177 The classification markings are original to the Iraqi documents and do not reflect current US classification. -16- imams to the level of God and presented many overstated notions at this level, and to pave the way for the other extremist group (Al-Wahabi) so they can direct accusations and expiation at each other.

b. Al-Wahabi Group:

Next to Al- Shaykhiyyah, the colonizer created another extreme Sunni group called (Al-Wahabiyyah). The British found in Muhammad ‘Abd-al-Wahab many attributes such as the love of glory, immorality, and extreme views so; they came to realize that he is the right person to establish the group they wanted. Thus they started following him step by step until they found the right opportunity; hence they pointed out to him, the birth of the new faith. Afterwards, they ordered him to concur with another well known agent ofthe seasoned British colonizer that is; Su’ud Bin ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz, and they provided them with the required means to attract followers. Within a given period of fulfilling the duty assigned to them, they killed Al-Hajjaj and everyone who wouldn’t accept their new faith whether he is Shiite or Sunni, was destined to death and plundering, and everyone who thought ofvisiting the holy tomb of profit Muhammad (God’s blessing and peace be upon him) and the holy sites was treated as if he was (infidel) (polytheist).

12. Al-Wahabi principles are based on the expiation ofIslamic faiths and promoting division among Muslims and eliminating the traces ofthe spiritual Islamic message. Al-Hijaz is the homeland ofthis group, and recently the activities ofthis group have increased; everyday they issue a book or an article attacking the Islamic sanctuaries. The Su’ud family spends lots ofmoney in compliance with their masters’ orders to prevent the unity of Muslims, create division among them, expiate them, and to stray each other from the right path. Both groups; Al-Wahabi and Al-Shaykhiyyah are established on wrong views therefore they brought about disorder, blood shedding, and killing 10 of Muslims. Hence, Muhammad Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab established his mission based on visions of(Ibn Timiah)and his intentions. The later was a fan of(Ibn Tawmart) who claimed to be Al-Mihdi [CL: translates the Guide] in North Africa, and his ideas dominated parts of Spain, Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco for two centuries; he was nicknamed Mihdi Al-Muwahadin [CL: The guide of those who are united] Then he worked together with Muhammad Su’ud and both their swords and the swords of their followers trickled with blood, and wherever they went, blood was flowing, and they called the Muslims infidels; they killed everyone who didn’t support them and obeyed them. The Wahabis ordeal was big and truly strange to the extent that the Muslim world up to date couldn’t cover up its damages.

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Footnotes: ] Humfer’s autobiography.

 

Second Topic:

AI-Wahabi Movement’s Missionary

Najd in History

AI-Wahabi movement and it’s founder Muhammad’Abd-al-Wahab

Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab’s trips before the missionary

His encounter with Muhammad Bin Su’ud in AI-Dar’iyyah

Najd in History

13. Najd means the elevated land; it is the name designated for the middle part ofthe Arabic Peninsula which is the largest part of the middle of the island. When the Ottoman State emerged on the political scene in the Arabic Peninsula in 1517, it became satisfied with the nominal authority of this area, and the tribalism was in full swing in Najd; every tribe had its own state, and every group had its own sheikhdom which; takes pride in its authority and praises its name.

Every governor had his own possessions and had no ties to his neighbour, and the Ottoman policy has been mobilised for that purpose. In the twelfth century of Hegira, disorder had dominated Najd, division prevailed, the gap had widened, and emirates had multiplied; the family of Mu’ammar in Al-‘Ayniyyah, the family ofSu’ud in Al-Dar’iyyah, and the Family of Dawwas in Riyadh; Al-Ahsa’ was the emirate of Bani Khalid, Najdan the family of Hazal, Ha’il the family of ‘Ali, Al-Qasyim and the Northern borders of Najd the family ofHajaylan, and in Southern Iraq the emirate was for the family of Shabib.

All ofthe families and the sheikhdoms were in a state ofinstability and confusion with disturbance spread throughout. These groups had no identified political order or a civilization that is worth mentioning, plus the ruling system was in a tribal form l .

Furthermore; there were very little documentation for the history ofthe area by its own people; ‘Uthman Bin Bishir Al-Najdi stated that: (The origin ofNajd and its ancient and modem scholars was not to the extent where they paid attention to the history oftheir land, who built it, what happened in it, who came to it, and who left it; except for very little that was written by few of their scholars) in addition he said: (Then I wanted to gather a collection offacts about the family of Su’ud, their news and their stories, but was unable to find someone who would tell me true information)2

As for the religious situation of Najd; during the era of Tasam and Jiryis, they use to worship AlTiyl which are houses shaped like cubes looking like cells made of clay rise from 200 to 300 yards in height. Paganism was founded afterwards; the tribes ofTaghlib and Bakr Bin wa’il had an idol called ( Dha Al-Ka’bayin) and Magianism grew out ofit and was joined by Bani Tamim in the sixth century A.D. Then Christianity got about and became widespread among the tribes ofTaghlib and Bakr bin Wa’il; also the religion ofAl-Sabi’ah which worships the stars and was adopted by the tribes of Dayran of Bani Tamim, while the people of Najd took up Islam, but after the death of profit Muhammad (God’s blessing and peace be upon him) some tribes have recanted and were engaged in a war that ended with the victory of Muslims. After Islam entered its dark ages; Najd became the breeding ground for myths and heresies and its scholars became divided between introverted and men who carried Islam only by name 13

After the Ottoman nation engaged in wars in Eastern Europe and the defeat that followed; the Arabic nation became under clear confusion and a state offorfeiture; consequently the control over Najd and Hijaz which is owned by the Hashemite became nominal.

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Footnotes:
1 Husayn Khalaf Al-Shaykh Khaz’al, The biography of Sheikh Muhammad Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab, Dar Al-Kitab Press, Beirut 1968 A.D.
2 The Scholar ‘Uthman Bin Bishr Al-Najdi, The Glory in the History ofNajd; part one, Al-Riyad Library, Riyadh, page 4.

Al-Wahabi Movement and its Founder Muhammad ‘Abd-al-Wahab

14. The Wahabi Movement is ascribed to Muhammad Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab Bin Sulayman who traces back to Wahib Al-Tamimi. Sheikh Khaz’al traces back the ancestry of Muhammad Bin’Abd-al-Wahab Bin Sulayman Bin’Ali Bin Ahmad Bin Rashid Bin Yazid Bin Muhammad Bin Yazid to the family of Musharraf who belongs to Bani Tamim tribe which goes back in its descent to ‘Adnan1.Whereas Mustafa Tawran states that; Muhammad Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab is a descent of a family from the Jews ofAI-Dunamah in Turkey. Al-Dunmah refers to the Jews who declared their embracement of Islam in an effort to insult Islam and to escape the pursuit by the Ottoman sultans. Subsequently; Tawran confinns that Sulayman; the grandfather ofthe sheikh, is (Shulman); he is Jew from the merchants ofthe city ofBurstah in Turkey, he had left it and settled in Damascus, grew his beard, and wore the Muslim turban, but was thrown out for being voodoo. Then he fled to Egypt and he faced by strong objection so; he left to Hijaz and settled in Al-‘Ayniyyah where he got married and had child whom he called ‘Abd-al-Wahab and claimed to be from the descent of Rabi’iyyah, and that he was born in Morocco. This has also been supported by sheikh Rifat Salim Kabar in his book, the Jews ofAl-Dunmah and the Origin of the Saudi Wahabis 3

Muhammad Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab was born in Al-‘Ayniyyah in Najd in 1703 from a father who wiped out the faith ofImam Hanbal; he taught jurisprudence and Hadith at Al-‘Ayniyyah mosque. Muhammad was taught in Al-Madinah by sheikh’Abdallah Bin Ibrahim Bin Sina’, and became a student at sixteen years old under Sheikh Hassan Al-Tamimi in Al-Mu’tasim. He was a fan ofIbn Timyah and received his education at the hand ofSheikh Hasan AI-Islambuli; Judge of AI-Basra, and Sheikh Zayn-al-Din Al-Mughrabi and Sulayman Al-Kurdi, ‘Abd-al-Karim AlKurdi, and Sheikh ‘Ali Al-Daghistani. ‘Abd-al-Wahab got married about twenty times, the first time

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Footnotes:
1Sheikh Khaz’aI, Biography ofSheikh Muhammad, Previous reference – page 42 2 Sheikh Khaz’al, previous reference – page 49, also scholar Al-Najdi, the Histori ofNajd, previous reference – page 89
3 Turan, Dr. Mustafa, the Jews ofAl-Dunamah, Translation ofKamal Al-Khawjah, Cairo 1989 – page 14.

in AI-‘Ayniyyah and also in Baghdad, she died immediately and he took a spouse the daughter of prince ‘Abdallah Bin Mu’ammar and she gave birth to six boys and six girls. He died after he suffered from a disease that took his life shortly afterwards on June 2, 1792 and was buried in AI-Dar’iyyah graveyard that was designated to Su’ud family and his grave is known there till this day!.

At the very beginning, Muhammad Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab learned from many ofthe scholars of Mecca and AI-Madinah; his father ‘Abda-al-Wahab was a good scholar and used to insult him and warn people about him. His brother Sulayman bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab wrote a book to answer him; in his early days, he was fond ofreading about those who claim prophecy like; Musaylamah, Sajah, AI-Aswad AI-‘Ansi, and Talihat AI-Asadi and such. He has four children; ‘Abdallah, Hasan, Husayn, and ‘Ali.

The supporter of Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab and the one who spread his faith was Muhammad bin Su’ud, after that his sons; ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz and Su’ud and then Su’ud bin ‘Abd-al- ,Aziz who humiliated Iraq and prevented Muslims from going to Hajj; thus Hajj was interrupted in his time for years.

15. The origin ofthe Wahabi movement is that the Arabs, especially those masters ofthe demons said that; a poor herdsman by the name of Sulayman had a dream that a flame emerged from him, spread throughout the land, and started to bum everyone that had an encounter with it. He told of his dream to someone who interpreted it as; a son of his will establish a strong land. So his dream came true in the ideology of Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab. Thus when Muhammad grew up, he became respected [CL: The study has a typo that reads Muhtarifan instead of Muhtaraman] by the people of his town because of that dream which he didn’t know of. In the beginning, he secretly revealed his faith and a group ofpeople followed him; then he traveled to Great Syria, but no one there followed him so; he returned to the Land of the Arabs after he left it for three years, he came to Najd and revealed this faith or (the Movement). Su’ud followed him and they both had strength in each other; Su’ud strengthened his emirate through religion by following Muhammad bin ‘Abdai-Wahab in his faith, yet bin’Abd-al-Wahab promoted his missionary by means ofsword. With Su’ud following him and becoming victorious through him, Su’ud became the ruling prince and bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab the religious leader and their children thereafter took over the rank oftheir predecessors.

After Su’ud became the ruler ofhis tribe, he conquered two tribes from Yemen and a large number ofArab tribes became subjected to this faith and so did all the Arabs of Najd; they picked the city of AI-Dar’iyyah to be the capital oftheir country which is situated in the south east of AI-Basra. Fifteen years later, the Su’ud emirate expanded; he had aspiration to grow, and used to take one ten ofthe livestock, money, honor, even souls. He takes one ten from people by lottery so; he collected enormous amounts ofmoney and his army exceeded hundred.

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Footnotes:
! Sheikh Khaz’al, previous reference – page 333, The History ofNajd, previous reference – page 88

and twenty thousand fighters. Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab started to emerge in the year of 1143 of Hegira and became famous after he turned fifty where he revealed the false faith in Najd and its dependant territories; starting off with the support ofMuhammad bin Su’ud, prince of Al-Dar’iyyah he prompted its people to follow him so they did. Many Arabs obeyed him, until he became strong and the desert feared him. He used to tell them: I am calling upon you to unite and leave polytheism.

Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab, according to the “History ofNajd” book by Mahmud Shukri AI-Alusi; grew up in the town ofAl-‘Ayniyyah, the land ofNajd, he read religion to his father in accordance with the school of Ahmad bin Hanbal, and ever since he was a little child; he spoke words which Muslims didn’t know and furthermore he was denying them what they have agreed to do. Yet no one helped him in that respect so; he traveled from AI-‘Ayniyyah to Mecca, then to AI-Medina where he learned from sheikh ‘Abdallah bin Ibrahim bin Sayf, and he emphasized AI-Tankir [CL: That is to deny something be it the profit or practices in Islam etc…] over appealing to the profit Muhammad (God’s blessing and peace be upon him) by his tomb. Later on he moved to Najd then to Basra; when he arrived in Basra, he stayed there for a period oftime where he learned from Sheikh Muhammad AI-Majmu’i, and lied to its people about many things so they threw him out. He fled there, and after many moves he arrived in a town called Huraymulah in Najd, the town where his father came from; he stayed with him and read to him and showed disapproval of Muslim beliefs in Najd; his father reprimanded him but Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab wouldn’t stop until they got into a big dispute. Furthermore, he engaged into many arguments with the Muslims of Huraymulah that lasted for two years until his father passed away in 1153 of Hegira and he became bold enough to bring out his beliefs and disapprove of what Muslim have concurred. The scum of people have joined him until the people of the town became fed up with his articles and were determined to kill him so; he moved from Huraymulah to Al-‘Ayniyyah which was governed by ‘Uthman bin Ahmad bin Mu’ammar. Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab allured him ofbecoming the king of Najd so; ‘Uthman helped him and he told the people ofhis disapproval ofMuslims and was followed by few ofthe people of Al-‘Ayniyyah. He demolished the dome of Zayd bin AI-Khattab by AI-Jubaylah which made him important and his news reached Sulayman bin Muhammad bin ‘Aziz AI-Hamidi owner of AI-Ihsa’, as well as Alqatif and its dependant territories so; Sulayman sent a letter to ‘Uthman ordering him to kill bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab and warning him of violating his order. ‘Uthman didn’t care and violated the order so, Sulayman ordered him to leave his kingdom, bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab told him then: ifyou support me you will rule Najd, but Sulayman didn’t listen to him therefore; he left to AI-Dar’iyyah in 1160 ofHegira (which is the land of Musaylimah the Liar) and its ruler at the time was; Muhammad bin Su’ud, from the tribe of’ Anayzah. He begged him and allured him of ruling the land of Najd so he followed him and supported him in killing Muslims. Thus he wrote to the people of Najd, their Rulers, and their judges requesting their allegiance. Few ofthem submitted to him and few didn’t pay him attention so; he ordered the people of AI-Dar’iyyah to fight, so they complied and fought with him the people of Najd and AIhsa’ many times, until some ofthem submitted to him willingly or unwillingly, and the emirate ofNajd became the property of the family ofSu’ud helplessly and by force.

Sheikh Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab was known among his relatives by his shrewdness and brightness and portrayed as active, polite and extremely hard working. He used to give his followers everything he had; he was taught 22 of 56 184 The classification markings are original to the Iraqi documents and do not reflect current US classification. – 23- 16 by great teachers, wise men, and scholars and he became the herald ofthis nation. He conformed to A1- Hanafiyyah method, mimicking Imam Aba Hanifah in the fundamentals, but following his personal views when it comes to ramifications. Afterwards he went on giving legal opinions independently based on his own discretion, and he called people upon this. Such these discretions are considered all Muslim denominations, Jews, Christians, and all types ofpeople are infidels, polytheists, and same as idol worshipers; his proof ofthat is that the glorification and reverence ofMuslims for profit Muhammad’s tomb (God’s blessing and peace be upon him), his holy garden, and the tombs ofthe virtuous, is nothing but worshipping idols. That is the same for the case of Christians and Jews who set up statues of Musa and Christ (Peace and prayer be upon him) in their churches and temples. However; devotion to God is to kneel to the very incumbent of existence and worship him, might and majesty belongs to him, and have no partners with him.

A crowd of his own tribe and the public followed him in that, and he become to have circles that have voice and can come to results. Yet he is still threatening to demolish the dome of God’s messenger Muhammad (God’s blessing and peace be upon him) and all holy tombs. He is putting before his eyes that once he takes over the power, he will make them even with ground and abolish any trace to them. Although this movement or faith emerged and spread during the era of Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab in the eighteenth century; yet the very first seed was since the days ofAhmad bin Tamimah in the seventeenth century and his student, bin Maytham AI-Jawziyyah.

Muhammad Bin ‘Abd-AI-Wahab’s Trips Before The Missionary

16. Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab’s trip to Mecca was for acquiring education and Hajj, then he went to AI-Medina AI-Munawwarah where he learned religion from narrator; AI-Sayyd Hayat AI Sundi and the scholar AI-Majdi ‘Abdallah bin Ibrahim Al Sayifin 1723 A.D. Then he returned to his home town afterwards and started to deny openly the acts of obsession with the profit, the guardians, and the holy men, and considered that polytheism. He was opposed with sarcasm for saying that which made him leave AI-‘Ayniyyah in 1724 A.D. passing thru AI-Ihsa and stayed with sheikh ‘Abdallah bin Muhammad AI-Shafi’i AI-Ihsa’i, then he entered Iraq and went to Basra and stayed at the school of sheikh Muhammad bin AI-Majmu’i located in the famous district ofAI-Mujamma’a in Basra. Because of his missionary, the people ofAI-Basra started to harass him so he left it walking on foot, and almost died ofheat and tiresome. He arrived at AI-Zubayr and returned to his family in Huraymulah after his family moved to it as a result oftheir dispute with its prince. Then Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab left to Baghdad and stayed in AI-Wazir mosque (AI-Malik bin Husayn). He worked in teaching theology to Sheikh ‘Abd-al-Karim AI-Kurdi AI-Shafi’i and Sheikh Sabghatallah AI-Haydari. He was elected Imam to one ofthe mosques in Baghdad, and there he met sheikh ‘Abd-al-Rahman AI-Suwaydi; one of Baghdad’s senior scholars. He married a rich woman there, after she died, he inherited lots money from her and stayed in Baghdad three years. After his wife’s death, Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab left to Kurdistan and stayed for one year there; he moved from there to Iran and lived in Al-‘Abbasi School in Asfahan and was educated by Mirza Khan AI-Asfahani. He stayed for a year then moved to Tehran accompanied by his student from Baghdad; ‘Ali AI-Ghazar.

Afterwards he moved to Turkey teaching people the faith of Hanbal although their faith was Hanafi. He left there and returned to Syria where he stayed six months in Aleppo studying Arabic language; then he moved to Damascus where the school ofHanbali teachings is and the home of Timiyyah and AI-Jawziyyah. There he condemned acts of Sufis, Darawish, and Naqshbandies, and their glorifying to the tomb oftheir sheikh; Muhi-al-Din bin’Arabi.

Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab left Damascus heading to Jerusalem which he then left to Cairo and lived in AI-Azhar and was the student of Sheikh Muhammad Zain-al-Din, he stayed there for two years, and returned to his family in 1738 A.D. This trip enabled him to learn about the common people, and what they do; it also gave him abundant knowledge of the Muslim schools offaith until he announced his calling and was opposed by his father. He remained isolated for two years until the death ofhis father late 1739 A.D. He was appointed a judge after his father, but because of his calling, the people of the town attempted to assassin him so; he escaped to Al-‘Ayniyyah and was received by its prince; he married AI-Jawharh bint ‘Abdallah bin AI-Mu’ammar from the prince and started his calling from there. He worked in teaching the tribes and together with the prince, they demolished the dome of the tomb of Zain bin AI-Kattab, removed the embellishments, and threw stones at a prostitute. In addition to that, he wrote the book (Al-Tawhid) which made the prince of AI-Hisa order the prince ofAl-‘Ayniyyah to throw him out so; he left to AI-Dar’iyyah in the year 1745 A.D.l

His Encounter with Muhammad Bin Su’ud in AI-Dar’iyyah

17. After leaving Al-‘Ayniyyah, Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab headed to AI-Dar’iyyah. He arrived there in the year 1745 A.D. There he met Muhammad bin Su’ud who was nicknamed AlSheikh, but he was given the title Prince and the name sheikh was restricted to men of religion. The first meeting between the prince and the sheikh was in the home of Sheikh Ahmad bin Suwaylim Al- ‘Arrifi, they both agreed to support each other and to give the religious power to Muhammad bin ‘AbdaI-Wahab while the family of Su’ud will be in charge ofthe secular power (government). They agreed and shook hands saying (Blood for blood and destruction for destruction)2

For the close relation between the Family of Su’ud and AI-Wahabi Movement, we will have a brief introduction to Muhammad bin Su’ud.

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Footnotes:
I Cited with liberty from the book ofSheikh Khaz’al and Sheikh Al-Najdi, reference previously mentioned. 2 Sheikh Khaz’al, reference previously mentioned, page 159 -160, also Al-‘Allamah Al-Najdi is a previous reference, page 49.

Muhammad bin Su’ud was born in Al-Dar’iyyah in 1687 AD. He is Muhammad bin Su’ud bin Miqrin bin Markhan bin Ibrahim bin Musa bin Rabi’ah bin Mani’. His ancestors trace back to the tribe of ‘Anzah, one ofthe Arabic tribes. Books which support the family ofSu’ud, agree thatl ; he took the sheikdom of Al-Dar’iyyah for forty years, he spent half of them, before the arrival of the Sheik, and married one ofthe sheikh’s daughters and had four boys; Su’ud and Faysal were killed in his life time, whereas ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz and ‘Abdallah ere left. He died while he was in AI-Dar’iyyah and was buried there in the year 1765 AD.

As for the books that do not support his calling; they mention something different. Yusif Hatatah states that (Bin Su’ud is not related to one of the famous Arabic homes, neither pre Islamic times, nor during Islamic times Y. Yet ‘Abd-al-Wahab Al-Shammari says (Muhammad Bin Su’ud is ofa Jewish descent also, and traces back to the Jewish Mardakhai bin Ibrahim bin Mushi; who was a merchant in AlBasra, he was approached by a group from the tribe of’Anza, and Al-Masalikh subdivision to buy from him; he claimed to be one of them and was extremely generous with them and traveled with them to Najd and his name became Markhan bin Ibrahim bin Musa, men gathered around him because of his money and wealth?

Yet Nasir Al-Su’ud; he says in his book (The History ofthe Su’ud Family) that the Saudi ambassador in Cairo, ‘Abdallah bin Ibrahim Al-Mufaddal, had paid Muhammad Al-Tamimi thirty five thousand Jinee in the year 1943 AD. to place a fake tree for the family of Su’ud and the family of ‘Abd-al Wahab and merge them together in one tree claiming that they are from the origin of profit Muhammad (God’s blessing and peace be upon him). The Saudis have rewarded him by appointing him a manager for all Saudi libraries 4. Then Al-Shammari goes back to mention that the ancestors of the family of Su’ud is Jewish because; the name Muhammad bin Su’ud bin Muqrin bin Makun bin Mardakhai bin Ibrahim bin Mushi, is not Arabic and Arabs do not use names such as (Mardakhai), (Mushi or Makwan) which were changed later to (Markhan, Musa, and Muqrin).

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Footnotes:
I Same previous reference, page 50.
2 YusifKamil Hatatah, a book by the name; Al-Mas’alah Al-Hijaziyyah [CL: translates; Al-Hijaz Affair]
3 Al-Shammari, Al-Wahabi Movement, preiously mentioned reference, page 21.
4 Al-Sa’id Nasir, The History ofthe Su’ud Family, Part 1, page 17.

Third Topic:

Invasions and the Wahabi connections; and the views ofwriters and historians

.:. The Wahabi invasions in Najd

. •:. The Wahabis and AI-Hijaz.

•:. AI-Wahabi movement and Iraq.

•:. The Wahabi – British relations.

•:. Different views ofthe Wahabi Movement

.:. Conclusion

The Wahabi Invasions in Najd

18. Sheikh Khaz’al states in his book (Bin Su’ud and Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab were in full agreement in all oftheir behaviors as ifthey were one personality with two functions in life. Thus the prince never took an important decision or started a project without the approval of the Sheikh)l. After two years of his stay in Al-Dar’iyyah, Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab ordered its people to fight other tribes and call upon them to his ideology. His first invasion was on Al-‘Arab [CL: The Bedouins]; they killed them and took their money. In 1746 and 1755 the people ofHuraymulah lead by their judge Sheikh Sulayman, brother of Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab, threw out the prince of the Su’ud family, consequently; ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz bin Su’ud along with 800 fighters marched towards Huraymulah, killed its people and took possession ofit. In 1757 A.D. ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz prepared an army in which he seized (Manfluhah) and wrecked its dam (Al-Rasha) and the fighting went on between them until’Abd-al- ‘Aziz killed its chiefs, conquered it in 1761, and demolished its homes and domes. In 1747 the emirate of the Su’ud family directed an army which conquered Shadiq, seized its livestock, and killed many of its people. In 1756 Ashiqar was seized and conquered after few invasions. In 1761, they invaded AlSadir in Northern Najd. The Su’ud Family forces killed people, burnt houses, seized livestock and money during their invasions.

In Muhammad bin Su’ud’s era, his army engaged in wars and invaded the areas of Riyadh, Najdan, and Ihsa’ in which; Su’ud and Faysal the sons ofthe Prince were killed upon the attack by Daham bin Daras, owner of Riyadh in 1747 and Riyadh was subjugated to the rule ofthe Su’ud family following many battles in 1764. In 1765 Prince Muhammad bin Su’ud died leaving ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz behind; who seized AI-Zulfa in 1780 A.D. and Al-Mujamma’a, that was famous for its hostility towards the Wahabi Movement, in 1779 A.D. And with that, the whole region was conquered; with the leadership of Su’ud bin Muhammad. In the year 1774 A.D. Al-Dulm was seized and its owner Zayd bin Zamil and its people were killed. In 1782 A.D. Al-‘Aqim was seized, and 1785 A.D. ‘Antarah was seized, and over there Prince Su’ud bin’Abd-al-‘Aziz was acknowledged as crown prince, and Muhammad bin’AbdaI-Wahab secluded himselffrom politics, stayed put at home, and referred matters to Prince ‘Abd-al- ‘Aziz bin Su’ud.

In 1790 A.D., AI-Ihsa’ was completely conquered and the Su’ud family reigned over Najd; and stirred its direction to Hijaz where Mecca, Medina, Jedda, Al-Ta’if, and Yanbu’ are; and the reign there was for the Nobles of Mecca, The Hashemite who had absolute power under nominal rule of the Ottoman State!.

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Sheikh Khaz’al, previously mentioned reference, page 265.

The Wahabis and AI-Hijaz

19. AI-Hijaz is the dividing mountains between the high Najd and the low coast line ofthe Red Sea; its most popular cities are Mecca, Medina, Al-Ta’if, and Yanbu’. It was successively ruled by the Nobles ofMecca, but when Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab declared his missionary in Najd; the people ofAI-Hijaz started to follow the course of that missionary. After the Sheikh [CL: That is Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab] stopped in AI-Dar’iyyah and began to fight his opponents and destroy domes, and the practices that are related to this missionary; the nobles ofMecca joined his opposition and declared their war against the missionary, and decided to do away with it. The first one to confront the Wahabi Movement was the Noble Mas’ud bin Sa’id who submitted reports to the Sublime Port [CL: Ottoman authority] explaining the threat of the missionary to the Islamic Caliphate in Turkey; he gained the blessing from the Sublime Port in which the people ofNajd were prohibited from making the pilgrimage and entering Mecca. After his death, his brother (Musa’id) took over the matters of Mecca and kept his brother’s position until he died leaving behind, ‘Abdallah bin Sa’id; who ruled for few days, and his brother (Ahmad) took over. His nephews; the family ofMusa’id, arouse against him and forced him out. The emirate was turned over to Surur bin Musa’id who permitted the Wahabis to fulfill the religious obligation of pilgrimage after they pay levy just like foreigners. When the power was turned over to Noble Ghalib; he deployed ten thousand fighters from Arabs, Turks, Egyptians, and Moroccans; with the leadership of his brother ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz and the nobles ofMecca he attacked Najd however; they were faced with strong resistance and noble Ghalib was forced to enter into peace agreement.
After long battles, the Su’ud family with the leadership of ‘Uthman AI-Mudaiqi were able to conquer Al-Ta’if, and Prince Ghalib was forced to leave it in 1803 A.D., two hundred men of its people were killed, its wealth and weapons were seized, and ‘Uthman was appointed its prince2 • The Su’ud family then was able to rein Mecca after it was turned over by noble’Abd-al-Mu’in in exchange for him continuing to be its prince. In the year 1804 A.D., Medina surrendered after the forces of the Su’ud family have laid a strong and strict siege, imposed tax upon its people, seized the treasures located in the grave of profit Muhammad (God’s blessing and peace be upon him), and tried to wreck the dome of the profit’s grave but they were faced with strong resistance so they left it
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Footnotes:

1 Cited and summarised with liberty from the book of The Biography of Sheikh Muhammad bin ‘Abd al-Wahab, and the books of The History ofNajd and The History of the Su’ud Family.

2 Sheikh Khaz’al, previously mentioned reference, page 375.

3 Al-Sammari, The Wahabi Movement, previously mentioned reference, page 75.

Thus were the Wahabis able to control Al-Hijaz and make its people believe in the missionary Furthermore; they were able to impose the ambitious-al-‘Aziz bin ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz so he became wealthy and began to communicate with the kings and princes of the Arabic and Islamic countries, explain the objectives ofthe missionary and its substance and call upon them to accept it. The Ottoman State was skeptical about the movement and saw a dangerous threat to setting forth its power on the Arabic countries and the establishing of the emirates which will succeed it. Therefore; it authorized Muhammad’Ali, the governor ofEgypt, to stifle it, and appointed him governor ofAlHijaz in addition to Egypt. Muhammad’Ali sent a military expedition yet it came to nothing so; he sent another expedition lead by his son; Ibrahim Pasha who gained victory over the Su’ud family and inflicted enormous losses upon them, seized Al-Hijaz, destroyed Al-Dar’iyyah which is the centre of the Wahabi leadership, and arrested ‘Abdallah bin Su’ud and sent him to Astana where he was executed.
After that; Turki bin ‘Abdallah bin Muhammad bin Su’ud came into sight in the year 1888. He was able to bring back the authority over Najd. He started actively uniting his state and spreading his missionary; he was able to stretch out his rule to reach Al-Ihsa’, assumed AI-Riyadh his capital, and began communicating with countries in the East and the West to call upon them to accept his missionary. He described himself as guardian of all Muslims and was called Imam. His son Faysal succeeded him, he was more eager which scared the Ottomans. Thus; they sent an expedition during Muhammad ‘Ali’s time and was destined to make triumph over Faysal who managed to escape and recaptured his power over Najd, and edges of Al-Hijaz and ‘Asir in 1260 of Hegira; He forced the princes ofMasqat, Bahrain, and the coasts of the Arab Gulfto pay annual levy . After his death, his son ‘Abd-al-Rahman succeeded him in 1288 of Hegira, where the fighting among the Su’ud family over the reign had started which helped the coming out ofthe prince of Shamar; Muhammad bin ‘AbdaI-Rashid. He came to be of widespread authority covered Najd, Al-Ihsa’ up to the Arab Gulf east, and the mountains of Hawran, Wadi Al-Dawasir, and Wadi Al-Rumman West. He made Ha’il the center of his state; and was caught in many big conflicts with the Su’ud family, conquered AI-Riyadh, defeated the Wahabis, and forced ‘Abd-al-Rahman to escape and go to the Kuwaiti sheikhs.
In the year 1900 A.D. ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz bin ‘Abd-al-Rahman, managed to attack AI-Rashid family and reclaimed AI-Riyadh, the conflict between them lasted for twenty years, where the Ottoman government supported the Rashid family which made the Su’ud family get in touch with the British and sign a treaty with them in 1914 A.D. thus England acknowledged the emirate ofthe Su’ud family over Najd, Al-Ihsa’, Al-Qatif, and AI-Jabal; and promised to help them against any attacks provided that, they do not deal with anyone else but them also; they shall not interfere in the affairs of Kuwait and the Gulf States which; were under the protection of Britain. Also Britain dedicated a financial aid that amounts to forty thousand golden sterling pounds

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Footnotes:
1 Darwazah, Muhammad ‘Izzah, The Birth ofthe Modem Arabic Movement. The Modem Library Beirut 1949 A.D., page 70.
and through this alliance; the Sa’ud family was able to remove the emirate ofAI-Rashid family and subjugate them to the authority of the family of Sa’ud Al-Wahab
After that, a conflict erupted between the Nobles of Mecca and the Su’ud family and the reason was that SharifHusayn bin ‘Ali; noble of Mecca, had signed with Britain his famous agreement in which he teamed up with the British and declared a revolution against the Ottoman State and became king in the year 1916 and considered Najd included in his area of reign. ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz refused that, and the conflict between them began with’Abdul-‘Aziz coming out victorious when he attached Al-Ta’if and seized it in 1924 A.D. then he proceeded to Mecca then Rabi’ and Medina and seized them. Thereupon; SharifHusayn pulled back to Jeddah where he transferred the monarchy to his son ‘Ali who receded for his inability so; it was ascended by ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz and Al-‘Asir in 1930 where he negotiated with the British and signed an agreement with them in which they acknowledged his reign over Najd and Hijaz. In the year 1932 A.D. and his kingdom was called; (The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia).
The Wahabi Movement and Iraq
20. The power in Southern Iraq was in the hand ofthe Shabib family and the princes ofAlMuttafaq at that time and Thawini bin ‘Abdalah Al-Mutawlli was ruling Al-Muttafaq, and carried out many expeditions over Al-Qasim gaining many victories. He also launched an attack on AI-Dar’iyyah, but before he got to it, the prince of Su’ud took them by surprise and marched an army to meet Thawini and his tribes, a fight erupted among them ended with the defeat of Thawini’s army and his forces, leaving plunder and money and heading towards Safwan where he was chased by the army of Su’ud whom he had defeated and returned victorious to Al-Dar’iyyah. In 1789 A.D. Thawini returned with another expedition on Al-Qasim, and with the direction and the support of the Ottoman State in 179 A.D. Similar to that, the Su’ud family prepared three armies; entrusted the first one to Muhammad bin Mu’ayqil which camped in the village ofAl-Ma’ Al-Ma’rufin Al-Ta’iff, the other one was under  the command of Imishari bin Su’ud which camped in AI-Ihsa’, and the third one lead by prince Su’ud, planned to be a cover for the other two armies. Met after the arrival of Thawini in AI-Ihsa’, and Hasan bin Imsahri assumed the general command, and was able to intercept Thawini’s forces who was killed in his tent, in the hands of a slave who was authorized by prince Su’ud in the year 1797; the thing which prompted the army’s anger, destroyed it, and helped the Su’ud family to defeat them, kill them, and chase them until they arrived at The Kuwaiti Sheikhdom.
In retaliation for the attack of AI-Muttafaq tribes; the Su’ud family, the Wababis, set out an expedition on Iraq led by Su’ud. He penetrated the Iraqi border until he went deeply into Suq AI-Shuyukh, killed its people, and violated its sanctuaries which made its escape

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I Darwazah, previously mentioned reference, page 71 24
and they died drowning in the Euphrates river in the year 1798 A.D. He left it afterwards to go to Samawah, attacked the tribes of Shammar, tribes ofAI-Zafir, the family of Ba’iyj and Zaqarit, killed the chiefof Shammar (Matlaq), and seized the money and the prizes I. In the year 18 01 A.D. Prince Su’ud attacked Iraq’s Southern border and proceeded into the Middle Euphrates, (Shattatah Tribes) in ‘Ayn AI-Tamr in Karbala’ and camped out there; he entered the city climbing up its walls in March 23, 1802. There was no army in it so; its people rushed to resist them, but they were not able to face such barbaric attacks, many ofthem were killed and the Su’ud forces took hold oftheir money goods, and looted everything inside the dome of Imam AI-Husayn’s (peace be upon him) tomb from valuable statues and precious gems. Furthermore; they took the monument located on the bed ofthe Imam, sabotaged the bed and ruined it2 • The forces of the Wahabi family of Su’ud carried out killing, looting, and destroying all Shiite sights in Karbala’3.
Darwazah stated that the forces of the Su’ud family attacked all shrines glorified by the Shiite in Iraq; such as the toms of ‘Ali and Husayn (peace be upon them) and others. They destroyed them, and looted their relics, alleging that these shrines; are violations with all their embellishments, the celebrations that take place on their ground 6554 s, sacrifices that are offered to them and the prayers and appeals which are cited for them. Furthermore; these forces have murdered all Shiite who opposed them 4.
In the beginning ofthe seventeenth century, the Wahabis attacked convoys ofpilgrims from the tribes of(AI-Khaza’il) ofthe people of Iraq near Najd. The threat ofthe Wahabis increased and they raided the town of(‘Annah) in the year 1800 A.D., they killed its people, and looted their wealth. Also; they raided the village of(Kabisah) but its people resisted them with all their power 5.
In the year 1810 A.D. a Gang of Wahabis led by ‘Abdallah bin Mas’ud reached a place near by Baghdad and proceeded robbing people and killing them. As a result of all these atrocities and others, a man from Northern Iraq by the name of’Uthman AI-Kurdi, travelled to AI-Dar’iyyah and stayed there claiming that he is seeking education and religion killed prince’ Abd-al-Amir bin Su’ud in AI-Ta’ifmosque, which is known in AI-Dar’iyyah; in October 3,1803 A.D. As a revenge for his family, Su’ud was inaugurated their prince!. Himli comments by saying:”The new ideology found very little popularity in Iraq; the alleged Wahabi armies were received just like deserters and thieves because; the tribes of Iraq, Sunni and Shiite, were not able to change their faith with one paved by fire and invasion of livestock)2. He adds about the invasion of Karbala’ (The rough Wahabis have worked up their way to the holy shrines and started to destroy them…. and on top ofthese acts, they killed about fifty people near the shrine and 500 others outside the shrine in AI-Sahn… They mercilessly killed everyone they encountered and robbed every house) 3.

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1 Sheikh Khaz’al, previously mentioned reference, page 386
2 AI-Wa’ili, ‘Uthman bin Sanad AI-Wa’ili AI-Basari, Study of the Su’ud family, Dar AI-Hikmah press/ Baghdad, 1991 A.D.
3 AI-Khafni ‘Abd-al-Mun’im, Encyclopedia of Difference, Groups, schools, and Islamic Movements, second edition, Madbuli N. book store, Egypt 1999 A.D., page 681
4 Darwazah, The Birth of The Modem Arabic Movement, previously mentioned reference, page 71.
5 AI-Shammari, The Wahabi Movement, previously mentioned reference, page 70.

The British-Wahabi Relation

21. Humfer mentioned in his biography his relation with Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab when he met him in AI-Basra, and how he befriended him and their relationship became very strong to the extent that Humfer was able to stir ‘Abd-al-Wahab in the way that serves the British intelligence without him knowing. In Isfahan, ‘Abd-al-Wahab was approached to fulfil a British plan provided that Britain will protect him, provide him with money and arms, and to give him a small emirate in the outskirts ofNajd under the following conditions:
a. Expiation of Muslims and justify killing them and robbing their money.
b. Demolish the Kaaba and the tombs of the pioneer Muslims, consider them idols, and disrespect the Profit and the Caliphates.
Humfer listed the complete details which led him to this result since its beginning in 1710 A.D. when Britain delegated him to collect information for bracing the ways to break Muslims and control their land in Turkey, Iraq, Egypt, Iran, and AI-Hijaz. He called himself Muhammad and learned Persian, Turkish, and Arabic languages in London; until he reached Turkey and stayed in a mosque for the purpose of learning. He mastered the Turkish and Arabic languages and learned Islamic science for two years; then he moved to Basra and worked as a carpenter claiming to be from Azerbaijan. People believed him because of his looks and his Turkish language. He met Bin Abd-al-Wahab there, the ambitious young man irritable and resentful of the Turkish rule. Humfer says that: (The ambitious young man Muhammad, used to think of himself as wise as the Koran and Sunna, and stipulated the views of the scholars, not just the scholars ofhis own time and the four Islamic schools of thought yet; the views ofAbi Bakr and ‘Vmar [CL: Muslim Caliphates] too, as he understood the Koran in a way different from them, and he used to say: “I am leaving you with the Koran and the Sunna and didn’t say, I am leaving you with Koran, Sunna, AI-Sahaba [CL: the companions ofthe profit] and the schools ofthought” Humfer found his long sought goal in Muhammad who used to look down upon the Caliphates and Imams such as Abi Hanifah, and said: (I am more discerning than Abi Hanifah). This Spy mentions that ‘Abd-al-Wahab started to explain Koran in light of the views they present to him, not according to the understanding ofthe profit’s companions and the sheikhdoms, and this is where he became under control, poison his thoughts, cause him to fall into mistakes, and commit sins. He started permitting himself what God had prohibited him from doing. Afterwards; ‘Abd-al-Wahab was approached to work for the interest ofBritain, and he agreed; and they gave him their big plan to destroy Islam. Following that; ‘Abd-al-Wahab went to see his family along with Humfer whom he claimed to be a slave that he bought from the market; he stayed with him for two years during which the plan to emerge the missionary was concluded. Humfer had gathered the men around him, gave them arms and money, and years after according to Humfer, the British ministry was able to bring Muhammad bin Su’ud to ‘Abd-al-Wahab’s side and together they assumed Al-Dar’iyyah, the capital of the new religion!.

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I Same previous reference, page 72
2 Loncaric, Mr Steven Homily, Four Centuries ofIraq’s Modern History, Translated by Ja’far Al-Khayyat, third edition, Baghdad 1963 A.D., page 211
3 Same previous reference, page 265.
22. The relationship between the Wahabis and Britain didn’t end after Humfer (or Muhammad), as he called himself, completed his mission. Thus Britain worked on emerging the so called Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab, and arranged for his meeting with Muhammad bin Su’ud to destroy the Arabic Islamic State, and for the sake of the British interests; the British! Wahabi relations lasted from the eighteenth century till this date. In the early twentieth century, the British began developing these relationships in a form of treaties, and to fulfill their plans; the Indian government appointed a Jewish British officer by the name (David Shakespeare) and sent him to Riyadh, upon the breakout of the First World War, to represent the British interests. This British officer led one ofthe Wahabi invasions in 1915 A.D. with ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz bin Su’ud to seize Ha’il along with five thousand individuals who started out from Kuwait to kill the family ofRashid who was against Britain; the family of Shammar was able to defeat them and kill (Shakespeare)2. Thus the leadership was tended to (Johan Philippi) to coordinate between the Wahabis and Britain, and due to the fact, he changed his name to (Muhammad Philippi) and changed later to Hajj (‘Abdallah Philippi), he grew his beard, gave a monthly salary equal to 500 sterling pounds to ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz and to his father ‘Abd-al-Rahman and 25 sterling pounds to each of his brothers. Also; he brought 30,000 rifles with their ammunition and formed a religious army that abide by the image of the sheikhs completely, and was called (the Brotherhood Army) their distinctive mark is a (turban) over the head and their motto is (The smell of Paradise is approaching, who wants to be first?) 1 .
Philippi led the first meeting between Bracey Cocas, the British envoy to the Arab Gulf, and’Abd-al- ‘Aziz bin Su’ud in Al-Qasir Camp in 1915; by virtue ofwhich he granted ‘Abd-a1-‘Aziz the medal of the British Sultanate for his service to Britain, Bracey Cocas, in that meeting, called on the problem of the Palestinians and the Jews and asked for ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz’s help by giving the Palestinian land to the Jews as a collateral for the endurance of his power, hence he said: (I think this is a guarantee for your endurance as it is in the interest of Britain that the Jews have a homeland and existence, and Britain’s interests are, by all means, in your interest) ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz replied: (Yes; if my acknowledgement means so much to you, I acknowledge thousand times granting a homeland to the Jews in Palestine or other than Palestine) 2

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Footnotes:
1 Summarized with liberty from Humfer’s autobiography, page 31-49.
2 J.D. Discove, Kuwait and its Neighbors, translated by Jasim Al-Mubarak, first edition, part one, Kuwait, 1964 A.D., page 146.

Various views in the Wahabi Movement

23. Historians and writers who have discussed the Wahabi movement and the History of the Su’ud family have differed in their views, some of them consider it a corrective movement, some have ranked it among the destructive religious movements that are he research extreme, some considered it a foreign movement that has slipped in to destroy Islam by means of the Jews, Britain, the western, and America, others considered it a religious movement at the beginning, but has been made for the purpose of the Su’ud family that is eager to control the Arabic Peninsula in Najd and AL-Hijaz. I deemed it appropriate to list most of the views I have read:
In that respect, Darwazah stated that: (This movement ia ascribed to a scholar from Najd bt the name of Sheikh Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab, originally from a town by the name of’Ayniyyah in Najd. He was educated by AI-Hanbali school of Islamic thought. He was in Iraq and other Arabic countries and witnessed what the Arab Muslims were up to from heresies, religiously and morally forbidden acts, and bad habits which contradict Islam. He began to disapprove that and condemn that, and to call upon them to return to Islam and its attributes in the book of God and his Profit)3.
Another view states that (During the days of Sultan Salim, injustice grew on the hands of every wicked giant, and so did the mighty power of’Abd-al-‘Aziz bin Sa’ud; he made roads scary, by filling them with bombs, and soldiers calling for the heresy of Muhammad Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab flaring up fires every where there is population and structure and calling everyone who believed in one God and spent his day and night praying; infidel. He permitted shedding blood of Muslims and called them by the names which are attributed to infidels)! As for Father Karmaly he says ofthe Wahabi calling that (they are Sunnis from Ahmad bin Hanbal’s school ofthought, or AI- Wahabi because the Wahabis are Hanbalis[ CL: ascribed Ahmad bin Hanbal]. Yet the reformists who are enemies from Najd called them that because they want to ascribe to a new faith and accuse them of being infidels, yet that is not the case, the Hanbalis are Wahabis and the Wahabis are Hanbalis in their faith although the name is new but the religion of the people of AI-Khumaysiyyah (a City in Najd) is the religion of the forefathers CL: That is the religion of Profit Muhammad and his Companions] and the religion of the Islamic Sheikh Bin Taymiya the religion of its student sheikh Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab)2.
Whereas ‘Abd- aI-Wahab AI-Shammari mentions in his introducing ofAI-Wahabi Movement (The Wahabi is the movement ofAI-Tunisi in Tunis and a friend of Hasan Khan in Mubal and Amir’Ali in Kalkalta) 3

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! Nasar AI-Sah’id, the history Sa’ud, previously mentioned reference, part 1 page 58-59
2 Same previous reference, page 156-159
3Darwazah, the Birth ofthe Modem Religious Movement, previous reference page 70
Al-Shammari goes back to say: (The Jewish origins had reflected on the attitude of the Wahabies and the Su’ud family who have used Terrorism, Killing, Slaughtering, and destruction against the Arab Muslims. Through their alliance with the British, the foreigners, and some of Jewish Masonic leaders)4 And Khahni justifies this as follow (when the followers of; Abd al-Wahab set out destroying domes and removing what was on the grave ofthe profit( God’s blessing and peace be upon him) from ornaments and Jewels; He and his friends were accused of infidelity and atheism. As a matter offact; There was no need for this annoyance because the base of the Wahabi actions is connected to Sunnaitself because it was the recommendations of the profit (God-, blessing and peace be upon him)s And so does Darwazah to drop charges of the Wahabis when he says (The Ottoman state & Muhammad ‘Ali, have collaborated on spreading a propaganda against the Wahabi missionary and depict it as a distorted faith, or movement, from the book ofGod and the Sunna of his profit, So in order to make their Muslim soldiers fight them because of their faith and prompt all the skins to approve that just like what Al- Zaydiyyah did with their war on the Zaydi Imams. Although there is no deviation from the book of God and the Sunna of his profit especially in The Wahabi movement there is a calling to return to the book of God and the Sunna of his profit) 6

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Footnotes: lAl- Wa’ili, Study ofthe Su’ud family, previously mentioned reference, page 177.
2 Father Karmily (AI- Khamisiyyah), Lughat Al Arab magazine [CL: The language ofthe Arabs] 1911 A.D. Page 18
3 AI- Khafni, The Encyclopedia AI- Farq, previous mentioned reform page 68.
4 AI- Shammari, Roots on the Wahabi movement & previousely mentioned reference, page 30
5 AI- Khafui, the encyclopedia AI-Farq previous mentioned reforms
6 Darwazah, The Birth ofthe Arabic Movement previously reference page 72-73
However; the professor attorney Mr. Faryid mentions in his book (The Wahabis are people who followed the method of Muhammad bin ‘Abd- al- Wahab; a man who was born in AI- Dar’iyyah, Arab land form of Najd and AI-Hijaz Ever since he was little he displayed signs of noble descent and, determination, he was also known for his noble deeds among all who resort to him. After he studied AI- Hanfi school ofthought in his home land, he traveled to Isfahan, Seeking its scholars and learned from them until his religious information became vast especially in the area or interpreting the Koran. He Returned to his homeland in 1171 Hegira and adopted the faith of Aba Hanifah and used religion as means to achieve the intentions ofhis prejudice faith or political goals, and used the method of force, adventure and war as means of expanding and attacking. Thus, the Wahabis considered all Muslims infedals and their land is the land of atheism, and should be conquered as long as they don’t believe in the Wahabi missionary that denied all Islamic schools of thought).1
Yet Muhammad Jawad Maghniyyah describes the Wahabi movement saying; (Since the Wahabi movement had emerged in the Arabic Peninsula during the eighteenth century hostility, killing women, children, and elderly of Arab Muslims in the Arabic Peninsula and what surrounded him from the land ofIraq and of Great Syria. It is not strange that the final goal of Wahabis is to destroy Islam, and create division between Sunnis and Shiite)2 Darwazah then returns to remind that (No matter how the Wahabi movement originally possessed corrective religious feature, yet the inclusion of Su’ud family in it, the mixing with politics, and the end conclusion which was led by this Great Kingdom; all of that can be considered from the features of the Arabic Renaissance and the modem Arabic movement)3
Dr. Al- Khafni describes them in his encyclopedia by saying (Al- Wahabi movement is an elapsed movement driven by Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab 1115-1206 ofHegira spread out by many. It was said that is a corrective religious notion which transformed the theroical thoughts of Bin Timiyyah into application. It was also said of Muhammad bin Abd-al-wahab that, he is the chiefofthe modem corrective religious movement in the Arab Peninsula and he followed the righteous method ofthe ancestors calling for pure unity and condemning heresies and destroying what had gotten stuck to Islam from delusions. His missionary which he declared in 1143 of Hegira was the first flare for the Arabic renaissance in the whole world and the reform in India, Egypt, Iraq, Great Syria and Morocco and others. Who were affected so; AI-Alusi emerged in Iraq, Al- Afghani in Afghanistan, Muhammad’Abbduh in Egypt, Jamal-ai-Din Al-Tunisi in Tunisia Sadiq Hasan Khan in Mubal, and Amir Ali in Kalkata then his company made him become diligent and independent, thus he established an independent faith which was acknowledged by his followers who attended to him, and many people accepted the faith)!. But Dr. Maymunah Khalifah stated that (Its is imperative that we judge the Wahabi movement by the standards ofits era in order to admit that; it brought on good deed to the region ofNajd and rescued it from the state of ciaos and division that prevailed)2
Then she goes back to say (The Wahabi movement is distinguished by a violent and strong feature; at the time in which it maintained its religious appearance, it became an extreme national political movement in essence aiming for unity and the establishment of an Arabic empire and threw out the Persian and Turkish foreign influence from the region. For that reason, the Wahabis got in conflict with most oftheir neighbors; everyone who was not a Wahabi was accused of atheism and deviation from what is right)3.

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1 AI-Shammari, the Wahabi Movement, previously reference, page 7
2 Maghliyyah, Muhammad Jawad, This is the Wahabi, AI-Jabal press, Beirut 1964 A.D., page 6-7
3 Darwazah, The History of the Arabic Movement, previously reference, page 75
Lonkirk describes the Wahabi movement by saying: (Since then, the Najdi Empire ofBin Su’ud was known by the Wahabi faith. Thus the believers of this narrow minded, anti-existence, and deserters faith have expanded their tiny state by fighting Muslims whose faith became spoiled in their dealing with their neighbors; each invasion had its religious Fatwah. Their hatred to prosperous deserters surrounding Najd from every direction made them, not just, use extreme violence yet; they committed acts that made many people believe that their intention is to attack Islam itself. As a matter offact; their toughest citizens or their most savage tribes and fighters knew very little ofthe Koran and Suuna)4.

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Footnotes
1 AI-Khafni, AI-Farq encyclopedia, previously mentioned reference, page 681.
2 AI-Sabah, The Kuwait Relations, previously mentioned reference, page 96.
3 Same reference, page 97
4 Lonkirk, Four Centuries, previously mentioned reference, page 111 and page 210.

The Conclusion

24. The many trips of’Abd-al-Wahab, his interaction with Muslim Scholars all over the world, and what he had learned and seen have affected his ideological structure. First; he studied AI-Hanbali school of thought, then AI-Hanafi school of thought in Iraq and Turkey, and the Shiite faith in Iran; all of these studies had equipped him with more information about religion and interpretation which made him conceded so; he picked up a new school of thought in which he denied Muslims, many of their traditions and worship principles, and accused them of atheism, the thing that made Muslims hate him more. His father, who was mentioned in the books they wrote, was among the first to oppose he prevented him from going too far with his missionary. Soon after his father parted with life, he declared his missionary again until his brother Sulayman; judge ofHuraymulah, confronted him and accused him of being atheist and heresy, and that is proved in the publications of Sheikh Khaz’al who is close to the Wahabis, and in all issuances of the Islamic world that consider the Wahabi movement destructive.
After ‘Abd-al-Wahab met with Muhammad bin Su’ud and combined their efforts, this religious movement became political with dimensions and goals set for power and religion, in which the movement have tried to control the Arabic Peninsula and its outer skirts and subjugate it to the power of the Saudi Wahabis, by using hostile practices such as killing, captivity, robbing wealth and properties from their opponents in addition to destroying cities, burning them down, demolishing the domes ofits holy men, and stealing their treasures as to what happened to the dome ofZayd bin AI-Khattab’s grave in AI-‘Ayniyyah, and what they did to the shrines of ‘Ali and AI-Husayn (peace be upon him) in the cities of Najaf, Karbala’, and others.
The common interests between the Wahabis and the British have agreed in aggression and expansion. They have agreed by means of secret and open treaties, the first have imposed expansion in the Arabic Peninsula and eliminate their opponent from Arabic tribes, and the second goal was to control the countries of the Arab Gulf, rob their wealth and subjugate them to the power ofthe Su’ud family. In addition to that; they passed the Jewish-British scheme to find a home land for the Jews in Palestine. The Wahabis were able to pass few heresies by mixing them with the Islamic teachings in order to enable weakness of the mind and belief in their calling. However; these myths had surfaces and were cleared up by the efforts of Muslims who have worked hard to expose the hidden evil intentions which the Wahabis were aiming at.
Finally, I ask God almighty and all powerful that I was successful in this modest work ofmine, and God is the guardian of success.

References

1. Hatatah, YusifKamil, The book of The Hijazi Matter, 1st edition, Baghdad 1926 A.D.
2. AI-Khafni, Dr. ‘Abd-al-Mun’im, The Encyclopedia of Denominations, Groups, Schools of Thought, Parties and Islamic Movements, 2nd edition, Madbuli, Egypt, 1999
3. Sheikh Khaz’al, Husay Khalaf, Biography of Sheikh Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab, Dar AlKutub Press, 1st edition, Beiruth 1968 A.D.
4. Darwazah, Muhammad ‘Izzah, The Birth of the Modem Arabic Movement, The Modem Library, 2nd edition, Beirut 1949 A.D.
5. Dixon, 1. D. Kuwait and its Neighbors, Traslation of Qasim Al-Mubarak, 1st edition, Part one, Kuwait 1964 A.D.
6. Al-Sa’id, Nasir, History of the Su’ud Family, 1 st edition, Part one.
7. Al-Shammari, Abd-al-Wahab, The True Wahabi Movement and The Roots, Dar Al-‘Urubah, Beirut 1992 A.D.
8. TAwran, Mustafa, The Jews ofAl-Dawnamah, Translation of Kamal Al-Khawjah, Dar AlKutub Al-Masriyyah, Cairo 1989 A.D.
9. ‘Abd-al-Wahab, AI-Sheikh Muhammad, Publication of Sheikh Muhammad bin’Abd-alWahab, Compiled by ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz Al-Rumi and others, Islamic University of Muhammad bin Su’ud, Riyadh 1398 of Hegira.
10. Attorney Professor; Muhammad Farid Beh, History of the High Ottoman State, Dar AI-Jabal, Beirut 1977 A.D.
11. Maghniyyah, Muhammad Wahab, This is the Wahabi, 1st edition, AI-Jabal Press, Beirut 1964 A.D.
12. Al-Najdi, Scholar ‘Uthman bin Bishr Al-Najdi, The Title of Glory in the History of Najd, Parts one and two, Riyadh.
13. Loankrik, Four Centuries ofThe Modem History of Iraq, Translation ofJa’far Al-Khayyat, 3rd edition, Baghdad 1968 A.D.
14. Al-Wa’ili, ‘Uthman bin Sa’d Al-Basari, Study of the Su’ud Family, Report ofDr. ‘Imad ‘AbdaI-Salam, Dar Al-Kitab Press, Baghdad 1991 A.D.
15. The Language ofthe Arabs Magazine, Issue no. 1, year 1911 A.D., Al-Adab Press, Baghdad 1911 A.D.
16. The Arabic Historian Magazine, Issue no. 34, year 1988 A.D., Baghdad.

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Immigrants Commit Fewer Crimes Than US-Born Population

NOVANEWS
  • People hold up signs before marching to Trump Tower during a protest organized by the New York Immigration Coalition against President Trump in New York City.
    People hold up signs before marching to Trump Tower during a protest organized by the New York Immigration Coalition against President Trump in New York City. | Photo: Reuters.
Donald Trump continues to blame immigrants for crime despite mounting evidence that immigrants commit less crimes than those born in the U.S.

A new study proves that immigrants actually commit far fewer crimes than people born in the United States, further debunking the myth pushed by U.S. President Donald Trump about immigrants and crime.

RELATED: How Marx’s Crisis Theory Explains Growing Anti-Immigrant Hate

The report, released by The Sentencing Project, drew on survey data analyzing 40,000 immigrants from countries around the world currently living in the United States, age 18 and older.

The study also found that higher levels of immigration in the last few decades may have contributed to the historic drop in crime rates, and that immigrants are underrepresented in U.S. prisons.

The study’s authors condemned Trump’s immigrant rhetoric, pointing to its factual incorrectness.

“Starting from his first day as a candidate, President Donald Trump has made demonstrably false claims associating immigrants with criminality,” they wrote.

“Policies that further restrict immigration are therefore not effective crime-control strategies. These facts — supported by over 100 years of research — have been misrepresented both historically and in recent political debates,” they added.

Earlier this month, Trump backed up his anti-immigrant rhetoric in a speech to Congress with this factually incorrect information about crimes committed by immigrants.

RELATED: Study Contradicts Trump Claim of Immigrant-Led ‘Lawless Chaos’

“My administration has answered the pleas of the American people for immigration enforcement and border security,” Trump said. “By finally enforcing our immigration laws, we will raise wages, help the unemployed, save billions of dollars and make our communities safer for everyone. We want all Americans to succeed, but that can’t happen in an environment of lawless chaos. We must restore integrity and the rule of law to our borders.”

“As we speak, we are removing gang members, drug dealers and criminals that threaten our communities and prey on our citizens. Bad ones are going out as I speak tonight and as I have promised,” he added.

But Trump’s claim that deporting migrants would lead to less crime was challenged by Steve Rattner, who worked for the Obama administration, and who tweeted, “Memo to Trump: immigrants are much less likely to be criminals than native-born Americans.”

He linked his tweet to a study by the Pew Research Center that showed new arrivals to the United States were far less likely to commit crimes than citizens born in the U.S., a conclusion similar to the one reached by The Sentencing Project.

At the meeting, Trump also revealed the creation of an agency called VOICE, Victims of Immigration Crime Engagement. The new office, which he said at the times will “provide a voice” to families of crime victims, is set to publish a weekly list of crimes committed by immigrants, adding to the administration’s hostility against them.

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