Archive | October 19th, 2019

Letter to Indian Independence Fighter Bhagat Singh

Bhagat Singh was a revolutionary leader who fought for India’s freedom from British rule

By: Amir Malik

  • Bhagat Singh was a revolutionary leader who fought for India’s freedom from British rule | Photo: Archive

In your Beware, Ye Bureaucracy you called the British “the most tyrannical of Government of Governments in the world”. India’s third set of rulers, the saffron brigade is learning tyranny very well from its master.

Bhagat Singh was a revolutionary leader who fought for India’s freedom from British rule. He was a Marxist and diverse-read intellectual. In his short span of active life, he read Irish, British, U.S., Russian, Indian and European Literatures. At the age of 12, he bemoaned the massacre at Jallianwallah Bagh, one of the worst massacres done by the British in a fenced park, killing thousands of men, women and children.

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It would impact Bhagat Singh throughout his life. In 1928, he shot John Sanders, a British police officer to avenge Lala Lajpat (another freedom fighter’s) murder. 

After he shot him, he wrote “…but in this man has died the representative of an institution which is so cruel, lowly and so base that it must be abolished. In this man has died an agent of the British authority in India.” 

‘To make the deaf hear’ he and his comrade B K Dutt tossed two bombs in the Central Assembly in Delhi, after which they offered themselves to be arrested.

He and his comrades shook the invincible empire so much so that the British wanted to get rid of them and martyred Bhagat Singh on March 23, 1931, aged 23.  

This is an open letter to Bhagat Singh commemorating his revolutionary ideas, which are as crucial in current time as they were during the colonial period. His birthday was on Sept. 28. 

Dear Comrade Bhagat Singh,

Happy Birthday. 

The British left India 70 years ago and as you said, a mere change of set of rulers — from white to brown, would not bring freedom to India, it did not. Now that I am writing to you almost a century after your martyrdom, I must inform you that Browns have been replaced by Saffrons, a color recognized as the color of the far-right Hindu nationalist government. 

Your visions and ideas are still needed in present India especially due to the current administration of far-right Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) in India. 

Your martyrdom did not fail. The British government could only kill your body not your ideas. You taught us that dying with dignity is better than living with humiliation. You introduced us to “It takes a loud voice to make the deaf hear” and showed us “The Red Pamphlet.”

In it, you said the British government has been thrusting upon you “new repressive measures” — Public Safety, the Trade Disputes and the Press Sedition Bill.  

According to you, these Bills were “humiliating farce”. In a similar fashion to the British, the far-right ruling dispensation of today’s India, after abrogating Article 370 from Kashmir on Aug. 5 2019, has used the farcical “Public Safety Act” against Farooq Abdullah, an 82-years-old leader of Kashmir who was born much before India had come out of the British clutches, to humiliate him. 

In your “Beware, Ye Bureaucracy”, you called the British “the most tyrannical of Government of Governments in the world”. India’s saffron brigade are learning tyranny very well from its master. 

I must take this opportunity to inform you that the far-right government has proposed changes to the existing labour laws in the country and as many as 44 existing laws are to be amalgamated into four codes in order to help the corporate giants flourish keeping at stake the lives of millions of workers. 

In the 1926 Trade Dispute Bills, the British government in India banned any strike and considered it as revolt against the government. This subjected workers to rigorous imprisonment without a trial. No less arbitrary than the British, the fascists ruling India now demand a 42-day advance intimation if the workers want to hold a protest. Earlier it had to be 14 days.

A mathematical calculation would suggest that the saffron rule is now three-times more tyrannical than what the British were.  

The country that you dreamt of has been muzzled and pushed into silence. Those who dare speak and follow you, are slapped with Sedition. In fact, the government has introduced an amendment to the already existing “anti-terror” laws. 

It has amended the Unlawful Activities Prevention Act (UAPA) and changed the meaning of “terrorism”.

According to principles of natural justice, any person until proven guilty by the law is innocent. Also, the onus is on the authority to prove that the accused is guilty. In a complete travesty of justice, the government with the support of the parties in opposition, Congress and Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), has passed the amendments bill. The law allows for an individual to be called a terrorist without FIR, charge sheet or trial. Where in the world that happens, dear Comrade? 

When the British called you a terrorist, no matter how farcical, but they put you on trial. Now all these are outdated. A Bhagat Singh of today would not be fortunate enough to expose the government in its naked form. 

What could be irony if not the state of Sedition in India?

Dear Comrade, you would be glad to know that I talked to your cousin Jagmohan Singh, who has been a renowned Professor in the country. He told me, “Sedition comes from the idea that the rulers and the ruled are the enemies of each other.”    

Hundreds of people have been arrested under this archaic law merely for criticizing the current Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi or going against the party in power. Journalists and activists have been languishing in jails.   

How can criticism of the government amount to sedition? One of the senior Judges of the Supreme Court told me that Sedition could have been abolished when the British left in 1947. How can an Indian commit sedition towards their own people?

I must inform you, dear Comrade, that it is the government, which, not only carried forward the rotten legacy of the British rather strengthened it from time to time. 

If I could draw an analogy from what Professor Jagmohan said, it would be obvious that it is the ruler, who is the enemy of the ruled and not the vice versa. 

Maybe more than ever, the country needs you.

Maybe it is time for you to come again, make “some loud voice to make the deaf hear”.

Yours,

Amir Malik

The writer is a freelance journalist based in India.

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Cómo la Revolución China cambió el mundo

By Sheila Xiao

Cómo la Revolución China cambió el mundo

El 1 de octubre de 1949, Mao Zedong declaró una victoria estremecedora: el Partido Comunista Chino había prevalecido en la larga guerra civil del país y China era ahora una República Popular comprometida con la construcción del socialismo. Los que aún fueron leales al partido reaccionario proimperialista Kuomintang dirigido por Chiang Kaishek huyeron a Taiwán. China y el mundo están celebrando el 70 aniversario de este hito que cambió el curso de la historia.

Poniendo al fin al “siglo de la humillación”

Justo antes de la famosa declaración del 1 de octubre, Mao dijo a los delegados a una cumbre de los principales líderes de todo el país: “Hemos cerrado nuestras filas y derrotado a los opresores nacionales y extranjeros a través de la Guerra Popular de Liberación y la gran revolución popular, y ahora estamos proclamando la fundación de la República Popular de China … La nuestra ya no será una nación sujeta a insulto y humillación. Nos hemos puesto de pie.” Comenzando con la primera Guerra del Opio en 1839, la soberanía de China fue desarraigada por el imperialismo durante más de un siglo. Los británicos libraron esta guerra de agresión en respuesta a la prohibición de la monarquía china sobre las importaciones británicas de opio a China, que estaban causando una epidemia de adicción masiva.

China fue derrotada. Lo que comenzó como cinco “puertos de tratados” abiertos para ser controlados por los británicos se convirtieron en innumerables puertos dominados por extranjeros para ser explotados por diferentes potencias imperialistas. China sufrió invasiones del imperio japonés, disputas fronterizas con la Rusia zarista y la secesión de áreas que alguna vez formaron parte de su territorio. Conocido como el “Siglo de la humillación”, China pasó de ser una de las civilizaciones más avanzadas, produciendo el 30 por ciento de la producción económica mundial, a un estado de grave subdesarrollo, colonialismo, guerra e inestabilidad doméstica.

La victoria del partido comunista chino el 1 de octubre de 1949 puso fin al siglo de la humillación, liberando al pueblo chino del estrangulamiento imperialista. Se estableció la República Popular de China, comenzando así el camino hacia el socialismo.

China y el movimiento mundial anticolonial

La victoria del pueblo en China tuvo lugar en el contexto de la emergente guerra de clases mundial conocida como la Guerra Fría. La Revolución China no fue solo una revolución socialista, fue una lucha de liberación nacional. Este triunfo fue una victoria para todas las luchas de independencia y socialistas en todo el mundo, y electrificó la política global.

Debido a que un país tan grande e importante se había unido a la Unión Soviética en el campo socialista, el equilibrio del poder mundial comenzó a alejarse de los imperialistas. La clase dominante de los Estados Unidos entró en pánico, y la lucha comenzó a determinar la pregunta arrogante y racista “¿quién perdió a China?” Esto se convirtió en el acto de apertura de la caza de brujas macartista llamado el “Red Scare”.

Además de la inspiración que la revolución china proporcionó a los luchadores por la libertad en todo el mundo, la formación de la República Popular también representó una fuente de ayuda material para las luchas en todo el mundo por la independencia y el socialismo. Durante la Guerra de Corea, por ejemplo, cientos de miles de soldados chinos lucharon junto con sus hermanos y hermanas coreanos con armamento soviético contra los ejércitos invasores liderados por Estados Unidos.

China también desempeñó un papel clave como socio comercial para las naciones recientemente independientes, proporcionando una alternativa desesperadamente necesaria a los mercados de los países imperialistas. En 1961, Kwame Nkrumah, presidente de Ghana, negoció un préstamo sin intereses de China. El acuerdo incluía el intercambio de expertos industriales y agrícolas que involucraban la capacitación de trabajadores de Ghana en China. Este es solo uno de los muchos ejemplos de cooperación entre naciones sobre la base del desarrollo, en lugar de las relaciones depredadoras basadas en la explotación.

La revolución china también inspiró a organizaciones radicales en los Estados Unidos. Los Young Lords, formados a fines de la década de 1960, lucharon por el fin del colonialismo estadounidense en Puerto Rico, así como por las condiciones opresivas y el racismo sistemático que enfrentan los puertorriqueños en el continente estadounidense. Los Young Lords estudiaron la derrota de los japoneses y luego la derrota del Kuomintang por el Partido Comunista Chino y también cómo los revolucionarios chinos comenzaron a deshacer las normas patriarcales que subordinaban a las mujeres.

Al igual que la Unión Soviética, la República Popular de China extendió su solidaridad con la lucha afroamericana en los Estados Unidos. Mao no solo se reunió con el legendario luchador por la libertad afroamericano W.E.B. Du Bois, el primer ministro chino Zhou Enlai se reunió con el líder del Partido Pantera Negra (Black Panther Party), Huey Newton. El estudio regular de las obras de Mao Zedong era una práctica común entre muchos grupos radicales de la época. Uno de los esfuerzos de recaudación de fondos más conocidos del Black Panther Party fue vender el “Pequeño Libro Rojo” de Mao en los campus universitarios, y este texto fue una lectura obligatoria para todos los miembros.

Sentar las bases para un rápido crecimiento

Después de tomar el poder en 1949, el Partido Comunista Chino enfrentó dos desafíos enormes: desarrollar a China para superar la pobreza que padecía su pueblo y transformar las relaciones en la sociedad para empoderar a la clase trabajadora y a los campesinos que componían la abrumadora mayoría de la población. A lo largo de la revolución de China, el Partido Comunista adoptó una amplia gama de métodos y estrategias a menudo contradictorios para realizar estas tareas. Si bien queda mucho por hacer, un examen de hasta qué punto la sociedad china ha progresado 70 años después de la revolución revela una de las mayores transformaciones en la historia humana.

Uno de los primeros esfuerzos más notables fue El Gran Salto Hacia Adelante, el segundo plan quinquenal de China, que sentó las bases para un rápido desarrollo en los próximos años y reorganizó radicalmente la producción en la sociedad china. El Gran Salto Hacia Adelante fue un ambicioso intento rápido de desarrollo agrícola e industrial. En ese momento, la falta de infraestructura moderna de China significaba que las formas más comunes de producción donde ciertos productos se producían principalmente en centros urbanos y luego se transportaban a todas las demás áreas representaban un gran desafío. En un intento por remediar esto, se establecieron comunas en todas partes de China para la producción agrícola e industrial. Se construyeron importantes sistemas de riego y los proyectos de conservación del agua protegerían más tarde a China de condiciones climáticas impredecibles.

Si bien los críticos del Gran Salto Adelante lo consideran un gran fracaso que resultó en muertes astronómicas relacionadas con la hambruna, muchos demógrafos e historiadores desafían esta narrativa hoy. Hubo períodos de escasez de alimentos a corto plazo, principalmente debido a la reorganización de la producción, pero también tres años consecutivos de condiciones climáticas adversas imprevisibles.

Esta empresa requirió la movilización completa de la población rural para participar en un trabajo intensivo en mano de obra, y el liderazgo de la revolución china reflexionó sobre los errores cometidos al confiar en un esfuerzo humano extraordinario para superar el subdesarrollo material. Sin embargo, la infraestructura establecida durante ese tiempo mejoró la producción agrícola a largo plazo, algo que es esencial para la industrialización. Los estudios muestran que el rendimiento por hectárea de tierra sembrada con cultivos alimentarios aumentó en un 145,9 por ciento y la producción total de alimentos aumentó en un 169,6 por ciento durante el período 1949-1978. La producción industrial aumentó en un promedio anual del 11,2 por ciento entre 1952 y 1976. Las políticas económicas socialistas allanaron el camino para un rápido crecimiento durante la era posterior a Mao.

Liberación femenina

Vendaje de los pies, el infanticidio femenino, maltrato a la mujer y otras formas de sometimiento fueron experiencias de rutina de las mujeres antes de la revolución. Después de la revolución, la Ley Fundamental establecida en la República Popular de China declaró:

“La República Popular de China abolirá el sistema feudal que mantiene en cautiverio a las mujeres. Las mujeres gozarán de los mismos derechos que los hombres en la vida política, económica, cultural, educativa y social. Se aplicará la libertad de matrimonio para hombres y mujeres ”(artículo 6).

Los matrimonios arreglados, el concubinato y los matrimonios infantiles fueron abolidos. Hubo un aumento de divorcios iniciados por mujeres.

También se alentó a las mujeres a unirse a la fuerza laboral. Durante el Gran Salto Hacia Adelante, se formaron cocinas comunitarias, jardines de infancia y guarderías para que las mujeres pudieran participar en los proyectos de desarrollo masivo. Cerca de 5 millones de guarderías y jardines de infantes y más de 36,000,000 comedores se establecieron en áreas rurales en 1959.

La campaña de política educativa y alfabetización fue otra gran empresa de la República Popular. En solo 10 años, la tasa de analfabetismo de China pasó del 80% al 43%, incluso en las zonas rurales. Esto significaba enseñar a cientos de millones de personas a leer y escribir.

El imperialismo estadounidense intenta detener el ascenso de China

A medida que la pobreza continúa aumentando en los Estados Unidos, la pobreza ha disminuido constantemente en la República Popular de China. Más de 500 millones de personas salieron de la pobreza extrema entre los años 1981 y 2004. El PIB de China aumentó, en promedio, un 10 por ciento anual, y sacó a más de 800 millones de personas de la pobreza.

China dio un giro brusco en el desarrollo económico al introducir reformas de mercado en 1978, creando una clase capitalista y exacerbando el conflicto de clases y la desigualdad dentro de la sociedad china. Muchas personas progresistas ven esto como el fin del país socialista en el que alguna vez encontraron inspiración. El Partido por el Socialismo y la Liberación ve esto como un error, mientras que el giro hacia los métodos de desarrollo capitalistas conlleva grandes peligros políticos, no ha habido contrarevolución en China. El estado que gobierna China es producto de una revolución obrera y campesina, y ese estado puede dirigir y controlar a la clase capitalista como lo considere conveniente.

En los últimos años, el liderazgo del Partido Comunista Chino ha dado un giro hacia la izquierda en su orientación política frente a la agresión imperialista estadounidense. En 2013, China introdujo una iniciativa comercial llamada Una franja, una ruta (One Belt, One Road), ahora más comúnmente conocida como la Iniciativa Franja y Ruta (Belt and Road). Este proyecto abarcaría desde el este de Asia hasta Europa, estableciendo relaciones basadas en la diplomacia pacífica y el comercio entre estas naciones. Más de 60 países compuestos por dos tercios de la población mundial han firmado este proyecto. Esto pondría a China en una ventaja geopolítica como potencia mundial emergente, rivalizando con Estados Unidos.

La actual guerra comercial de los Estados Unidos contra China deja en claro que el gobierno de los Estados Unidos está más interesado en desestabilizar a China incluso a costa del bienestar económico de su propia población. China no quiere conflictos con Estados Unidos, pero está cada vez más lista para hacer lo que necesita para defenderse.

Todo experimento socialista es producto de las circunstancias históricas y materiales en las que se encuentra una sociedad, así como de las decisiones de los revolucionarios que buscan transformar la sociedad para satisfacer las necesidades del pueblo. En solo 70 años, China ha avanzado enormemente hacia la erradicación de la pobreza, la modernización de su economía e infraestructura y la creación de un orden mundial en el que las naciones imperialistas de Occidente no tengan una dominación indiscutible de la política global. El triunfo del pueblo de 1949 es lo que lo puso en marcha.

Posted in ChinaComments Off on Cómo la Revolución China cambió el mundo

TKP statement: Hands off Syria!

By Central Committee, The Communist Party of Turkey

TKP statement: Hands off Syria!

Photo: TKP

Translation originally posted here. 

AKP is committing a great crime for the last eight years. AKP disregards the sovereignty of another country.

Syria has been suffering for eight years.

About eight years ago, anti-government demonstrations commenced in Syria. These demonstrations soon turned into an armed uprising and clashes in certain cities. Then together with the involvement of foreign forces, the civil war and the occupation of imperialist powers led by the US, started

Back then, U.S. imperialism’s plans for the Middle East were in effect. The AKP government was more than eager to play the role of the primary actor in these plans. The United States and the AKP started arming and training various groups against the Assad government of Syria. NATO, MIT (Turkish National Intelligence Agency) and CIA all flock to Syria. Jihadist gangs were armed with the most modern weapons. Armies were established out of these gangs. Turkey took the responsibility for the training of these armies. As if these were not enough, meetings were held in Antalya and İstanbul with the representatives of these gangs. The gang members were paid salaries by Turkey. AKP went beyond interfering in the internal affairs of our neighbour Syria and took on the role of directly provoking a civil war in Syria. However, the process did not unfold as predicted by the US and the AKP. The people of Syria resisted against the imperialist occupation and the reactionary gangs.

On the other hand, the people of Syria paid a very heavy price in these eight years. Syria has lost hundreds of thousands of her people. Millions have been displaced. They were subjected to the medieval darkness in the middle of the 21st century. In some regions, the residents were subjected to the most savage barbarism and bigotry.

AKP HAS BEEN COMMITTING A CRIME FOR THE LAST EIGHT YEARS

Syria is still under actual occupation and is in a divided state. Jihadist gangs and their armed forces are still terrorizing certain regions.

AKP is committing a great crime for the last eight years. AKP disregards the sovereignty of another country.

They are overtly funding, training separatist, jihadist gangs and deploying them as armed forces within Syria.

AKP government along with the USA are the main criminals behind the human tragedy in Syria. This crime, on which they embarked together in the name of bringing freedom to the people of Syria, has opened a huge wound that cannot be healed for years not only in Syria but in the whole region.

AKP AND USA ARE PARTNERS IN CRIME IN SYRIA

Neither the AKP government nor the USA or any other imperialist force can bring peace to the people of Syria.

It is clear that the peace and freedom rhetoric by those who rely on imperialist forces, who see the solution in concepts such as autonomous government, locality, regionalism which are nothing but the product of imperialist strategies to divide the people, and those who rely on this or that nationalism are futile.

The decision for a peaceful and prosperous future only belongs to the people of Syria. The demands of the working people in Syria who have resisted the imperialist intervention for the last eight years is clear: Independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity.

AKP’s operation today against a country, whose sovereignty it disregards under the pretext of Turkey’s security, is unacceptable.

Additionally, the fact that this is justified with the claim of the return of the displaced Syrians to their homes is nothing but a grand hypocrisy.

IMPERIALIST FORCES ARE THE REAL THREAT TO OUR SECURITY

The real threat to the security of our country is NATO, the US and the imperialist forces and those who insist on collaborating with them.

The peace in Syria can be established only when all imperialist and occupying forces withdraw from the region. It is the Syrians who can determine the future of Syria.

The Communist Party of Turkey

Central Committee

9.10.2019

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How Venezuela defeated Washington’s coup attempt at the United Nations

By Anya Parampil

How Venezuela defeated Washington’s coup attempt at the United Nations

Venezuelan Vice President Delcy Rodríguez speaks at the United Nations General Assembly

This article was originally published by The Grayzone

Venezuelan Vice President Delcy Rodríguez passed through the doors of the United Nations Headquarters in New York City on the afternoon of September 27 and flashed a smile to reporters waiting near the entrance.

Flanked by Foreign Minister Jorge Arreaza and UN Ambassador Samuel Moncada, Rodríguez raised her arms into the air and waved a photo in her left hand before disappearing up the escalators which lead to the General Assembly hall.

That photo showed the US-backed coup leader Juan Guaidó posing with Colombian narco-paramilitary members from the Los Rastrojos gang, which is notorious for kidnapping, drug smuggling, and murder.

Guaidó had apparently relied on Los Rastrojos to enter Colombia ahead of his failed humanitarian aid stunt on February 23. For the coup leader and his backers in Washington, the images could not have surfaced at a more inconvenient time.

Rodríguez appeared confident as she prepared to address the 74th General Assembly. The Venezuelan team entered the meeting anxious about plans by the United States to escalate its diplomatic war against the country.

Close observers had expected that the US would try to block Rodríguez from speaking as part of its effort to delegitimize her government.

Yet Rodríguez ultimately appeared at the podium to deliver a jeremiad against US meddling in her country’s affairs and what she called “capitalist violence.”

Her commanding presence at the UN delivered another blow to the Trump administration’s regime-change efforts, and signaled that the majority of the world’s countries still recognized the authority of Venezuela’s elected government.

For months, a clandestine war has been fought in the UN corridors and in capitals around the world, aimed at determining who had the right to define Venezuela’s internationally-recognized government: the Venezuelan people, or the Trump administration.

Since January, the US has pressured countries to revoke Venezuela’s status at the United Nations, converting the international body into a battleground for the country’s sovereignty.

“[Nicolas] Maduro is and will remain the legitimate president of Venezuela, by the people’s sacred right to self-determination,” Rodríguez announced before the General Assembly moments after her arrival.

As Rodríguez took the floor, a modestly sized group of representatives from US-allied countries walked out of the hall, in a display of opposition to her presence. The walk-out recalled scenes from diplomatic meetings from Vienna to Geneva in the months following Washington’s move to recognize Guaidó as Venezuela’s president in January.

“It was a clear victory because what they were trying to do was not to just get out of the room, or walk away from the speech — what they [wanted] to do was to try and stop the Vice President from speaking — but they didn’t have the strength, they were defeated,” Venezuela’s vice minister for Africa, Yuri Pimentel, told The Grayzone.

“The only thing they could do was walk away,” Pimentel explained. “That’s not a problem for us, the room was really full of delegations and we didn’t even notice when these people went away.”

Nine months since the US and 54 countries officially recognized Guaidó, the General Assembly meeting would have been the perfect forum to prove the success of Trump’s regime-change policy and declare the opposition figure to be Venezuela’s UN-recognized president.

Instead, Washington and its allies were reduced to staging a symbolic protest march as the international community celebrated the triumph of Venezuela’s sovereign, elected government over a US-backed coup attempt — all while Guaidó and his cronies slid further into scandal, absurdity, and irrelevance.

The diplomatic battle begins

The stage for a dramatic UN General Assembly meeting was set months ago, on April 10, when US Vice President Mike Pence convened a meeting of the Security Council to launch an assault on diplomats representing Venezuela’s elected government.

“With all due respect Mr. Ambassador, you shouldn’t be here,” Pence barked at Venezuela’s UN Ambassador Samuel Moncada, refusing to look him directly in the eye. “You should return to Venezuela, and tell Nicolás Maduro that his time is up. It’s time for him to go.”

Moncada, a seasoned diplomat and professional historian whose salary has been effectively frozen thanks to US financial restrictions, took breaks from looking at his phone to stare defiantly at Pence while nodding his head in sarcastic agreement.

“This body should revoke the credentials of Venezuela’s representative to the United Nations, recognize interim president Juan Guaidó, and seat the representative of the free Venezuelan Government in this body without delay,” Pence continued.

Mocada responded to Pence’s comments during an interview with The Grayzone in New York City shortly after the exchange.

“If he thought that [Pence] was doing some kind of harm to myself or Venezuela or the Venezuelan government, I think that he overdid it,” the ambassador commented, “that’s not diplomacy, that’s bullying. ‘Might is right’ is not the kind of thinking that succeeds here in the United Nations.”

One day before Pence’s visit to the UN, the Organization of American States voted to recognize Guaido’s representative to the group under pressure from the US.

The move, a complete violation of the OAS’ founding charter, signaled the lengths Washington to which would go in order to legitimize the Guaidó coup regime on the international level, and telegraphed its strategy for the UN.

“Fortunately, the United Nations is not the OAS,” Vice Minister Pimentel told The Grayzone after the General Assembly meeting. “[The US] cannot do whatever they wanted in the United Nations, as they have been doing with the OAS.”

According to Article 18 of the UN Charter, all decisions including “the suspension of the rights and privileges of membership [or] the expulsion of Members” must be “made by a two-thirds majority of the members present and voting” at any given time.

In 2009, however, Madagascar’s then-President Andry Rajoelina was prevented from addressing the UNGA after a simple majority of present and counting nations voted to block his right to speak.

The precedent suggested the US could try to punish Venezuela in the same manner, triggering a game of numbers between Caracas and Washington in the months leading up to the GA.

“They are working their way to gather the numbers, and we are also working our way. And the majority of the world recognizes that if that procedure succeeds [with Venezuela], it could be applied to anyone else as well,” Moncada said to The Grayzone in April.

“They even dared to send their own vice president to announce the action,” Moncada noted. “Nobody [sends] that kind of high-level presence just to do nothing. They are going to do it. And we’re battling. Battling meaning campaigning. We are talking, persuading, convincing all the world [to support us], and we are right now pretty sure that they [the US] don’t have the numbers.”

The diplomatic campaign led by Moncada and his team in New York paid off. Six months later, the US and its allies were forced to take the walk of shame out of the UNGA hall, revealing themselves as representatives of a global minority.

‘In this world today, the sense of sovereignty and the sense of independence is very strong’

Pimentel told The Grayzone that Venezuela’s UN delegation was “used to” such behavior, “because all year in different UN meetings, when Venezuela speaks, some of these countries led by the US, normally leave the room.”

“This is not a problem — we didn’t want them to be there anyway,” Pimentel added. “The defeat was a huge, huge defeat. They couldn’t achieve what they wanted to do.”

The US decision not to challenge Venezuelan Vice President Delcy Rodríguez’s right to address the session meant Washington knew such a vote would only result in failure — once and for all exposing the international defeat of Trump’s coup attempt.

“Clearly they underestimated all the work that the diplomats of Venezuela have been doing in regards to the situation we are facing and the threat they were trying to impose on us in the United Nations,” Pimentel said of Washington and its allies.

He added, “But the most important thing was not even that… The majority of [UN] countries clearly understand what the US is trying to do in Venezuela and they cannot support it, because they know that today it is Venezuela, and tomorrow it can be any one of them.”

Pimentel said his team received information that the US and its allies had issued a series of threats against countries all over the world in order to pressure them into supporting their efforts to remove Venezuela from the UN. The warnings included vows to withdraw aid programs or implement sanctions as punishment for disobeying Washington’s orders.

“But they couldn’t change even one vote,” Pimentel said, “because in this world today, the sense of sovereignty and the sense of independence is very strong, very strong. Sadly not in lots of Latin American countries, but in Africa, [that sense is] very strong.”

Africa, unbowed

As Venezuela’s vice minister for Africa, Yuri Pimentel highlighted the importance of the continent’s support for his country on the international stage.

African countries account for 54 UN recognized states, about one-third of the group’s membership.

While the United States touts the fact that it has pressured 54 countries around the world into recognizing Guaidó, the African continent has remained unified in its rejection of Washington’s coup attempt in Venezuela.

“The relations of the Bolivarian Revolution with the African continent is very strong, and it’s not [something that began] two days ago,” Pimentel stressed. “Since the beginning of the revolution, late President, Commander Hugo Chávez, always told us that we had to strengthen relations with Africa.”

“He used to tell us: ‘Africa is not just another continent; Africa is mother Africa, and we have to work very closely with them,’” Pimentel said.

According to Pimentel, at the beginning of the country’s Bolivarian Revolution in 1998, Venezuela only had diplomatic relations with around 20 African countries. Today, that number is 55.

“I speak with about 55 [nations], even though one of them is not recognized in the United Nations, because we recognize the Western Sahara as an independent country,” he explained.

Among Venezuela’s strongest allies on the continent is South Africa, the industrial hub of the region. In February, the South African Development Community (SADC) released a statement “[noting] with concern the attempts by the leaders of some countries to interfere in the affairs and sovereignty of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.”

SADC, which is comprised of 16 African member states, characterized efforts to recognize Guaidó as Venezuela’s president as “violations of the principles of International Law.”

The spirit of unity between Venezuela and African nations was on display during the 74th UNGA meeting when Namibia’s President Hage Geingob even used his time speaking before international dignitaries to offer support for Venezuela’s elected government.

“We also extend our solidarity to the government and people of Venezuela and commend the mediation efforts [undertaken] by the kingdom of Norway,” President Geingob announced after calling for an end to the economic blockade of Cuba and sanctions targeting Zimbabwe.

Many African nations were also in attendance when, on the sidelines of the GA, Venezuela led its last meeting as chair of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), the UN’s largest member organization.

Around 100 countries attended the session, the first of its kind held since high-level diplomats representing NAM member states gathered in Caracas to participate in the group’s ministerial conference this July.

As documented by this reporter at the time, the ministerial summit saw NAM’s 120 member states unanimously affirm support for the government of Nicolás Maduro, signaling Venezuela would indeed defeat US efforts to delegitimize it with in the hall of the UN General Assembly.

An opposition spy in the room, accredited by US-allied governments

During the NAM session at the UNGA, a member of Venezuela’s US-backed opposition materialized in the back of the hall. This reporter observed him taking notes and photographing delegates as they addressed the room.

As he snapped pictures of speakers representing South Africa and India, the man seemed to be monitoring the meeting in order to estimate how many delegations would vote in support of Venezuela if the US were to call for a vote on the country’s credentials during Vice President Rodríguez’s address scheduled for the following day.

The man, who later identified himself as “Claudio”, was recognized by this reporter after having interacted with her during a pro-opposition event held by the Atlantic Council, NATO’s semi-official think tank in Washington, earlier in the week.

The following day, during Venezuela’s address before the UNGA, “Claudio” was seen sitting with the Honduran delegation. Beside him was a man named Diego Arria, a pre-revolution era Venezuelan diplomat who once represented his country at the United Nations.

Arria filed charges accusing late President Hugo Chávez of crimes against humanity at the International Criminal Court in 2011, one year after Venezuela’s government moved to expropriate his private ranch.

“Claudio”, Arria, and other members of Venezuela’s US-backed opposition, including Guaidó’s US envoy Carlos Vecchio, were granted credentials to this year’s UNGA summit by US-allied countries such as Honduras, Colombia, and Brazil — a move which Pimentel says should disturb the populations of those countries.

“This is really incredible, how some countries, by US instructions, agreed to accredit some Venezuelan opposition members in their delegations,” Pimentel remarked.

He said their decisions demonstrated “the conspiracy against Venezuela’s people,” adding, “they don’t respect any rule, they don’t respect any law.”

One member of the Venezuelan delegation, Gessy González, tweeted a photo of Arria and Claudio seated behind the “Honduras” placard, juxtaposed against an image of Venezuelan Vice President Delcy Rodríguez, UN Ambassador Samuel Moncada, and Foreign Minister Jorge Arreaza smiling proudly in Venezuela’s seat.

“For those who had any doubt about who represents Venezuela, here is its true delegation to the UNGA, while on the other hand we see lackeys of the opposition shaming the positions of other countries,” González commented.

“They are wandering like ghosts at the United Nations,” Foreign Minister Arreaza said of the opposition figures while speaking with reporters. “They are wandering around with credentials through the missions of other countries. It’s the most absurd thing. Absolute desperation.”

Still, Pimentel asserted, “the only real representation of Venezuela, and it was clear for the majority of the United Nations countries [to see], was the [delegation] sent by President Nicolás Maduro. We are very glad for that — it was a total defeat for the US and their puppets in the Latin American region.”

Even mainstream outlets like The Atlantic conceded that the US effort had failed. The typically pro-opposition magazine reported, “inside the United Nations, where it retains Venezuela’s seat, the Maduro government racked up victories.”

The Atlantic described Foreign Minister Arreaza as having “strutted through the halls, embracing friendly dignitaries while bashing Trump’s hypocritical approach to sovereignty and the ‘parallel government’ that ‘nobody invited’ circling the UN.”

One of the UNGA’s most memorable moments arrived when photos began circulating on social media of Venezuelan delegate Daniela Rodriguez sitting through US President Donald Trump’s tirade against her government with her eyes firmly affixed on a biography of Latin America’s anti-colonial liberator Simón Bolívar.

“Reading Bolívar while Trump gives his xenophobic and fascist speech,” Rodriguez wrote on her personal Instagram account. “Long live anti-imperialist Venezuela.”

Even staunchly anti-Maduro corporate media outlets had to pay attention. “Unamused Venezuelan Delegate Reads A Book During Trump’s UN Speech,” read a headline in the Huffington Post.

Despite the bullying and bluster out of Washington, the UN demonstrated its continued independence by defending the sovereignty of a member state under ferocious attack by a global superpower.

Meanwhile, Venezuela’s delegation showcased its creativity, stealing the spotlight from Trump to use the forum as a platform to promote its anti-imperialist values.

Posted in USA, VenezuelaComments Off on How Venezuela defeated Washington’s coup attempt at the United Nations

U.S. and Turkey out of Syria — No to the NATO invasion!

By Party for Socialism and Liberation

The Turkish invasion and bombardment of northern Syria is patently illegal and must be opposed. So too is the U.S. military occupation of Syria. The sovereign government of Syria has not invited U.S. or Turkish troops into its country. Rather it has condemned their presence as a violation of its sovereignty and international law. In just the first day of this operation, dozens of civilians have reportedly been killed and tens of thousands displaced.

That Trump’s Democratic Party opponents and his Republican Party supporters are condemning his announcement of a “pullout of US troops from Syria” is testament to the fact that the entire U.S. political establishment is thoroughly imbued with imperialist ideology. But Trump is not pulling the troops out of Syria. They are only being removed 20 miles south so that a Turkish military incursion can negate the possibility of the formation of a Kurdish-governed zone, be it in the form of an independent state or as an autonomous region within Syria.

The Pentagon will, for the sake of damage control, distance themselves from the Turkish invasion, and Trump will deny he gave Erdogan the green light. But there is no doubt that this was coordinated. In essence one NATO power has turned over military control of a strip of northern Syria to another NATO ally. 

But it is not theirs to give. Neither the U.S. nor Turkey have any right to be in Syria. Nearly all the mainstream opposition to Trump and the Turkish invasion is obscuring this central fact. 

From Ilhan Omar to Mitch McConnell, MSNBC to National Review, all are now pounding away at Trump for leaving an opening in Syria to “enemy states” — implying the far-flung U.S. Empire is a force for good and stability, with unlimited global police powers and exempt from international law. Even some of those who said “Bring the Troops Home” for Iraq and Afghanistan now find themselves echoing the neo-conservative talking points, defending a long-term illegal occupation of northern Syria in the name of “protecting our allies.” 

This type of struggle against Trump is not being waged on an anti-war or progressive basis. The ruling-class argument is not that Trump is too much of a militarist or imperialist but rather that he often doesn’t follow through with his tough talk. At the United Nations two weeks ago, Trump delivered one of the most bellicose speeches ever given to that body — an incredible display of swaggering, colonial arrogance, contemptuous of the rest of the world and threatening devastation to those who resist. But instead of making a big deal about this, the “liberal” New York Times has goaded Trump with a series of articles about how he “speaks loudly and carries a small stick.” Particularly upsetting to them is that he called off the Iran strikes this summer — making the spectacular claim that not bombing Iran has destabilized the region. 

Erdogan and Trump. Public domain.

Erdogan and Trump. Public domain.

At the top echelons of the U.S. ruling class, the problem with Trump is not that he is too much of a militarist — or alternately, that he’s too soft. It is that he is too unreliable, unpredictable and self-motivated to safeguard the Empire, and its system of alliances that they have carefully constructed over the last 70 years. For them, safeguarding these interests is the real job description of the President, and he is failing at it. They might even take him out if he wreaks more damage. 

The anti-war movement must, by contrast, denounce Trump on a completely different basis. We must say that Trump, while giving voice to the popular sentiment to end the “forever wars,” is in fact lying. He is not pulling U.S. troops out of Syria — only pulling them away from a 20-mile strip so as to cynically deliver the territory to Erdogan. Trump tanked the peace talks at the last second to end the Afghanistan war — apparently caving to those like Pompeo, Pence and Bolton who advised him to do so. On North Korea, Trump has provided spectacle but nothing of substance; the occupation of southern Korea continues, along with the deployment of weapons systems, the war games and illegal sanctions. For all the talk about Ukraine, few are pondering the fact that Trump did what Obama cautiously refused to do: to deliver the Javelin anti-tank missile system to that far-right country, which will only deepen the bloody quagmire in the east and could lead to dangerous direct war with Russia. Trump has dramatically increased the attacks on Cuba, Venezuela and Nicaragua with punishing sanctions that have choked off these countries’ access to international trade — blatant economic warfare to which the “liberal” opposition have hardly batted an eye.

Is there another solution in Syria? The Syrian government has condemned the Turkish invasion and promised to, alongside the SDF/YPG, jointly defend the country’s sovereign territory. There is reportedly a consistent line of communication between the two forces; the stipulations and status of a deeper agreement are unknown at the time of this writing. But such a realignment would make a huge difference in the military and political relationship of forces. The two forces have a complicated relationship over the last eight years (and prior) — sometimes opposing each other, and at other times working together. A new agreement of this nature would presumably endanger the ongoing U.S.-SDF relationship in other parts of the northeast, outside of the 20-mile strip. As of now the Kurdish-led military forces appear to be signaling a desire to maintain an alliance with U.S. military forces in the rest of northern Syria.The road to justice for Kurdish people or any minority people cannot be through a military alliance with predatory imperialism. U.S. imperialism is an obstacle to peace and self-determination and not its agent.

Despite the sizable territory they control, Kurdish forces have been wrongly excluded from the Astana peace process which aims to produce a new Syrian constitution. Notably, they have been excluded not by Russia, Iran or the Syrian government but by Turkey, who refused to participate or allow the Free Syrian Army to participate, if the SDF/YPG were present. The only other proposal to head off a larger confrontation is Russia’s idea of reviving the 1998 Adana Accord between Syria and Turkey. But this is highly unlikely, as it would require Turkey, the largest sponsor of terrorism and mercenaries in the Syrian conflict to normalize its relations with the Syrian government. It would likewise require, as the original 1998 agreement stipulated, that the Syrian government would use its own military to work jointly with Turkey to contain the Kurdish national movement and it could still give Turkey a right to cross the border. 

So at this point, the options are for the SDF/YPG to fight alone against a much larger Turkish military, or to make an agreement with the Syrian government. The SDF/YPG is sending mixed signals at the moment. As stated above, some statements that appeared in the media indicate that these forces may be seeking to maintain an alliance with the U.S. further away from the border area in northern Syria. Such a long-term alliance with U.S. imperialism, which has illegally occupied the region and whose latest betrayal follows a century of betrayals, cannot be politically justified, and is clearly being withdrawn already by the Trump administration. 

The SDF/YPG forces have in prior interviews invoked the spirit of the U.S.-Soviet military alliance against the Nazis to explain the temporary confluence of interests with the U.S. military. This was the logic behind the call for U.S. air support to prevent ISIS from capturing and wiping out a Kurdish city of Kobane. But ISIS is largely defeated, and in the long run, everyone has understood that at some point the U.S. forces would have to leave and the Syrian government would remain. Moreover, no one seriously believes that the U.S. would ever fight a NATO ally, Turkey, in defense of the Kurdish people. The relationship of forces was bound to come to this sooner or later, as the SDF/YPG has long admitted in interviews. They have wanted to delay the arrival of that day, and were undoubtedly surprised that it had come in such a sudden and uncoordinated way. 

The truth is that most of the Western forces, conservative and liberal, who are crying crocodile tears over the Kurdish suffering care only about the projection of U.S. military power in Syria for geopolitical reasons. When the YPG fought in Aleppo alongside the Syrian government and against the Free Syrian Army and Al-Qaeda forces, these same Western forces cried out #SaveAleppo. When Turkey invaded Afrin and ethnically cleansed it of Kurds last year, they said nothing because Afrin was not part of U.S.-controlled territory. When Erdogan represses the Kurdish people in Turkey, the U.S. government sells him more weapons to do so — without objection from the establishment here. If the SDF were to now ally with the Syrian government as a matter of self-defense against the Turkish invasion, where would Western liberal and conservative sentiment then stand? They would stand with Turkey — a NATO ally — and the Free Syrian Army-related mercenary forces, just as they have stood with them over the last eight years.

Erdogan’s dream of a neo-Ottoman Empire has already been dashed. His goal of overthrowing the Syrian government has been defeated, after causing great suffering for the Syrian people, an explosion of fundamentalist death squads and groups like ISIS and a massive refugee crisis. With his star fading at home, Erdogan — who at one point was maneuvering as a peacemaker on the Kurdish question — has now turned to an all-out chauvinist crusade against the Kurdish minority within Turkey and across the border. He will meet considerable resistance in Syrian Kurdistan on one side while progressive workers in Turkey are already mobilizing at home against this criminal and dangerous adventure.  

From the United States, our message is clear: Down with the Turkish invasion! U.S. and Turkey out of Syria and the Middle East! 

Posted in USA, Middle East, Syria, TurkeyComments Off on U.S. and Turkey out of Syria — No to the NATO invasion!

International human rights activists call for an investigation into the torture of the occupation of the Arab prisoner

By: Sammi Ibrahem,Sr

22

Geneva – Independent human rights experts in Geneva called on the Nazi illegal occupation of Palestine to investigate reports of torture of Palestinian Samer al-Arbeed during interrogation in prison.

The statement, which was signed jointly on Friday, “We express our deep concern about the torture or ill-treatment of Arbeed during his interrogation,” and demanded the Nazi regime of “Israel” to conduct an “impartial and immediate criminal investigation.”

The experts added in their statement: “ We received information indicating the arrest of Samer al-Arbeed, in front of his workplace in Ramallah on September 25, 2019, on suspicion of involvement in planting an explosive device that exploded near the settlement of “ Dolev ” in the occupied West Bank in August 2019, killing an Israeli Her father and brother were injured. “

The statement pointed out that Arbeed was admitted to a hospital in a critical condition two days after his arrest, and shows signs of broken ribs and marks on his body and kidney failure, and is still in the hospital where he needs to perform a continuous dialysis. He was prevented from seeing his lawyer.

“Israel should review its laws and practices to comply with international obligations that prohibit torture in all its forms. Preventing torture protects everyone without exception, including those suspected of crimes,” the statement said.

If the allegations were true, they were concerned that there was a difference between Israeli laws and legislation on the one hand and enforcement on the other. “We are deeply concerned about the significant gap between Israeli legislation and its practices on the ground,” they said.

“This may constitute a breach of the pledges on the total prohibition of all forms of torture or any cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, including the use of so-called interrogation procedures. The justifications cannot be accepted.”

In 1993, the illegal Nazi of Palestine occupation formally signed the UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment as a reference to the UN and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.

Posted in Palestine Affairs, ZIO-NAZI, Human RightsComments Off on International human rights activists call for an investigation into the torture of the occupation of the Arab prisoner

Testimony of Ex-Trump Aide Exposes Mulvaney Role in Coordinating Giuliani’s “Rogue Operation” in Ukraine

“The truth will keep coming out. And Trump cannot stop it.”

by: Jake Johnson

Acting chief of staff Mick Mulvaney listens as President Donald Trump speaks during a signing ceremony in the Oval Office at the White House on Monday, July 12, 2019 in Washington, D.C. (Photo: Jabin Botsford/The Washington Post via Getty Images)

During nearly 10 hours of testimony to House impeachment investigators behind closed doors Monday, President Donald Trump’s former top Russia adviser Fiona Hill alleged that acting chief of staff Mick Mulvaney, former ambassador to the European Union Gordon Sondland, and the president’s personal lawyer Rudy Giuliani were running a “rogue operation” in Ukraine that sought to bypass official channels to benefit Trump politically.

Hill’s testimony for the first time directed serious attention to the key role Mulvaney played in Trump’s months-long attempt to pressure Ukraine to investigate former Vice President Joe Biden, an effort that led House Democrats to launch an impeachment inquiry last month.

“Rudy Giuliani has clearly been a leading force for the administration in defining a shadow foreign policy in Ukraine.”
—Rep. Jamie Raskin

During her deposition, according to the Wall Street Journal, Hill “detailed a July 10 meeting she attended with senior Ukrainian officials, then-national security adviser John Bolton, and other U.S. officials in which the U.S. ambassador to the European Union, Gordon Sondland, raised the issue of the investigations” into Biden.

“Both Ms. Hill and Mr. Bolton left the meeting with concerns about what had transpired, and Ms. Hill said Mr. Bolton instructed her to talk to [National Security Council] lawyer John Eisenberg,” the Journal reported. “Mr. Sondland also appeared to be coordinating his efforts with acting White House chief of staff Mick Mulvaney.”

Mulvaney’s role in Trump’s push for a Biden probe in Ukraine was first revealed last month, when reports emerged that the U.S. president ordered Mulvaney—who also runs the Office of Management and Budget—to put a hold on around $400 million in military aid to Ukraine.

According to text messages released by House Democrats earlier this month, top Ukraine diplomat Bill Taylor raised alarm about Trump’s decision to withhold assistance in an apparent bid to extract political favors from the Ukrainian government.

Sam Stein@samstein

For the first real time, some heat being put on Mulvaney (who largely escaped a lot of scrutiny even after it was reported that the he was involved in holding up the funding) https://twitter.com/peterbakernyt/status/1183936219631280128 …Peter Baker@peterbakernytBreaking: Bolton instructed aide to report Giuliani pressure campaign to White House lawyer. “I am not part of whatever drug deal Rudy and Mulvaney are cooking up,” Bolton said, according to testimony to House investigators. @npfandos https://www.nytimes.com/2019/10/14/us/politics/who-is-fiona-hill.html?action=click&module=Top%20Stories&pgtype=Homepage …2,2694:01 AM – Oct 15, 2019

As the New York Times reported Monday night, Bolton, who departed the White House last month, likened Sondland and Mulvaney’s secretive activities to a “drug deal” and attempted to distance himself from the officials’ scheming.

“I am not part of whatever drug deal Sondland and Mulvaney are cooking up,” Bolton instructed Hill to tell White House lawyers, according to the Times, which cited two people who attended Hill’s deposition.

While critics were quick to caution against hailing Bolton—an architect of the catastrophic and illegal invasion of Iraq—as any kind of hero, they said his private objections lay bare the flagrant illegality of the White House’s shadow operation in Ukraine.

Stephen Miles@SPMiles42

Just a reminder, John Bolton is closer to being a war criminal than a hero. Whatever he did or said in private, he hasn’t done or said anything publicly. Nor did he, when he was in a position to do so, actually do anything to stop the crime he saw. He just tried to cover his ass.1024:37 AM – Oct 15, 2019

Robert Murphy@robertemilem

John Bolton is a scummy scumbag who was a key architect of the plot to lie to the country about Saddam having WMD. But Trump, Guiliani, and Mulvaney’s drug deal was so illegal and so immoral that it offended even Bolton’s sense of right and wrong. This is where we are now.2844:15 AM – Oct 15, 2019

Following Hill’s testimony, Rep. Jamie Raskin (D-Md.) told reporters that her deposition confirmed “Rudy Giuliani has clearly been a leading force for the administration in defining a shadow foreign policy in Ukraine.”

As the Times reported,

Ms. Hill, the senior director for European and Russian affairs, testified that Mr. Giuliani and his allies circumvented the usual national security process to run their own foreign policy efforts, leaving the president’s official advisers aware of the rogue operation yet powerless to stop it.

At one point, she confronted Mr. Sondland, who had inserted himself into dealings with Ukraine even though it was not part of his official portfolio, according to the people informed about Ms. Hill’s testimony.

He told her that he was in charge of Ukraine, a moment she compared to Secretary of State Alexander M. Haig Jr.’s declaration that he was in charge after the Ronald Reagan assassination attempt, according to those who heard the testimony.

According to whom, she asked.

The president, he answered.

Thanking Hill for her detailed testimony, Rep. Ted Lieu (D-Calif.) tweeted Monday night, “The truth will keep coming out. And Trump cannot stop it.”

Posted in USA, UkraineComments Off on Testimony of Ex-Trump Aide Exposes Mulvaney Role in Coordinating Giuliani’s “Rogue Operation” in Ukraine

Haiti Enters its 5th Week of Protests Against President

Protesters march during a demonstration called by artists to demand the resignation of Jovenel Moise, in the streets of Port-au-Prince.

by Dr. Jack Rasmus

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Demonstrations were held in cities and towns a day after tens of thousands of people marched peacefully in the capital.

Haiti’s President Jovenel Moise is facing the fifth week of protests calling for his resignation as several roads were blocked Monday across the country, after leaders from the opposition announced they will not give up until the president’s departure.

RELATED:  Thousands of People Join Peaceful Protest Called by Artists in Haiti

Demonstrations were held in cities and towns a day after tens of thousands of people marched peacefully in the capital Port-au-Prince in a protest planned by artists.

Other sectors of the society including business groups, religious leaders and human rights organizations joined the protests urging for Moise to step down amid outrage over the situation in a country marked by high indices of hunger, poverty, unemployment, gang wars, crime, rape of women and children, the closure of schools and hospitals countrywide, and the shortages of fuel and food.

“I think it’s time that everyone understands that things cannot continue like this anymore,” businessman Anthony Bennett who participated in the march told reporters. “Everybody is just hoping to get a visa to run away. …The Haitian population has had enough.”

Police fired tear gas at a group of people in downtown Port-au-Prince. Patrickson Monteau who leads the protests in the zone was among the people targeted by the security forces. 

He said nothing will be accepted but Moise’s resignation, adding he was encouraged by Sunday’s mass demonstration to which even the bourgeoisie participated.

“That gave us even more confidence,” Monteau said, adding that “there’s a lot of misery in Haiti … the people are fed up with this situation.”

The country’s former premier Evans Paul who is close to Moise told Monday the Associated Press that the government is expecting to meet with leaders from the civil society and the opposition, which firmly has rejected Moise’s call for unity and dialogue.

Over the past four weeks, Haiti has experienced a situation of tension marked by violent demonstrations and police repressions in response to fuel shortages and government corruption amidst long-term poverty.

The lack of gasoline has weighed even heavier on citizens and residents of the highly impoverished country as hunger and insecurity grow.  

Since February, Haiti has been the scene of massive and deadly protests by demonstrators demanding the resignation of Moise and his administration amid major corruption allegations. 

When the country was already dealing with a tense economic crisis and high inflation, a report was published accusing President Moise and dozens of officials of having embezzled US$2 billion from Petrocaribe, the cut-price-oil aid program that Venezuela offered to several Caribbean countries, among them Haiti. 

The funds were meant to finance infrastructure development along with health, education and social programs across the impoverished nation. The president has since refused to step down and Congress has been three-times unable to push forward his resignation.

The Carribean country of 11 million people has been struggling for decades to overcome extreme poverty along with widespread corruption.

These last ten years were particularly harsh for Haiti, which went through one of the world’s deadliest earthquakes in 2010, an epidemic of cholera, brought in accidentally by United Nations peacekeepers, and Hurricane Matthew in October 2016.

Posted in HaitiComments Off on Haiti Enters its 5th Week of Protests Against President

Venezuela Denounces To UNESCO Impacts Of Illegal US Blockade

The Venezuelan ambassador denounced the impacts of the illegal blockade imposed by the U.S.

Venezuelan Ambassador to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Hector Constant denounced Monday the impacts of the illegal economic, financial, and commercial blockade imposed by the United States on the South American nation.

RELATED: Venezuela Salutes Ecuadorean People For 883 Revocation

Constant denounced that illegal economic measures prevent Venezuela’s development.”It affects the country’s efforts to achieve the Sustainable Development objectives of the U.N. Agenda 2023,” he added.

Confirming the veracity of his arguments, the Venezuelan diplomat recalled that the effects generated by the illegal blockade were recognized in a recent report by the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Negative Repercussions of Unilateral Coercive Measures on the enjoyment of Human Rights, Idriss Jazairy.

Venezuela en la UNESCO@delevenezunesco

El bloqueo ilegal y descarado de la administración Trump pretende desmoralizar nuestros valores. Pero tenemos una cultura de resistencia que sabrá vencer la hegemonía
¡Viva el gentilicio venezolano!
¡Viva la sonrisa de nuestra infancia!
¡Viva Venezuela! #TrumpDesbloqueaVenezuela

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Ver imagen en Twitter

10812:34 – 7 ago. 2019Información y privacidad de Twitter Ads189 personas están hablando de esto

The illegal and brazen blockade of the Trump administration is intended to demoralize our values. But we have a culture of resistance that will overcome hegemony.
 

“We are living in a dangerous time for multilateralism. While the advance of the human genius invites us to think about artificial intelligence, the crudity of international reality means that many of the countries present here must concentrate their efforts on an exercise of survival and just defense of their sovereignty,” said the Venezuelan diplomat.

He added that, in the face of the impossibility of overthrowing his country, the White House is betting on gradually curtailing the services that Venezuelans have acquired universally.

“As a curious historical paradox, those who wish to impose such dismay on us are the same ones who invade and plunder, destroying entire schools and cultures with the contempt of those who only know how to propagate ignorance,” the Ambassador concluded.

Posted in VenezuelaComments Off on Venezuela Denounces To UNESCO Impacts Of Illegal US Blockade

Interference by Unnamed “Foreign Powers” in Canada’s Elections? The Invasion of “America’s Backyard”

By Prof Michel Chossudovsky

Global Research,

This article addresses the alleged interference of unnamed “foreign powers” as well as the historical process of US interference, including the formulation of an outright US military Invasion of Canada formulated in the 1930s.

In 1934, War Plan Red was amended to authorize the immediate first use of poison gas against Canadians and to use strategic bombing to destroy Halifax if it could not be captured.  …  

“In August 1935, the US held its largest peacetime military manoeuvres in history, with 36,000 troops converging at the Canadian border south of Ottawa, and another 15,000 held in reserve in Pennsylvania. (February 11-13, 1935, hearings of the Committee on Military Affairs, House of Representatives, on Air Defense Bases (H.R. 6621 and H.R. 4130. This testimony was to have been secret but was published by mistake. See the New York Times, May 1, 1935, p. 1.

Scroll down for details

***

Are the Russians coming to disrupt our elections scheduled for October 21st? Back in July, Canada’s Minister of Democratic Institutions Karina Gould  intimated that Canada’s 2019 elections could be the target of interference by foreign powers.

While Ottawa did not explicitly point its finger at the Kremlin, the official statement and media reports intimated that it could be Russia (and possibly China) because Vladimir Putin had allegedly interfered in favor of Donald Trump in the 2016 US presidential elections.  And apparently Moscow had also intervened in the French elections.

The Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) and the RCMP were said to be “monitoring foreign threat activity in Canada and around the world”.“At this time, we haven’t seen direct threats to the 2019 general election,” the official said.

CSIS continues to observe hostile foreign actors “taking steps to position themselves to clandestinely influence, promote or discredit certain messages, candidates or groups during the campaign,” the official added. (CBC, July 09, 2019)

Three months prior to the October 2019 Elections,  the Trudeau government issued a “Cabinet Directive on the Critical Election Incident Public Protocol” (CEIPP) to “protect Canada’s Democratic Institutions”  against unnamed foreign powers.

The Cabinet Directive on the Critical Election Incident Public Protocol sets out the ministers’ expectations with respect to the general directions and the principles to guide the process for informing the public during the writ period of an incident that threatens Canada’s ability to have a free and fair election. Consult the document here

In the event of a threat by a foreign power to disrupt the election, a top level national security panel “will inform the prime minister”,  (see Global News, July 9, 2019)

Russia Dirty Tricks? 

With some exceptions, Canada’s media has remained silent on the matter. According to a recent “authoritative”  CTV  report  the Kremlin is once again up to “Dirty Tricks”, intent upon manipulating Canada’s elections. Which party are they going to support?In an attempt to stop foreign interference during the 2019 Canadian federal election, Canada’s top security agencies are monitoring the web 24/7. Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS), works hand in hand with a largely secret organization, Communication Security Establishment (CSE), …

….  Former Russian troll Vitaly Bespalov thinks the Russians have already come up with new ways to meddle with our political views. After being implicated for interfering in the 2016 U.S. presidential campaign, they have to be more creative as Canadians get ready to go to the polls.

“So now I think they are going to invent some other schemes of influencing the audience. It will be done in a different way. No need to look for trolls on Facebook, they will find a new way.”

Intervention of an Unnamed Foreign Power: The United States of America

There is ample of evidence of foreign interference by an “unnamed foreign power”, which has barely been mentioned in the course of the election campaign.

In Canada’s history, as well as during the mandate of the Justin Trudeau’s government, the United States of America has intervened in what is euphemistically called  “America’s Backyard”, i.e. a nation state inside America’s sphere of influence.

And I am not referring to former president Obama’s recent statement in support for Justin Trudeau.

Washington is on record of having interfered in elections  in 45 countries according to political scientist Dov H. Levin of Carnegie Mellon University.  

While Canada is not mentioned in Don H Levin’s study, the history of US interference in Canada internal affairs goes way beyond the process of meddling in Canadian elections.

Canadians farmers are acutely aware of how the Trump administration in 2017 imposed without real negotiation, a complete overhaul of trade and investment relations leading to the formation of the so-call United States, Mexico, Canada USMCA trade agreement which is intended to replace NAFTA.

Politicians in the Trudeau government were coopted. The economic impacts of this agreement on Canada’s economy are potentially devastating.

But there is much more in our history which has a direct bearing on national sovereignty and democracy in Canada.

America’s Plan to Invade Canada

While the US plan to Annex Canada in 1866 (a de facto act of war formulated as a Bill by the US Congress) is on record, most Canadians are unaware that the US in the late 1920s had formulated a detailed plan to invade Canada, entitled “Joint Army and Navy Basic War Plan — Red”. The plan was approved by the US War Department under the presidency of Herbert Hoover in 1930.

It was updated in 1934 and 1935 during the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt. It was withdrawn in 1939 following the outbreak of the Second World War. (The full text of the 1935 Invasion Plan is in Annex)

This insidious military agenda which was intent on ultimately disabling the British Empire, involved the bombings of four major cities: Vancouver, Montreal, Quebec City and Halifax.

And guess who was assigned to oversee these bombings: General Douglas MacArthur (image left, 1940s), who was US Army chief of staff (1930-37). MacArthur’s mandate coincided with  the release of the 1930 and 1935 invasion plan of Canada. As we recall MacArthur was subsequently put in charge of leading the bombing raids against Japan during World War II. (See Floyd Rudman)

The 1935 plan to invade Canada consisted of a 94-page document “with the word SECRET stamped on the cover. It had been formulated over a period of over five years (See full text in Annex).

In February 1935, the [US] War Department arranged a Congressional appropriation of $57 million dollars to build three border air bases for the purposes of pre-emptive surprise attacks on Canadian air fields. The base in the Great Lakes region was to be camouflaged as a civilian airport and was to “be capable of dominating the industrial heart of Canada, the Ontario Peninsula” (from p. 61 of the February 11-13, 1935, hearings of the Committee on Military Affairs, House of Representatives, on Air Defense Bases (H.R. 6621 and H.R. 4130). This testimony was to have been secret but was published by mistake. See the New York Times, May 1, 1935, p. 1.

In August 1935, the US held its largest peacetime military manoeuvres in history, with 36,000 troops converging at the Canadian border south of Ottawa, and another 15,000 held in reserve in Pennsylvania. The war game scenario was a US motorized invasion of Canada, with the defending forces initially repulsing the invading Blue forces, but eventually to lose “outnumbered and outgunned” when Blue reinforcements arrive. This according to the Army’s pamphlet “Souvenir of of the First Army Maneuvers: The Greatest Peace Time Event in US History” (p.2). ( Professor F.W. Rudmin Queen’s University Kingston, Ontario, Comments on “War Plan Red”,

One of the updates to the 1930 invasion plan was the use of chemical weapons against civilians:

In 1934, War Plan Red was amended to authorize the immediate first use of poison gas against Canadians and to use strategic bombing to destroy Halifax if it could not be captured.” (Ibid)

It is worth noting that in the course of World War II,  a decision was taken by the War Department to retain the invasion plan on the books. War Plan Red was declassified in 1974.

Raiding the Icebox. How the US Media Trivializes History

The Washington Post, which casually dismissed the historical significance of “Joint Army and Navy Basic War Plan — Red”, nonetheless acknowledged the aggressive nature of the proposed military endeavor:

“A bold plan, a bodacious plan, a step-by-step plan to invade, seize and annex our neighbor to the north. …First, we send a joint Army-Navy overseas force to capture the port city of Halifax, cutting the Canadians off from their British allies.

Then we seize Canadian power plants near Niagara Falls, so they freeze in the dark.

Then the U.S. Army invades on three fronts — marching from Vermont to take Montreal and Quebec, charging out of North Dakota to grab the railroad center at Winnipeg, and storming out of the Midwest to capture the strategic nickel mines of Ontario.

Meanwhile, the U.S. Navy seizes the Great Lakes and blockades Canada’s Atlantic and Pacific ports.  … “(Raiding the Icebox; Behind Its Warm Front, the United States Made Cold Calculations to Subdue Canada, by Peter Carlson, Washington Post, 30 December 2005, emphasis added)

The original documents pertaining to the invasion of Canada including “War Plan Red” and “Defence Scheme No. 1.” are in the archives of the US Army War College in Carlisle, Pa.  (url link no longer functional)

The  plan is detailed. It involves both military as well an intelligence components. According to historian John Major “War, Plan Red” also consisted in “a series of possible pre-emptive American campaigns to invade Canada in several areas and occupy key ports and railways before British troops could provide reinforcement to the Canadians…”

Concluding Remarks Concerning US Interference

While the 1935 invasion of Canada Plan was never carried out, historically “the military threat of an invasion plan served to oblige Canada to ultimately surrender to US political and economic pressures.”

In recent history, this hegemonic objective was achieved in 2002 with the creation of US Northern Command (NorthCom).

Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld announced unilaterally that US Northern Command would have jurisdiction over the entire North American region. US Northern Command’s jurisdiction as outlined by the US DoD includes, in addition to the continental US, all of Canada, Mexico, as well as portions of the Caribbean, contiguous waters in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans up to 500 miles off the Mexican, US and Canadian coastlines as well as the Canadian Arctic.

Rumsfeld is said to have boasted that:

“NORTHCOM – with all of North America as its geographic command – ‘is part of the greatest transformation of the Unified Command Plan [UCP] since its inception in 1947.’”

NorthCom’s stated mandate is to “provide a necessary focus for [continental] aerospace, land and sea defenses, and critical support for [the] nation’s civil authorities in times of national need.”(Canada-US Relations – Defense Partnership – July 2003, Canadian American Strategic Review (CASR),


ANNEXThe complete text of the 1935 Invasion of Canada can be consulted here  (Introduction by Prof Floyd Rudmin, Queens University) See belowSee also Michel Chossudovsky, America’s Plan to Annex and Invade Canada and America’s Plan to Invade Canada US Invasion of Canada Plan  .Full-text reproduction of the 1935 plan for a US invasion of Canada prepared at the US Army War College, G-2 intelligence division, and submitted on December 18, 1935. .The following is a full-text reproduction of the 1935 plan for a US invasion of Canada prepared at the US Army War College, G-2 intelligence division, and submitted on December 18, 1935. This is the most recent declassified invasion plan available from the US archival sources. Centered pagination is that of the original document. .The spelling and punctuation of the original document are reproduced as in the original document, even when in error by present-day norms. This document was first identified by Richard Preston in his 1977 book, “The Defence of the Undefended Border: Planning for War in North America 1867-1939” (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.) .Preston’s reference citation (p. 277) identified this to be archived at the US Military History Collection, Carlisle Barracks, Pa., coded AWC 2-1936-8, G2, no. 19A. It was located by the US National Archives and supplied on microfilm. .

SUPPLEMENT NO. 3 TO REPORT OF COMMITTEE NO. 8 SUBJECT: CRITICAL AREAS OF CANADA AND APPROACHES THERETO _______________________________________________ . Prepared by: SUBCOMMITTEE NO. 3 Major Charles H. Jones, Infantry, Chairman. Lt. Col. H.W. Crawford, Engineers. I. Papers Accompanying. ___________________ 1. Bibliography. (Omitted, filed in Rec.Sec.) 2. List of Slides. ” 3. Appendices (1 and 2). ” 4. Annexes. (Incl. A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,K, and L) ” II. The Study Presented. ___________________ Determine under the geographical factor, the critical areas in Crimson (Canada) and the best approaches thereto for Blue. A critical area is assumed to be any area of such strategic importance to either belligerent that control thereof may have a material bearing on the out- come of the war. III. Facts bearing on the study. __________________________ 1. General Considerations: An area in Crimson territory may be of strategic importance from the viewpoint of tactical, economic, or political considerations. In the final analysis, however, critical areas must be largely determined in the light of Red’s probable line of action and Crimson’s contribution to that effort. 2. Geographical Features of Canada. a. Location and extent. The location and extent of the Dominion of _ Canada is shown on the Map herewith (see Exhibit A). It comprises the entire northern half of the the North American continent, excepting only Alaska and the coast of Labrador, a dependency of the colony of New- foundland. The principal political subdivisions are those located along the border of the United States. These from east to west are: (1) The Maritime Provinces: Prince Edward Island. Nova Scotia. New Brunswick. (2) Quebec. (3) Ontario. (4) The Prairie Provinces: Manitoba. Saskatchewan. Alberta. -41- (5) British Columbia. Newfoundland, while not a part of the Dominion of Canada, would undoubtedly collaborate in any Crimson effort. b. Topography. (Slide 14852) _ The great area in eastern Canada underlain by rocks of Precambrian age is known as the Canadian Shield. Its northern boundary crosses the Arctic archipelago; the eastern boundary lies beyond Baffin Island and Labrador, and reaches the depressed area occupied by the St. Lawrence, a short spur crossing this valley east of Lake Ontario to join the Adirondack Mountains of New York. The southern boundary runs from this spur west to Georgian Bay thence along the north shore of Lake Huron and Lake Superior, thence northwest from the Lake of the Woods to the western end of Lake Athabaska. Its average elevation does not exceed 1500 feet. The greatest known elevations are in the eastern part of Baffin Island and along the coast of northern Labrador. Peaks of the Torngat Mountains of Labrador have elevations of between 4000 and 5000 feet. The coast is one of the boldest and most rugged in the world, with many vertical cliffs rising 1000 to 2000 feet high. Occasional exceptions occur in which there are reliefs of several hundred feet, as in the hills along the north shore of Lake Huron and Lake Superior. The area is dotted with lakes, large and small, and of irregular outline. A lowland of considerable extent stretches for some distance into Ontario and Manitoba from Hudson Bay. Extending south and west form the Canadian Shield, between the Ap- palachian Mountains on the east and the Cordilleras on the west, lies the Great North American plain. The northeastern portion of this plain called the St. Lawrence lowlands occupies southern Ontario, south of a line ex- tending from Georgian Bay to the east end of Lake Ontario; eastern Ontario lying between the Ottawa and St. Lawrence rivers, and that part of Quebec lying adjacent to the St. Lawrence between Montreal and Quebec. The plain west of the Canadian Shield, known as the Interior Plains, stretches northward to the Arctic Ocean between a line approximately join- ing Lake Winnipeg and Lake Athabasca, Great Slave Lake and Great Bear Lake on the east, and the foothills of the Rocky Mountains on the west. That part of the St. Lawrence Lowlands lying in the eastern angle of Ontario, and in Quebec south of Montreal and extending down the St. Law- rence is comparatively flat and lies less than 500 feet above sea level. On the lower St. Lawrence it is greatly narrowed by the near approach of the Appalachian system to the Canadian Shield. The part lying adjacent to Lakes Ontario, Erie and Huron is of less even surface, has its greatest elevation of over 1700 feet south of Georgian Bay and slopes gently to the Great Lakes. The Interior Plains region is in general rolling country with broad undulations and a slope eastward and northward of a few feet per mile, descending from an elevation of 3000 to 5000 feet near the mountains on the west to less than 1000 feet at the eastern border. The rolling character of the area is relieved by several flat topped hills, by flat areas that formed the beds of extensive lakes, and by deep river valleys. The Appalachain and Arcadian regions occupy practically all that part of Canada lying east of the St. Lawrence, with the exception of the lowlands west of a line joining Quebec City and Lake Champlain. The Applachain region is a continuation into Quebec of three chains of the Applachain system of mountains. The most westerly of these ranges, the Green Mountains of Vermont, stretches northeast into the Gaspe peninsula, where it forms flat topped hills some 3000 feet high. The Acadian region, which includes -42- New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island is an alternation of upland with hills and ridges rising 2500 feet and higher. Adjacent to the Bay of Fundy is a series of ridges rising in places to 1200 feet. Between these two New Brunswick uplands, which converge toward the southwest is a lowland forming the whole eastern part of the province. This lowland ex- tends east to include Prince Edward Island, the western fringe of Cape Breton Island and the mainland of Nova Scotia north of the Cobequid moun- tains, which have an elevation of 800 to 1000 feet. South of the Cobequid Mountains lies a long narrow lowland stretching from Chedabucto Bay to Minas Basin, and along the Cornwallis Annapolis valley between North and South Mountains. South of this lowland is a highland sloping to the Atlantic Coast. The northern part of Cape Breton Island is a tableland 1200 feet high with its central part rising to an elevation of over 1700 feet. The Cordelleran region, a mountainous area bordering the Pacific extends from the United States through Canada into Alaska and embraces nearly all of British Columbia and Yukon and the western edge of Alberta and the Northwest Territories. The eastern part of the Cordillera is occu- pied by the Rocky Mountains, with peaks rising to 10,000 feet and 12,000 feet. They extend northwest and fall away towards the Liard River. The western part of the Cordillera is occupied by the Coast Range and the mountains of Vancouver and Queen Charlotte Islands. The Coast Range rises to heights of 7000 to 9000 feet. Between the Rocky Mountains and the Coast Range lies a vast plateau 3000 to 4000 feet high and cut by deep river valleys. 3. Population. According to the census of 1931, the total population on June 1, 1931 was 10,376,786, of whom 5,374,541 were males. The inhabited areas of the Dominion are essentially confined to a narrow strip along the United States boundary, generally south of the 56th parallel of latitude west of the Lake Winnipeg, and south of the 49th parallel of latitude east of Lake Superior. Approximately 10% of the total population are found in the Maritime provinces, 61% in Quebec and Ontario, 23% in the Prairie Provinces and 6% in British Columbia. Of the present population, 51.86% are of British descent, 28.22% French, and the remainder of widely scattered nativity. 4. Climate. The climate of southern Canada is comparable to that of the northern tier of the states of the United States. The west coast of British Columbia tempered by the Pacific Ocean is mild and humid. The prairie provinces generally experience extreme cold weather from November to March, with heavy snow fall. The climate of southern Ontario, the St. Lawrence Valley and the Maritime Provinces is much milder that that of the prairie provinces, but freezing temperatures are general between the end of November and the first of April, and the ground is usually covered with between one and three feet of snow. Any extensive military operations in Canada between November 1st and April 15th would be extremely difficult, if not impossible. 5. Communications. a. Railways. _ There are only two railway systems in Canada, both crossing Canada east and west from the Atlantic to the Pacific. These lines generally parallel the United States border, in some instances crossing through the United States. -43- (1) The Canadian national Railways system (See inclosure B) belonging to and operated by the government, has eastern terminals at Halifax, N.S., Portland, Maine (Grand Trunk), and through the Central Vermont, at Boston, New London and New York. Western terminals are Vancouver and Prince Rupert B.C. An extension from Cochrane, Ontario, to Moosonee, Ontario on James Bay, was completed by the Province of Ontario in July 1932, to connect with water routes to Churchill, Hudson Bay and with the northern route to Europe. (2) The Canadian Pacific system (see inclosure C) has its eastern terminus at Saint John, N.B. and it western terminus at Vancouver, B.C. As indicated by the systems maps, there are numerous branch lines serving the industrial and farming areas of the Dominion, and connecting lines ty- ing in with various railroads of the United States. From a military viewpoint, these railroads provide excellent trans- portation facilities for Blue, if invasion of Crimson is decided upon, and being located in close proximity to the border are, from the Crimson view- point, very liable to interruption. This is particularly true at Winnipeg some 60 miles north of Blues border, through which both transcontinental systems now pass. This fact probably encouraged Canada to construct the railroad from The Pass, Manitoba and develop the port at Churchill. Complete details concerning all railroads of Canada are contained in Appendix No. 1. b. Highways. _ In recent years Canada has greatly increased and improved her road con- struction and while there are enormous stretches of country, particularly in the northern portion of the Dominion, with few or no roads, the southern portion is well served with improved roads. A number of transcontinental motor roads are under construction or projected, the most important being the “Kings International Highway” from Montreal to Vancouver, via Ottawa, North Bay, Sudbury, Sault Ste. Marie, Winnipeg, MacLeod, Crow’s Nest Pass, Fernia and Cranbrook. Another highway is being constructed from Calgary to Vancouver. The principal roads in Ontario, Quebec and the Maritime Provinces are shown on Inclosure D, herewith. Roads in the Prairie Provinces and British Columbia are shown on inclosure E. The majority of improved roads are classified as gravel; macadam and concrete construction amounting to only 7870 miles out of a total of some 95,000 miles improved. Gravel roads will require extensive maintenance under heavy motor traffic, especially during the spring. c. Water Transportation. _ (1) Inland Waterways. The Great Lakes, with the St. Lawrence River, is the most im- portant fresh water transportation system in the world. At the present time it affords a draft of 21.0 feet over all the Great Lakes and through the Welland Canal into the St. Lawrence. From the Atlantic Ocean to Mon- treal, the present head of ocean navigation on the St. Lawrence, a draft of 30.0 feet is available, adequate for the great majority of ocean shipping. For some distance above Montreal the present channel has an available depth of only 14.0 feet. The inland waterway is of prime importance to the economic life of both the United States and Canada for the transportation of bulk com- modities, especially for the movement of wheat from the western plains to shipping centers on the eastern seaboard; of iron ore from the mines in Minnesota to foundaries along Lake Ontario; and for coal from the mines of Pennsylvania and West Virginia to Ontario, Quebec and the northwest. -44- The locks at Sault Ste. Marie, the boundary channels between Port Huron and Detroit and to a lesser degree the Welland Canal are the critical points on this waterway and effective control of such areas is vital to Blue. Navigation on the Great Lakes is generally closed by ice from about the end of November to the first of April. The St. Lawrence River is ordinarily ice bound for a similar period, but somewhat later about early in December to the latter part of April. While there are a number of Canadian lake ports of importance, Montreal is the only one which would not be automatically closed by Blue control of the Lakes. Montreal is also an important ocean port and will be considered along with other deep sea ports. (2) Ocean Shipping. The Dominion of Canada owns and operates a cargo and passenger carrying fleet consisting of some 57 cargo vessels and 11 passenger ships. The principal ocean ports and the magnitude of Canadian ocean traffic is indicated by the following tabulation: A. Number and tonnage of sea-going vessels entered and cleared at the principal ports of Canada. (For year ending March 31, 1934.) SEA-GOING VESSELS PORT arrived departed TOTAL TONS (REGISTERED) ____ _______ ________ _______________________ Halifax, N.S. * 1259 1484 7,540,990 Yarmouth, N.S. 535 519 1,102,191 St. John, N.B. * 684 688 2,924,822 Montreal, Quebec * 1078 907 7,266,569 Quebec, Que. * 397 308 3,388,829 Prince Rupert, B.C. 1141 1155 251,881 Vancouver, B.C. * 2332 2137 11,705,775 Victoria, B.C. 1927 1938 8,874,481 New Westminster, B.C. 678 700 3,123,606 IMPORTANT SECONDARY PORTS. Churchill, Man. * 15 15 132,000 Three Rivers, Que 79 79 424,560 Windsor, N.S. 56 69 201,032 Note: The above figures do not indicate amount of commerce; Register tons ______ are gross tons. (Namely cubical contents in cubic feet divided by 100) less deductions for crews space, stores, etc. A brief description of the above ports to indicate size, avail- able depths and important terminal facilities is included in Appendix No. 2. While the above tabulation lists the principal ports, it should be _________ realized that there are a large number of less desirable ports having available depths at low water of from 20 to 30 feet and provided with satis- factory terminal facilities, which can be used in an emergency for landing troops or supplies. Examples of this class of harbors are: Pictou, N.S. Sydney, N.S. Canso, N.S. Gaspe’, Quebec Sorel, Quebec -45- The port of Montreal, favorably located at the head of ocean naviga- tion on the St. Lawrence and the foot of inland navigation of the Great Lakes, is a natural shipping and railroad center. The port of Quebec is less favorable situated economically being more than 100 miles northeast of Montreal. Strategically, however, Quebec controls the commerce of Canada moving to or from the Atlantic seaboard. Its possession by Blue would interrupt eastern rail and water communication between England and the Mari- time Provinces and the rest of Canada. The port of Halifax is one of the best harbors on the Atlantic Coast and the principal winter port of Eastern Canada. The harbor has been ex- tensively developed by the Dominion government as a modern ocean terminal and naval base. It is fortified, though much of the armament is obsoles- cent. In case of war with Red, Halifax would become of prime importance to Red as a naval base and as a debarkation point for overseas expeditions in case Blue controlled the St. Lawrence. However, the routes available for a Red advance from Halifax into northeastern United States or towards Quebec and Montreal are quite difficult. The port of Saint John, New Brunswick is similar in many respects to the port of Halifax. It is open throughout the year and equipped with the most modern terminal facilities, including one of the largest drydocks in the world. It is an important shipping center for grain and dairy products. Due to the proximity of the port to the United States border and the fact that the principal rail connections (C.P. Ry.) passes through the state of Maine, the port would be of little use to Crimson or Red, at least in the early stages of war, provided Blue made any effort to control this area. The port of Vancouver, B.C. came into prominence with the opening of the Panama Canal, providing an alternate route to that of the transcontinental railroads for grain, dairy, lumber and the other products of western Canada to Europe. The port of Victoria, on Vancouver Island, is similarly situated, but due to the absence of rail connection with the mainland is more concerned with passenger and mail traffic than with bulk commodities. Esquimalt, two miles west of Victoria, and the only Canadian naval base on the west coast, is equipped with a large modern drydock, and affords good anchorage for the largest vessels. Consequently this area is of prime importance to Crimson. With the closing of the Panama Canal to Red traffic and the presence of Blue naval forces based on Honolulu, its commercial value is largely des- troyed. Assuming that Blue controls the St. Lawrence and cuts Crimson’s eastern communication with Red, the areas importance is enhanced, although it remains a decidedly unsatisfactory outlet. If Red should win control of the Pacific steamship lanes, the area becomes of first importance to Red. All factors considered, it must be controlled by Blue. The port of Prince Rupert is a first class harbor with modern terminal facilities and excellent and extensive anchorages. It becomes of extreme importance to Crimson, if and when they are denied the use of the southwest British Columbia ports, although, as in the case of Vancouver, it affords a most unsatisfactory and hazardous route to Europe. Physical occupation of Prince Rupert harbor by Blue is not vital, but closing the port to ocean traffic should be effected. The port of Churchill, Manitoba now offers a good harbor and limited but modern terminal facilities, affording a back door to the Prairie Provin- ces and, by way of Moosonee, Ontario, and the Temiskaming and Northern Ontario Railroad, with central and western Ontario. Hudson Bay and James Bay are open to navigation only about 4 months of the year, but this condition is partially offset by the fact that the distance from the Prairie Provinces -46- to Europe, via Churchill is from 500 to 1000 miles shorter than the rail- water route via Montreal. In case Red is denied the use of the Atlantic or Pacific ports, or both, Churchill will afford an outlet for grain and meat products from Ontario, Manitoba and Sasketchewan and an inlet for mili- tary supplies and troops from Europe unless the northern trade route through Hudson Strait is controlled by the Blue fleet, and this is improbable. d. Air Transportation (Civil). _ During 1933 there were 90 commercial aircraft operators in Canada. Their activities included forest file patrols, timber cruising, air photo- graphy, transportation of passengers, express and mail, etc. To encourage a more widespread interest and knowledge of aviation the Department of National Defense, since 1928, has issued two light air- planes and made certain grants to each of 23 flying clubs and a large air terminal has been built at St. Hubert, seven miles south of Montreal and a terminal airdrome at Rimouski, Quebec for the reception of trans-atlantic mails. At the close of 1934 there were 101 air fields of all types, 368 civil aircraft and 684 licensed pilots in Canada. Some details of airports in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia are given in a letter from the Office of the Chief of Air Corps, herewith. (See inclosure F) e. Telephone and Telegraph. _ (1) Cables. Six transoceanic cables have termini in Canada, five on the Atlantic and one on the Pacific. The Atlantic cables are landed at Halifax, though several of them are routed through Newfoundland. The Pacific cable lands at Vancouver from whence a cable also leads to the United States. (2) Radio. A transoceanic commercial radio beam service is carried on by a station at Drummondville, Quebec, with Australia, Great Britain and the United States. In 1932 a direct radio telephone circuit with Great Britain was opened through the medium of this beam station. (3) General. Canada is well supplied with local telephone, telegraph and radio service. Interruption of Canada’s trans-oceanic telegraph and radio service will seriously handicap Red-Crimson cooperation. 6. Other Economic Factors. a. Agriculture. _ Agriculture, including stock raising and horticulture, is the chief single industry of the Canadian people. Canada is not only self-sustaining, as far as food is concerned, but has a large excess for export. Food pro- duction is varied and so distributed throughout the dominion that each section is practically self-sustaining and cutting her off from the outside would would mere serve to deny her people certain luxuries, such as coffee, tea, sugar, spices and tropical fruit. The Maritime Provinces are noted for their fruit and vegetable crop, particularly for the oat and potato crops of Prince Edward Island and New Brunswick and apples in Nova Scotia. Quebec and Ontario are mixed farming communities with the Niagara peninsula specializing in fruit. Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta are the principal wheat producing centers, with other grains and stock raising of increasing importance. The rich valleys of British Columbia produce apples, other fruit and vegetables. -47- b. Forests. _ The principal forests are in the provinces of British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. The manufacture of lumber, lath, shingles and other products such as paper pulp, is the second most important Canadian industry. c. Mineral Resources. _ Canada is one of the greatest mineral producing countries of the world. Nova Scotia, British Columbia, Quebec, Ontario, Alberta and the Yukon Ter- ritory contain the chief mining districts. The following summary notes pertinent facts concerning minerals of primary military importance. Aluminum. Aluminum was the 16th ranking Canadian export in 1934. Large quantities of bauxite, the principal source of supply were imported from the United States. Coal. There are enormous deposits of coal in Canada, largely in Nova Soctia and New Brunswick, in the east and in Alberta, Saskatchewan and British Columbia in the west. Due mainly to the distance of the fields from the manufacturing and industrial centers, about 50% of the coal consumed is imported from the United States, via the Great Lakes. Statistics for the calendar year 1933 show: Produced: Nova Scotia 6,340,790 tons New Brunswick 314,681 ” Manitoba 3,036 ” Saskatchewan 903,776 ” Alberta 4,748,074 ” British Columbia 1,484,653 ” Yukon Territory 638 ” Imported: From United States 8,865,935 tons From United Kingdom 1,942,875 ” Total – – – – – – ……………………….22,265,235 tons. (see slide 14855) In case of war with the United States, Canadas coal imports from this country would be cut off and her railroads and industrial activities seriously handicapped. If Blue controlled the Quebec area and Winnipeg, Canada’s railroads and industries dependent upon “steam power” would be crippled. Copper. The world production of copper in 1933 was (in short tons): Canada 149,992 Mexico 43,900 Rhodesia 144,954 Peru 28,000 Belgian Congo 73,409 Spain and ) Chile 179,200 Portugal ) 34,720 Japan 75,459 United States 196,190 Canada’s production was distributed approximately as follows: Province Tons ________ ____ Quebec 35,000 Eastern Townships Ontario 72,700 Sudbury area Manitoba 19,000 Flin Flon Saskatchewan 1,600 British Columbia 21,600 Western Manitoba -48- Iron and Steel. Canada ranks seventh among the nations as a producer of iron and steel but only a small percentage of her production is derived from domestic ores, in view of the abundant supply of higher grade ores in Newfoundland and Minnesota. The Wabana section of Newfoundland contains the largest known single deposit of iron ore in the world. There are large iron ore deposits in Quebec, northern Ontario and British Columbia but for various reasons they are handicapped for blast furnace treatment. Iron and steel are produced in Nova Scotia (Sydney) and in Ontario. Iron ore is obtained from the Mesabi Range in Minnesota, via the Great Lakes and from Newfound- land. (See slide 14856) The bulk of iron and steel products, however, are imported, principally from the United States and the United Kingdom. Lead. Lead is obtained in Canada largely from deposits in British Columbia, the largest porting being exported to England. Nickel. The world production of nickel in 1933 was about 50,736 tons, of which about 82% originated in the Sudbury district, north of Georgian Bay in Ontario. The remainder came chiefly from New Caledonia (Fr.). A new deposit of nickel was recently discovered in northern Saskatchewan but has not yet been worked. Nickel is necessary to industry and indispensable in war. Control of the Sudbury mines, in case of war, is therefor of vital importance. Petroleum. The production of crude oil or petroleum in Canada during 1934 amounted to 1,417,368 barrels, principally from the Turner Valley field in Alberta. A small amount is also obtained from wells near Monkton, New Brunswick and in southwest Ontario, between Lake Huron and Lake Erie. Considerable quantities are also imported from the United States. Zinc. Canada ranks fourth among the worlds producers of zinc. Her out- put in 1934 totaled 298,579,531 pounds. The principal producing mines are located in the Kootenay district of British Columbia and near Flin-Flon in northwest Manitoba. Approximately 2/3 of the zinc exported goes to Great Britain. d. Manufacturing. _ (1) General. Canada is the second largest manufacturing country in the British Empire, with Ontario and Quebec the most important industrial centers. The relative standing of the various provinces during 1933, based on the value of products manufactured, was approximately as follows: Ontario $1,000,000,000. Quebec 650,000,000. British Columbia * 146,500,000. Manitoba 91,000,000. Alberta 55,000,000. Nova Scotia 53,000,000. New Brunswick 45,000,000. Saskatchewan 36,000,000. Prince Edward Island 3,000,000. *Includes Yukon Territory -49- The principal industries ranked according to gross value of products (1932) are: Pulp and Paper $123,415,492. Central Electrical Stations 117,532,081. Non-ferrous metal smelting 100,561,297. Slaughtering and meat packing 92,366,137. Flour and food mills 83,322,099. Butter and Cheese 80,395,887. Petroleum Products 70,268,265. Bread and other bakery product 51,244,162. Cotton yarn and cloth 51,197,628. Printing and publishing 50,811,968. Clothing factory, women’s 44,535,823. Automobiles. 42,885,643. Rubber goods. 41,511,556. Hosiery and knitted goods 40,997,210. Sawmills. 39,438,057. (2) Munitions. (a) Aircraft. There are at present six firms manufacturing aircraft as follows: Canadian-Vickers……………Montreal, Que. De Haviland………………..Toronto, Ont. Curtis Reid………………..Cartierville, Que. Fairchild………………….Longueuil, Que. Boeing…………………….Vancouver, B.C. Ottawa Car Mfg. Co………….Ottawa, Que. Aero engine factories have been established by: Armstrong-Siddeley Motors Co. at Ottawa, Que. Aero Engines of Canada at Montreal, Que. Canadian Pratt-Whitney Aircraft Co. at Longueuil, Que. (b) Miscellaneous. During the World War Canada demonstrated her ability to divert her peace time industries to the production of munitions, when she manufactured and exported large quantities of shells, fuses, cartridge cases, explosives, gun forgings, machine guns and small arms ammunition. This production could not be obtained in case of war with Blue but some munitions could be produced if her factories were free to operate and raw materials were available. The government arsenal at Lindsey, Ont., is equipped to produce small arms ammunition and the arsenal at Quebec manu- factures some small arms and artillery ammunition. e. Commerce. _ Analysis of Canada’s industry and resources indicate that she has a sufficiency or surplus of certain raw materials but a deficiency of others. The more important of these materials are as follows: (1) Sufficiency or surplus; Arsenic, asbestos, cadmium, cobalt, copper, feldspar, fish oil, fluospar, foodstuffs, furs, gold, graphite, gypsum, lead, leather, magnesium, mica, nickel, silver, talc, wood and zinc. (2) Deficiency; Aluminium, antimony, bauxite, barytes, camphor, chromite, coal, cotton, flax, hemp, iron, jute, kaolin, manganese, mercury, nitrates, phosphate, petroleum, opium, quinine, rubber, silk, sugar, sulphur, tea, tin, tobacco and wool. -50- 7. Combat Estimate. a. All matters pertaining to the defense of Canada are under a Department _ of National Defense (Act of Jan. 9, 1923) with a minister of National De- fense at the head. A Defense Council has been constituted to advise the Minister. b. The Navy has an authorized complement of 104 officers and 812 men, a _ large majority serving under 7 year enlistments. In addition certain spec- ialists are loaned from the British Royal Navy. The Reserve consists of from 70 to 113 officers and from 430 to 1026 men recruited from sea-faring personnel. The ships of the Royal Canadian Navy are: Built Class Displacement Name Location Status Armament 1931 Destroyer 1337 tons Saguenay Halifax, N.S. In comm. 4-4.7″ 1931 ” 1337 ” Skenna Esquimalt,B.C. ” ” 4-4.7″ 1919 ” 905 ” Champlain Halifax, N.S. ” ” 3-4″ 1919 ” 905 ” Vancouver Esquimalt,B.C. ” ” 3-4″ 1918 Mine Sweeper 360 ” Armentieres Esquimalt,B.C. ” ” 1918 ” ” 360 ” Festubert Halifax, N.S. ” reserve 1918 ” ” 360 ” Ypres Halifax, N.S. ” ” c. Army. _ (1) Personnel: Estimated Strength (by G-2): Organized Forces. ________________ Active Reserve Total ______ _______ _____ Permanent Active Militia 403 403 Officers 403 403 Men 3300 3,300 Non Permanent Active Militia Officers 6,911 6,911 Men 44,962 44,962 Reserves, Non-active Officers 10,000 10,000 Men 30,000 30,000 __________________ Total Organized 3,703 91,873 95,576 * Note: The Canada Year Book, 1935, pp 1114, gives permanent and non-permanent active militia 1934: Permanent Officers and men——— 3,760 Non-permanent officers and men—– 135,184 _________ Total 138,941 The latest information concerning the distribution of the active militia is shown on the accompanying map. (Incl. G) (2) It is probable that the Non-permanent Active Militia can be brought to a strength of 60,000 at M plus 15 and to full strength of 126,000 in M plus 30 days. (Note: This estimate is approximately twice that of G-2, First Army.) New troops will begin to appear in 180 days at the rate of 50,000 monthly. d. Air Service. _ The Royal Canadian Air Force operates under a directorate in the office of the Chief of Staff of the Army. Strength (Dec. 1, 1934) Active: Officers 117 Men 664 Reserve: Officers 38 Men 236 _____ Total 1,055 -51- The equipment consists of some 84 combat planes with probably 20 on order. (G-2 estimate) The Armaments Year Book, League of Nations, gives a total of 166 planes of all kinds and the Statesman Year Book, 1935 gives 189 planes of all kinds. It is probable that about one squadron of pursuit and one squadron of observation could be organized for immediate service. e. Comment. _ The location of Canada’s industry and population along a narrow extent front facing the northern United States border and her relatively weak military and naval forces, widely dispersed, will necessitate a defensive role until Red forces are landed. The promptness and effectiveness of British aid must depend upon suitable debarkation points on Canada’s east coast. The West Coast does not favor overseas operations unless Red controls the Pacific, and even then is too remote from critical Blue areas. f. Red Reinforcements. _ Various estimates have been made of the size, composition, and time of placing Red reinforcements in Canada. In any such estimate, the time factor is of prime importance but depends on an unknown quantity, viz, “the period of strained relations.” The following estimate is considered conservative: Probable Enemy Forces in Canada _______________________________ Empire Days after Crimson (Less Crimson) Total M Day men Div. Men Div. Men Divisions 15 25,000 5 — — 25,000 5 30 50,000 5 — — 50,000 5 60 50,000 5 126,000* 8 176,000 13 90 50,000 5 203,000 13 253,000 13 120 50,000 5 238,000 16 288,000 21 150 50,000 5 255,000 16 305,000 21 180 90,000 6 255,000 16 345,000 22 *Under certain conditions this force might be landed in Canada by 30 M. Air Forces. __________ Red has available at once 48 squadrons of 10 to 12 planes each. The following forces can probably be landed in Canada as indicated. 10 M 13 squadrons. 30 M 30 squadrons. 60 M 41 squadrons. 90 M 56 squadrons. 120 M 74 squadrons. f. Conclusion. _ Crimson cannot successfully defend her territory against the United States (Blue). She will probably concentrate on the defense of Halifax and the Montreal-Quebec line in order to hold bases of operation for Red. Important secondary efforts will be made to defend her industrial area and critical points on her transcontinental railroad lines. 8. Areas of Strategic Importance. Analysis of the above data and discussion indicates certain areas which would become of considerable military importance in the event of war with Red; namely, a. The Halifax Monkton St. John area, sometimes called the Martime _ Province area. b. The Montreal Quebec area, sometimes called the St. Lawrence Area. _ -52- c. The Great Lakes Area. _ (1) Niagara River Area. (2) Sarnia-Windsor Area. (3) Sault Ste. Marie Area. (4) Sudbury Area. d. Winnipeg Area. _ (1) Winnipeg City and vicinity. (2) Churchill, Manitoba Area. e. Vancouver-Victoria Area. _ (1) Ports of Vancouver and Victoria, area. (2) Prince Rupert area. f. The reasons why these various areas are strategically important may be _ briefly summarized as follows: (1) Halifax Monkton St. John Area. (Maritime Province) The port of Halifax is the key point in the area, for while the port of St. John affords excellent facilities for an overseas expedition, it is so close to the United States border that uninterrupted use by Red cannot be expected. At Monkton, the peninsula connecting Nova Scotia and the mainland narrows to 14 miles. With Halifax in possession of Crimson, this area affords the best defensive position to prevent any advance west- ward by Red. (a). Control of Halifax by Blue would: 1. Deny Red the only ice free port on the east coast and the _ only ports, other than the St. Lawrence River ports, suitable as an overseas base. 2. Deny Red a prepared naval base on the east coast, from which _ to operate against Blue naval forces or commercial shipping. 3. Disrupt transoceanic submarine cable service between Crimson _ and Red (except from Newfoundland) and between Crimson and the West Indies. 4. Deny Red the use of certain air bases from which to operate _ against northeastern United States. (b) The control of Halifax by Blue, renders the Port of St. John and the Monkton area of secondary importance. Failing to secure Halifax _______ control of the Monkton area by Blue would: ___________________________ 1. Deny Red the use of St. John Harbor. _ 2. Cut the lines of communication between the port of Halifax _ and St. John and the remainder of Canada. 3. Place Blue directly across the only line of advance (by _ Red) from Halifax, on the shortest possible defensive line. 4. Deny Red the use of certain air bases from which to operate _ against northeastern United States. 5. Give Blue the use of various small air fields at Monkton _ and St. John. (2) Montreal – Quebec Area (St. Lawrence River Area). The ports of Montreal and Quebec, while ice bound about four months of the year, still afford the best overseas base both as to facilities and location. In addition the area is of great commercial importance in that it controls all lines of communication, by land, sea and wire between in- dustrial and agricultural centers of Canada and the eastern seaboard. While Montreal has the larger and more commodius harbor and terminal facilities, Quebec, due to its physical location, is the key point of the area. Control of this area by Blue would: (a) Deny the use of all good St. Lawrence River ports to Red. (b) Cut all Canada, west of Quebec, viz. industrial, and agricult- ural centers from the eastern seaboard. -53- (c) Deny Red and Crimson and make available to Blue, the principal air bases in eastern Canada. (d) Deny Crimson coal and iron from Nova Scotia and Newfoundland as well as all imports via the Atlantic. (3) The Great Lakes Area. This area comprises several critical points: (a) Niagara River crossings and Welland Canal. (b) The waters connecting Lake Huron and Lake Erie. (c) The great industrial area of Canada – that part of Ontario lying between Lake Huron and Lakes Erie and Ontario. (d) The waters connecting Lake Superior and Lake Huron, including the Soo Locks. (e) The Sudbury nickel-copper mines. Control of the Great Lakes waterway is vital to Blue, for the transporta- tion of iron ore, coal and grain and such control will necessitate occupation of a bridgehead covering the narrow boundary waters at and near the Soo Locks and in the Detroit Area. The bridges over the Niagara River and the Welland Canal, connecting Lake Erie and Lake Ontario are of importance to Blue for occupation of the Important industrial area of the Niagara-Ontario peninsula. The Welland Canal would become of importance as a line of communi- cation if Blue seized the peninsula. While control of that area is of importance in crippling Crimson industry, it is probably of greater importance in denying the enemy Crimson and Red, a most convenient base for operations against highly industrialized areas in the United States. (4) Winnipeg Area. Winnipeg is the nerve center of the transcontinental railroad system. Control by Blue will effectively separate eastern and western Canada and block transportation on men, grain, coal, meat and oil to the east. The completion of the Canadian National Railroad to Churchill Manitoba on Hudson Bay and the development of the port at Churchill provide an alternate route to Europe via Moosonee, Ont., and the Tem. and Ont. Ry. to northeast Ontario. While the water route through Hudson Bay is only open about four months of the year, and the ports are supplied by single track railroads, a considerable amount of traffic could be developed in an emergency. (5) Vancouver – Victoria Area. As pointed out above, the ports in this area are of secondary im- portance only under the conditions, which may reasonable be assumed. How- ever, the area has certain military importance, due to the naval base at Esquimalt, and is a possible outlet for the Canadian plan provinces and western Canada. Its control by Blue would deny the enemy any base or outlet on the West Coast; simplify the problem of protecting our shipping in the Puget Sound area; and interrupt cable communication with the far east. While Prince Rupert, B.C. has an excellent harbor and terminal facilities with good rail connections leading east, naval blockade of this port would be readily possible, once the Vancouver – Victoria area was in Blue control. 9. Routes of Approach to the Areas of Strategic Importance. a. Halifax – Monkton – St. John Area (Maritime Provinces) (Incls. D & H). _ Three possible routes of approach are considered, viz: (1) Via water from Boston or New York to Halifax or vicinity. (2) Via water from Boston or New York to ports in Western Nova Scotia and thence overland to Halifax. -54- (3) From Eastern Maine, via St. John and/or Fredericton to Monkton – Amherst – Truro to Halifax. b. Discussion of Routes of Approach to the Halifax – Monkton – St. John _ (Maritime Province) Area. (1) The distance by water from Boston to Halifax is 370 miles and from New York 600 miles, or in time about 30 or 50 hours respectively. The Port of Halifax is fortified and would undoubtedly be mined. A frontal attack would require a large force and would involve undesirable delays. Other developed ports of Nova Scotia on the Atlantic are too distant from _________ Halifax and involve a long advance after a landing is effected and this advance would be over difficult terrain. A number of undeveloped bays along the east shore offer favorable conditions for landing operations and of these, St. Margarets Bay, the near- est, being some 16 miles by road west of Halifax, appears satisfactory. Deep water, with a minimum depth of 7 fathoms extends nearly to the head of the Bay, not far from Hubley and French Village, which are on an improved road and on the railroad from Yarmouth to Halifax. The bay is protected from all winds and seas, except those from the south and is of sufficient size to harbor any fleet required for the expedition. Tidal range is the same as at Halifax, 6 to 6 1/2 feet. There are numerous small but adequate boat and barge landings on the west, north and east shore of the bay, from whence improved roads lead to the main highway. The highway Hubbard – French Village – Hubley – Halifax is 18 feet wide, of macadam, with east grades and with concrete bridges capable of carrying heavy artillery and tanks. The railroad is single track, standard gauge and parallels the road. It has rather heavy grades and is of light construction. Rocky wooded hills rise rather steeply to a height of 200 to 400 feet all around St. Margarets Bay, but the roads are within the 50 foot contour and the terrain between the roads and the water is greatly rolling. The main highway French Village – Halifax, runs through low rocky hills and movement off the roads by wheeled vehicles would be practically im- possible. (2) The ports on the western shore of Nova Scotia off the Bay of Fundy are subjected to extremely high tides – 20 to 25 feet, and generally afford only limited terminal facilities and have depths generally inadequate for docking transports. Tidal currents are strong. From Windsor, on the Avon River, to Halifax, there is one improved road and a branch of the Canadian Northern Railroad. The distance is about 50 miles, with high ground and good defensive positions in the center of the island. As a route of approach to Halifax it is considered inferior to the route from St. Margarets Bay. (3) The All Land Route via Eastern Maine. This route involves an advance from the Maine border of approximately 320 miles over difficult terrain. The St. Johns River, rising near the border of northern Maine, flows south just east of the Maine – New Brunswick border to Woodstock, thence generally southeast through Fredericton to St. John. It is navigable from the mouth to the falls some distance above Woodstock, N.B. The average tidal range at St. John is 20 1/2 feet, decreasing up stream. The river is crossed by a highway and a railroad bridge at Fredericton, each nearly 1/2 mile long. Two other bridges, a cantilever railroad bridge and a suspension bridge span the river about one mile above the city of St. John. There are numerous ferries operating alone the river. It is apparent that the St. John River is a serious obstacle to any advance overland from Maine. While the St. John could be bridged, such operations would result in considerable delay. -55- The railroad and road nets available are shown on Inclosures B, C and D. They are reasonably adequate for a force of the size probably required for this operation. (4) Conclusion. If Halifax is to be captured without the use of large forces and expenditure of considerable time and effort, it must be accomplished promptly before Red reinforcements can be landed or Crimson organize for its defense. Any advance overland from Maine would eliminate all elements of surprise and make the capture extremely difficult – a major operation. An overseas expedition is one of the most uncertain of military operations, and with the Red fleet on guard in the North Atlantic, with Red’s immediate military objective the retention of a base in eastern Canada for future operations against Blue, a joint operation against Halifax must be promptly and perfectly executed to assure any hope of success. This route is considered the best but existing conditions at the time, may make this route impracticable, and the all land route necessary. c. The St. Lawrence Area. (Quebec – Montreal) _ The only practicable routes of advance for Blue, into this area, are from northern New York, New Hampshire and Vermont and from northwest Maine. (See map) (Incl. K) (1) Rivers. (a) The St. Lawrence River flanks the left side of all routes of approach to Quebec. From Montreal to Three Rivers it flows through an alluvial plain, with the south bank 25 to 75 feet above the river. Below Three Rivers the banks increase steadily in height to Quebec, where they are 140 to 175 feet high. The normal rise and fall of the river above the tidewater is 10 feet but this maybe doubled by ice jams. Tidal range reaches a maximum of 18 feet at Quebec, and practically disappears at Richelieu Rapids 40 miles above Quebec. The river above Quebec is obstructed by ice from November to April but ice breakers can get through. The river from Quebec to Montreal, generally about 1/2 to 2 miles wide (except at Lake St. Peter) is navigable on a 30′ draft to Montreal. The distance from Quebec to Mon- treal is 160 miles. In the area south of the St. Lawrence, between Quebec and Mon- treal, are several rivers of importance which will naturally influence any plans for an advance on Quebec, viz: Richelieu River St. Francis River Nicolet River Becancour River Chaudiere River Etchemin River Other streams will create obstacles of lesser importance. (b) The Richelieu River flows north from Lake Champlain to enter the St. Lawrence about 35 miles north of Montreal. It is navigable on a 6 1/2 foot draft throughout its length. (c) The St. Francis River rises in St. Francis Lake some 50 miles northwest of Jackman, Maine. It flows southwest to Lennoxville, Quebec, where it turns sharply northwest to flow into the St. Lawrence (Lake St. Peter). Headwaters are controlled. The regulated flow is some 3000 feet per second or more, with an average fall of 6.6 feet per mile. It is not fordable below Sherbrooke. -56- (d) The Nicolet River rises in Nicolet Lake, 8 miles west of Lake Alymer, and flows generally northwest to empty into the St. Lawrence at the east end of Lake St. Peter. The average low water flow is about 2000 feet per second. Banks in the upper reaches – hilly wooded terrain – are steep and from 200 to 500 feet higher. The average fall is about 21 feet per mile but there are a number of dams. From Arthabaska to Lake St. Peter the stream flows through a flat open country, with banks 25 feet high or less, except for a gorge starting about 4 miles north of St. Clothilda and ending 3 miles from Lake St. Peter. The river is not a serious obstacle but there are many swampy areas between it and the Becancour River. (e) The Becancour River rises about 5 miles northwest of Lake St. Francis and flows north, then southwest, then northwest to enter the St. Lawrence a few miles below Three Rivers, Que. The lower reaches of the river, below the vicinity of Lyster, Que, flows through generally flat country of gentle slope. The stream averages 300 to 400 feet wide and is fordable at few places. From Maddington Falls to within 3 miles of the St. Lawrence the river flows through a narrow gorge 100 to 250 feet below the surrounding flat country. The river is not a serious obstacle to an advance on Quebec, by reason of the general direction of flow in its lower reaches and the characteristics of the country. (f) The Chaudierre River rises in Lake Megantic, about 45 miles west of Jackman, Maine and flows generally north into the St. Lawrence, op- posite Quebec. From Lake Megantic to Hersey Mills, it flows swiftly between steep banks in a narrow valley. The adjacent terrain is rugged and heavily timbered. From St. George to Valley Junction the valley widens materially and the country is less rugged. Below Valley Junction the river flows through gentle undulating country between relatively low banks. The Chaudiere is a strong swift stream with an average discharge of over 4000 feet per second. The width varies from 200 feet at St. George to 400 feet or more in the lower reaches. From St. Maxine to the St. Lawrence it is 600 to 1500 feet wide. This river must be considered a serious obstacle. (g) The Etchemin River rises in Lake Atchemin and flows northwest into the Chaudiere. It is 200 to 300 feet wide in the lower reaches, with banks generally high and steep. It forms a considerable obstacle. (2) Terrain. The southerly portion of the area bordering on the United States, east of the Richelieu River, is hilly verging on mountainous (up to 3000′). The Notre Dame Mountains extend the Green Mountains of Vermont in the form of a series of ridges, gradually decreasing in elevation from Lake Champlain northeast to the meridian of Quebec, thence northeast parallel to the St. Lawrence. From the St. Lawrence the terrain rises smoothly and gradually toward the southeast to the foothills of the Notre Dame Mountains. On the line Montreal Sherbrooke a serious of eight hills (wooded) rise sharply to heights varying from 800 to 1500 feet or more above the surrounding country. In general the hills of the Quebec theatre are wooded, those below the 500 foot contour and east of the Becancour River sparsely, while west of the river there are densely forested areas at intervals. (3) Roads. The main roads to Montreal lead north from Plattsburgh, New York and Burlington, Vermont. Quebec may be reached via routes No. 1 and 5, through Sherbrooke, Que; via route No. 3 along the south bank of the St. Lawrence; or via Montreal and the north bank of the St. Lawrence. The latter is the longest route and undoubtedly the most difficult. Another route is available from Jackman, Maine, via route No. 23 through Valley Junction. The road net available is shown on inclosure No. “D” and “K.” -57- (4) Railroads. The railroads available are shown on inclosures “B” and “C.” They are entirely adequate for any probable movement against this area. (5) Discussion of routes. (a) Northern New York – Vermont to Montreal Roads: No. 9 from Plattsburgh to St. Lambert and South Mon- treal. Distance 69.2 miles, all paved. No. 7 from Burlington, Vt., via St. John, Que. to St. Lambert or South Montreal. Distance 94.2 miles, all paved. There is a bridge across the Richelieu River at St. Johns. There are two highway bridges across the St. Lawrence at Montreal. Railroads: Delaware and Hudson – Albany to Montreal. New York Central – Malone to Montreal. Rutland and C.P. – Burlington to Montreal. Central Vermont and C.N. Montpelier to Montreal. Comments: The terrain is favorable and no physical barrier to the advance as far as the St. Lawrence, except the crossing of the Rich- elieu River, for a force moving from Vermont. An advance on Quebec from Montreal is possible, but offers the longest route, with many rivers per- pendicular to the line of advance (down the St. Lawrence) which offer excellent defensive positions. (b) Northern Vermont and New Hampshire to Quebec. Physical features: The Richelieu River on the west and the Chaudiere and Etchemin Rivers on the east tend to delimit the zone of advance. Roads: No. 5 – Newport, Vt. to Sherbrook then No. 7 to Valley Junction to the highway bridge on the St. Lawrence and to Quebec, or via No. 23 from Scott Junction to Levis, Que and the ferry to Quebec. Distance 212.5 miles from Newport, Vt. All improved road, mostly gravel. Some of the road through the hilly country is paved. No. 5 from Sherbrooke via Victoriaville is an alternate route. No. 23, Jackman, Maine – Valley Junction – Levis. This dis- tance is 109 miles. The road is improved and about 50% paved. It is the shortest route. It crosses the Chauderie and Etchemin Rivers. There are numerous alternate routes and connecting roads. Railroads: Canadian Pacific – Newport to Quebec. Canadian Pacific – Jackman via Megantic to Quebec. Canadian National – Portland, Me., via Sherbrooke to Quebec. Comments: While the terrain in this sector is hilly verging on the mountainous, with several defiles and river crossings, it offers the short- est and best route of advance on Quebec. d. The Great Lakes Area. _ This area must be considered under the following subdivisions, as the routes of approach vary, and approach must be made from all of these direc- tions. The Buffalo – Niagara River Area. The Port Huron – Detroit Area. The Sault St. Marie or Soo Locks – Sudbury Area. (1) The Buffalo – Niagara River Area. Bridges cross the Niagara River at Buffalo (Peace Bridge); at Niagara Falls (suspension Bridge) and the (lower Arch Bridge) and at Lewiston, New York. ” ” ” -58- Roads: The road net approaching the Niagara River from the United States and leading across the river into southern Ontario and through Hamilton to Toronto and Montreal, is one of the best along the inter- national boundary and is entirely adequate for any probably movement. Railroads: The Canadian Pacific and the Canadian National rail- roads have a network of railways connecting Buffalo with Toronto and points east. Branch lines lead to all important parts of the Niagara peninsula. Comment: The crossings over the Niagara River should be promptly secured to assure a line of advance into the Niagara Peninsula of Ontario. (2) The Detroit – Port Huron Area. This area has much the same characteristics as the Buffalo Niagara River Area but beyond securing the crossings over the boundary waters, sufficient area to cover the Great Lakes water routes against Crimson interference is essential. Crossings: Ambassador Bridge – Detroit – Windsor. Two tunnels (one railroad) Detroit – Windsor. Numerous ferries. Railroads and roads: There is an excellent railroad and road net available for any advance eastward from Detroit and Port Huron. Comment: The Ontario Peninsula is of great industrial importance to Canada and a military area of great strategic value, as a base for air or land operations against the industrialized areas between Chicago and Buffalo. Any Blue operations should advance via Buffalo – Niagara Falls and Port Huron – Detroit simultaneously. (3) Sault Ste. Marie – Sudbury Area. The best route of approach to the Sudbury area, about 200 miles east of the Soo, is obviously via Sault St. Marie, along the north shore of North Channel. An operation along this route, automatically covers the Soo. The Canadian Pacific railroad and one good gravel road leads east from the Soo. These provide ample facilities for supply of the probable force required. The southern flank of this line is protected by North Sound and the north flank by rough heavily wooded terrain entirely devoid of roads or other communications suitable for the movement of armed forces. (4) Winnipeg Area. The main route from the United States to Winnipeg is north from Grand Forks and Crookston through Emerson. A main road follows the west bank of the Red River, from Emerson into Winnipeg. A good hard sur- face road from Grand Forks and one from Crookston furnishes a suitable road net south of the border. There are several secondary roads on both sides of the border to supplement the hard surface roads. The Canadian Pacific has two main lines extending north from the border, one leading from Fargo through Gretna along the west bank of the Red River, and one from Thief River Falls, through Emerson along the east bank of the Red River. The Canadian Northern has a line from Grand Forks through Emerson Junction to Winnipeg on the west bank of the Red River and another line connecting with Duluth and extending through Warroad to Winnipeg. The best and only practicable route of approach is obviously north from Grand Forks and Crookston. The terrain is flat and open and offers no natural obstacles to an advance. -59- Churchill, on Hudson Bay, has rail connection by the Canadian National system at Hudson Bay Junction about 325 miles northwest of Winni- peg. The best and only route of approach to cut this line is along the railroad from Winnipeg. (5) The Vancouver Area (Vancouver – Victoria) (See Incl. E & L) (Omitted) The best practicable route to Vancouver is via Route 99 through Bellingham, a distance of 55 miles and over a paved highway, through wooded and farming country. A secondary and longer route lies about 15 miles fur- ther to the east running through Sumas to strike the highways running east from Vancouver at the meridian of Mission City. The Grand Trunk Railroad extending from Vancouver to Seattle fur- nishes a satisfactory rail service. Victoria and Esquimalt, on the island of Vancouver can be reached by water only. Ferry service is maintained between Vancouver and Nanaimo on the east shore of the island, some 50 miles north of Victoria and between Vancouver, Burlingham and Port Angeles and Victoria. The best route of ap- proach is by water from Port Angeles, Washington. IV. Conclusions: ___________ a That the critical areas of Canada are: _ (1) The Halifax-Monkton-St.John Area (The Maritime Provinces). (2) The St.Lawrence Area (Quebec and Montreal). (3) The Great Lakes Area. (4) The Winnipeg Area. (5) The Vancouver Area (Vancouver and Victoria). b. That the best routes of approach to these areas are: _ To (1) By joint operations by sea from Boston. (2) From Northern New Hampshire-Vermont area. (3) (a) From Sault St. Marie and the Soo Locks Area. (b) From Port Huron – Detroit Area. and (c) From the Buffalo-Niagara Falls Area. (4) From Grand Forks-Crookston through Emerson. (5) Along Puget Sound through Everett and Bellingham, supported by an attack by water in Puget Sound. V. Recommendations. _______________ None. VI. Concurrences. ____________ The committee concurs in the foregoing conclusions. CHARLES H. JONES Major, Infantry, Subcommittee Chairman.

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