Archive | Somalia

Somalia: Using Khat as trade and political leverage

Citizen TV

A recent attempt by Somalia to ban Khat imports from Kenya sparked a row, which was resolved following discussions between the presidents of the two countries. The exports have resumed. But while Khat is a lucrative business for Kenya, Somalia does not need the drug. It is a well-known health and social hazard that frustrates Somalia’s recovery.

“When you chew Khat, you are on the top of the planet, but after you spit it out, the planet is on the top of you” – A Somali saying.

When Somalia recently made a surprise decision to ban the importation of Kenya originated Khat (Catha edulis), a herbal  stimulant with amphetamine-like characteristics that Somalis consume as a national passtime, it caused quite a stir both inside and outside the country.
With an estimated 20 million users in the Horn of Africa alone, and a growing and lucrative business produced by the 500,000 farmers across the Horn of Africa and Arabian Peninsula, Khat is a multimillion business for producers from Kenya and Ethiopia and a heavy economic burden to Somalia, the biggest consumer in the region.

According to official figures, more than 15 cargo flights of Khat arrive in Somalia’s capital, Mogadishu, daily from Kenya, bringing in about 12,000 bags of the stimulant with a total value of $400,000.

Somaliland, the breakaway northern region which recently came to prominence by granting DP World a 30-year deal to invest and manage its Red Sea Port of Berbera, spends $524 million a year or about 30 percent of its gross domestic product on Khat from Ethiopia, while the neighboring Republic of Djibouti spends $170 million, or 30 percent of household income, on Khat from Ethiopia.

No wonder that Kenya was alarmed by the ban as expressed by Dave Muthuri, Chairman of Kenya Miraa Farmers and Traders Association, who said Khat cargo with an estimated value of 60 million Kenyan shillings ($592,000) was lost on the first day of the Mogadishu ban.

Socio-ecomomic impacts of Khat

Apart from losing millions of hard cash everyday to buy Khat, Khat has harmful health effects while the World Health Organization considers it to be a seriously addictive drug. In addition to health risks, Khat also drains household budgets as men spend a great percentage of the family income on the drug at the expense of children’s food, healthcare and schooling. It is also blamed for destroying family bonds by increasing domestic violence and divorce rates.

“The problem comes down to the man not being part of the family and the woman being left to do everything,” said Fatima Saeed, a Somaliland politician and a British citizen, talking to Al Jazeera  when UK banned Khat in 2014.

“Khat would arrive at 5pm on the plane and by 6pm men had left homes and wouldn’t return until 6am,” Saeed said. “After the ban it was like people woke up from a deep sleep. They started looking for jobs, being part of the family.”

Why the ban now?

The debate on the devastating economic, health and social impact of Khat in Somalia is as old as Khat itself, which studies say predates the use of coffee. There were attempts before to ban the Khat but they all failed. The British colonial administration restricted the importation of Khat in British Somaliland Protectorate in 1921 and in Kenya in 1940, but both times the ban only led to Khat becoming more lucrative in the black market and its use being associated with rebelling against British oppression.

The French administration in Djibouti also tried to curb Khat imports and consumption in 1952 only to find the consumption tripled in three years. In Yemen, the British administration’s ban on Khat in 1957 led to public outrage in Aden and also Ethiopia, the export country, while an attempt to ban Khat in South Yemen after independence is assumed to have led to the government’s downfall in 1972, according to the book, Khat in the Western Indian Ocean,written by Neil Carrier and Lisa Gezon.

Post-independence Somalia also banned Khat in 1983 with the government citing the damaging impact of Khat on the national economy and social fabric. The ban led to widespread resentment in northern Somalia towards Mogadishu government while government supporters were allegedly allowed to profit from smuggling the Khat.

It is against this background that President Hassan Sheikh Mahmoud’s decision to ban the importation of Khat from Kenya was seen as a bold and surprising move. Anti-Khat activists have been urging the government to ban Khat and the government has shown its willingness to impose a ban.

“Somalia continues to lose a huge amount of hard cash to purchase Khat from Kenya, which only creates an economic source for another country,” President Mohamud told reporters in May.
“The Khat business also continues to undermine our country’s post-war economic recovery, and that’s why every economy conscious person wants to stop Kenya from making money from Somalia just because it exports those leaves with health and humanitarian side-effects to our country,” he said.

However, the sudden decision was seen as a retaliatory action by the Somali government vis-à-vis Kenya’s decision to repatriate thousands of Somali refugees living in Dadaab Refugee Camp as well as what many Somalis say was continued and arbitrary arrest, harassment, extortion, ill-treatment, forcible relocation and expulsion of Somali residents in Nairobi’s Eastleigh neighborhood.

Kenya and Somalia are also involved in a maritime border dispute over an oil and gas rich area. The dispute went to the International Court of Justice which heard the arguments of both sides on September 19-23 as Kenya failed to convince Somalia to withdraw the case for a local bilateral resolution.

Kenyan media, however, attributed the ban to a visit by a Kenyan politician to the self-declared republic of Somaliland. According to Kenya’s Daily Nation, “Somalia imposed the ban because of Peter Munya, the governor of the Kenyan county of Meru, which grows most of the Khat, had visited Somaliland in July to see if he could arrange a trade deal for Khat exporters in Kenya – in exchange for some form of recognition for the autonomous region.”

Somali Ambassador to Kenya, Gamal Hassan, also affirmed this by explaining that the Kenyan politician’s visit to Hargeisa, Somaliland’s capital, in July had outraged the Mogadishu government.

Lifting the ban 

Just a few days after its surprise decision, Somalia lifted the ban following a meeting between President Mahmoud and his Kenyan counterpart, Uhuru Kenyatta, on the sidelines of the leaders’ Summit of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) held for the first time in 30 years in Mogadishu.

This came after the IGAD Communiqué “reaffirmed its respect for the sovereignty, territorial integrity, political independence, and unity of Somalia.” This was a major concern for Somalia over the years and gives great relief to Somali people. The communiqué also “encouraged the voluntary return of all Somali,” while also underlining their commitment to “collectively address refugee situation in the region, as well as convene a special summit on durable solutions and effective reintegration of returnees in the country.”

Kenya also agreed to review the procedure of starting direct flights from Mogadishu to Nairobi without a stopover in Wajir Airport in northeast Kenya, a measure Somalia viewed as underscoring Kenya’s attitude of considering flights from Somalia as a security risk. Another win for Somalia was Kenya’s promise to ease visa restrictions on Somali citizens and access of Somali banking, finance industry into Kenyan market and vice versa.

Although Kenya seems to have secured back its lucrative business that replaced coffee production as a major cash earner, the ban proved that Somalia can use its huge trade deficit with Kenya as a bargaining chip only as far as the Somali people remain in Mirqaan (blissed out) the leaves they call “Qoot Al Awliya” or Food for the Pious, and which they assume has the power of : “enlivening the imagination, clearing the ideas, cheering the heart, diminishing sleep, and taking the place of food,” according to Richard Burton.

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Pentagon attacks in Somalia expose failure of decade-long war strategy  

NOVANEWS
Image result for AMINN CARTOON

Bombings and ground campaign have not brought stability to the country
PTN

The latest phase in the war of containment, domination and control of the resource-rich Horn of Africa state is approaching ten years since Washington attempted its renewed efforts to impose a political dispensation on the country beginning in 2006.

On March 7 the Pentagon announced that it had killed 150 members of the Al-Shabaab guerrilla movement in a bombing operation in Somalia.

These military actions are part and parcel of a broader United States foreign policy strategy to dominate the Horn of Africa. The administration of President Barack Obama has continued the military and political intervention in Somalia aimed at remaking the political landscape of the East African state which shares borders with some of Washington’s closest collaborators in the region including Ethiopia, Djibouti and Kenya.

The administration’s rationale for a renewed air campaign in Somalia was to downgrade and destroy training bases for Al-Shabaab. The Islamist movement has not only continued its war against the western-backed regime in Mogadishu but has crossed over into neighboring Kenya and Uganda in apparent retaliation for their military deployments in the country as members of the African Union Mission to Somalia (AMISOM) established in 2007.

A Department of Defense press release claimed the targeted area “is a training facility of Al-Shabaab which is a terrorist group affiliated with al-Qaeda. The strike was conducted using manned and unmanned aircraft and the fighters who were scheduled to depart the camp posed an imminent threat to U.S. and AMISOM forces.” (March 7)

An escalation in the Pentagon’s air campaign in Somalia coincides with the years-long proxy war inside the country which has resulted in the deployment of 22,000 troops (AMISOM) from eight different African states who are trained, armed and given logistical support by Washington, the United Nations and the European Union (EU). In addition, the Somalia National Army (SNA) is supplied by western governments and their allies in an effort to transition the character of the war to defeat the Al-Shabaab organization, which maintains control over large areas of the country.

This bombing operation was followed on March 9 by reports that at least 15 Al-Shabaab fighters had also been killed in another raid led ostensibly by the imperialist-backed and trained Somalia National Army (SNA) troops working in conjunction with U.S. Special Forces. News of the second attack emanated from Al-Shabaab itself and a Somali federal government official.

Sheikh Abdiasis Abu Musab, a spokesperson for Al-Shabaab, stressed that foreign soldiers had attacked their base located approximately 30 miles (50 km) from the capital Mogadishu in the Lower Shabelle region.

Abu-Musab said of the attackers that, “They were masked and spoke foreign languages which our fighters could not understand. We do not know who they were but we foiled them.” (Reuters, March 9)

According to Abu Musab, Al-Shabaab only lost one fighter contradicting reports from other media and governmental sources. The Islamist organization said that the military commandos landed along the River Shabelle.

They then dropped off the commando unit which travelled to the Al-Shabaab base located in the town of Awdhegle. The suspected Special Forces unit were armed with M16 rifles and rocket launchers utilized in the attack.

U.S. government officials later announced to the press that their military troops were involved in the attacks alongside western-backed Somali military forces, noting the operation had resulted in deaths among the Al-Shabaab combatants.

ADMINISTRATION SEEKS RAPID ADVANCES IN LONG WAR

The latest phase in the war of containment, domination and control of the resource-rich Horn of Africa state is approaching ten years since Washington attempted its renewed efforts to impose a political dispensation on the country beginning in 2006.

After the failure of the 1992-1994 occupation of Somalia by thousands of U.S. Marines, U.N. troops along with allied forces from Canada and other states, when the people of this beleaguered state rose up in an uprising, successive administrations sought avenues to interfere in the internal affairs of the country. Somalia has not been able to set up an internationally-recognized government since the collapse the regime of Mohamed Siad Barre in early 1991, a U.S. ally in Africa.

During 2006, an Islamic Courts Union (UIC) movement began to solidarize with local organizations establishing a political system that operated independently of the foreign policy imperatives of the administration of former President George W. Bush. Washington encouraged its contacts inside Somalia to force out the Islamic Courts, which proved to be a disaster.

Sentiments towards the U.S. government became even more hostile leading to the invasion of Somalia by neighboring Ethiopia, which is a staunch partner of Washington in its so-called “war on terrorism.” Yet, the intervention of the Ethiopian military then under the leadership of the late Prime Minister Meles Zenawi, was by no means sufficient to drive out the Islamic Courts movement from Mogadishu and other areas in the central and south of the country where they had taken control.

Over the next three years, the Islamic Courts split over whether to enter a transitional government in Mogadishu that was backed by the imperialist states. By 2009, the Al-Shabaab group, meaning “the youth”, emerged as the main opposition to the U.S. and British supported regime in the capital.

The escalating deployment of forces from Uganda, Djibouti, Kenya, Ethiopia, Sierra Leone and other African states strengthened the AMISOM operation driving out Al-Shabaab from most of Mogadishu and some other areas of the country in the central and southern regions.

Nevertheless, Al-Shabaab remained strong while attracting fighters from other countries and reportedly pledging allegiance to Al-Qaeda.

At present the EU, one of the major funding and logistical supporters of AMISOM, said that it would reduce its assistance by 20 percent. This announcement has prompted sharp rebukes from those states which have served as ground units propping up the federal government in Mogadishu.

According to an article published by Jane’s Defense Weekly, “The move was criticized during a summit of leaders from AMISOM’s contributing countries in Djibouti on 28 February. Kenya’s president Uhuru Kenyatta said in his speech that the international community must provide adequate support for the mission in the run-up to elections later this year.” (March 3)

Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta said: “This is the time to strengthen AMISOM through a surge in troops and resources, not weaken it.”

The same Jane’s Defense Weekly report noted that a “joint declaration released at the end of the summit said the leaders noted ‘with serious concern the decision by the EU to reduce financial support to AMISOM troop allowance by 20%, especially during this critical phase of AMISOM operations’ and called on the UN to cover the resulting shortfall.”

The Obama administration’s recent bombing of the country does signal a greater reliance on air power and the drawing-down of military assistance to AMISOM and the SNA. Exposing further the dominant imperialist role in the war against Al-Shabaab in Somalia, AMISOM has announced that it will rely more on air power in light of the reduction of funding from the EU.

Kenya’s Nation newspaper stated on February 21 that AMISOM “may have to concentrate more on air strikes than ground attacks in its war against Al-Shabaab militants to minimize expenses after one of its main donors reduced funding.”

Nonetheless, overall these developments provide no real plan for a reduction in the escalating Pentagon, Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and State Department involvement in Somalia and the Horn of Africa. The U.S. Africa Command (AFRICOM) which has thousands of troops in Djibouti and other continental states has been bolstered under the Obama administration.

The absence of any substantive discussions surrounding foreign policy in Africa during the presidential campaign leaves policy-making to the intelligence agencies and the defense department much to the detriment of people in Africa as well as in the U.S. Unless this situation changes dramatically, there will be no real shift in Washington’s foreign policy in the region.

Posted in Somalia0 Comments

Pentagon attacks in Somalia expose failure of decade-long war strategy

NOVANEWS
Image result for pentagon cartoon
Bombings and ground campaign have not brought stability to the country
 

The latest phase in the war of containment, domination and control of the resource-rich Horn of Africa state is approaching ten years since Washington attempted its renewed efforts to impose a political dispensation on the country beginning in 2006.

On March 7 the Pentagon announced that it had killed 150 members of the Al-Shabaab guerrilla movement in a bombing operation in Somalia.

These military actions are part and parcel of a broader United States foreign policy strategy to dominate the Horn of Africa. The administration of President Barack Obama has continued the military and political intervention in Somalia aimed at remaking the political landscape of the East African state which shares borders with some of Washington’s closest collaborators in the region including Ethiopia, Djibouti and Kenya.

The administration’s rationale for a renewed air campaign in Somalia was to downgrade and destroy training bases for Al-Shabaab. The Islamist movement has not only continued its war against the western-backed regime in Mogadishu but has crossed over into neighboring Kenya and Uganda in apparent retaliation for their military deployments in the country as members of the African Union Mission to Somalia (AMISOM) established in 2007.

A Department of Defense press release claimed the targeted area “is a training facility of Al-Shabaab which is a terrorist group affiliated with al-Qaeda. The strike was conducted using manned and unmanned aircraft and the fighters who were scheduled to depart the camp posed an imminent threat to U.S. and AMISOM forces.” (March 7)

An escalation in the Pentagon’s air campaign in Somalia coincides with the years-long proxy war inside the country which has resulted in the deployment of 22,000 troops (AMISOM) from eight different African states who are trained, armed and given logistical support by Washington, the United Nations and the European Union (EU). In addition, the Somalia National Army (SNA) is supplied by western governments and their allies in an effort to transition the character of the war to defeat the Al-Shabaab organization, which maintains control over large areas of the country.

This bombing operation was followed on March 9 by reports that at least 15 Al-Shabaab fighters had also been killed in another raid led ostensibly by the imperialist-backed and trained Somalia National Army (SNA) troops working in conjunction with U.S. Special Forces. News of the second attack emanated from Al-Shabaab itself and a Somali federal government official.

Sheikh Abdiasis Abu Musab, a spokesperson for Al-Shabaab, stressed that foreign soldiers had attacked their base located approximately 30 miles (50 km) from the capital Mogadishu in the Lower Shabelle region.

Abu-Musab said of the attackers that, “They were masked and spoke foreign languages which our fighters could not understand. We do not know who they were but we foiled them.” (Reuters, March 9)

According to Abu Musab, Al-Shabaab only lost one fighter contradicting reports from other media and governmental sources. The Islamist organization said that the military commandos landed along the River Shabelle.

They then dropped off the commando unit which travelled to the Al-Shabaab base located in the town of Awdhegle. The suspected Special Forces unit were armed with M16 rifles and rocket launchers utilized in the attack.

U.S. government officials later announced to the press that their military troops were involved in the attacks alongside western-backed Somali military forces, noting the operation had resulted in deaths among the Al-Shabaab combatants.

ADMINISTRATION SEEKS RAPID ADVANCES IN LONG WAR

The latest phase in the war of containment, domination and control of the resource-rich Horn of Africa state is approaching ten years since Washington attempted its renewed efforts to impose a political dispensation on the country beginning in 2006.

After the failure of the 1992-1994 occupation of Somalia by thousands of U.S. Marines, U.N. troops along with allied forces from Canada and other states, when the people of this beleaguered state rose up in an uprising, successive administrations sought avenues to interfere in the internal affairs of the country. Somalia has not been able to set up an internationally-recognized government since the collapse the regime of Mohamed Siad Barre in early 1991, a U.S. ally in Africa.

During 2006, an Islamic Courts Union (UIC) movement began to solidarize with local organizations establishing a political system that operated independently of the foreign policy imperatives of the administration of former President George W. Bush. Washington encouraged its contacts inside Somalia to force out the Islamic Courts, which proved to be a disaster.

Sentiments towards the U.S. government became even more hostile leading to the invasion of Somalia by neighboring Ethiopia, which is a staunch partner of Washington in its so-called “war on terrorism.” Yet, the intervention of the Ethiopian military then under the leadership of the late Prime Minister Meles Zenawi, was by no means sufficient to drive out the Islamic Courts movement from Mogadishu and other areas in the central and south of the country where they had taken control.

Over the next three years, the Islamic Courts split over whether to enter a transitional government in Mogadishu that was backed by the imperialist states. By 2009, the Al-Shabaab group, meaning “the youth”, emerged as the main opposition to the U.S. and British supported regime in the capital.

The escalating deployment of forces from Uganda, Djibouti, Kenya, Ethiopia, Sierra Leone and other African states strengthened the AMISOM operation driving out Al-Shabaab from most of Mogadishu and some other areas of the country in the central and southern regions.

Nevertheless, Al-Shabaab remained strong while attracting fighters from other countries and reportedly pledging allegiance to Al-Qaeda.

At present the EU, one of the major funding and logistical supporters of AMISOM, said that it would reduce its assistance by 20 percent. This announcement has prompted sharp rebukes from those states which have served as ground units propping up the federal government in Mogadishu.

According to an article published by Jane’s Defense Weekly, “The move was criticized during a summit of leaders from AMISOM’s contributing countries in Djibouti on 28 February. Kenya’s president Uhuru Kenyatta said in his speech that the international community must provide adequate support for the mission in the run-up to elections later this year.” (March 3)

Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta said: “This is the time to strengthen AMISOM through a surge in troops and resources, not weaken it.”

The same Jane’s Defense Weekly report noted that a “joint declaration released at the end of the summit said the leaders noted ‘with serious concern the decision by the EU to reduce financial support to AMISOM troop allowance by 20%, especially during this critical phase of AMISOM operations’ and called on the UN to cover the resulting shortfall.”

The Obama administration’s recent bombing of the country does signal a greater reliance on air power and the drawing-down of military assistance to AMISOM and the SNA. Exposing further the dominant imperialist role in the war against Al-Shabaab in Somalia, AMISOM has announced that it will rely more on air power in light of the reduction of funding from the EU.

Kenya’s Nation newspaper stated on February 21 that AMISOM “may have to concentrate more on air strikes than ground attacks in its war against Al-Shabaab militants to minimize expenses after one of its main donors reduced funding.”

Nonetheless, overall these developments provide no real plan for a reduction in the escalating Pentagon, Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and State Department involvement in Somalia and the Horn of Africa. The U.S. Africa Command (AFRICOM) which has thousands of troops in Djibouti and other continental states has been bolstered under the Obama administration.

The absence of any substantive discussions surrounding foreign policy in Africa during the presidential campaign leaves policy-making to the intelligence agencies and the defense department much to the detriment of people in Africa as well as in the U.S. Unless this situation changes dramatically, there will be no real shift in Washington’s foreign policy in the region.

Posted in USA, Somalia0 Comments

Saudis Zio-Wahhabi splurging to rally support against Iran

NOVANEWS
Press TV

Saudi Zio-Wahhabi pledged the Somali government USD 50 million in aid on the same day Mogadishu declared it had severed ties with Iran, a report says.

According to a document from the Zio-Wahhabi  embassy in Nairobi, Kenya, to the embassy of Somalia there, the regime in Riyadh pledged USD 20 million in budget support to Mogadishu and USD 30 million for investment in the African country, Reuters reported Sunday.

The news agency quoted diplomats as saying that the financial support is “the latest sign of patronage used by the kingdom to shore up regional support against Iran.”

“The Saudis currently manage to rally countries behind them both on financial grounds and the argument of non-interference,” a diplomat said. Iran has repeatedly denied the Saudi Zio-Wahhabi allegations of interference in the affairs of other countries.

On January 2, Zio-Wahhabi regime announced the execution of prominent cleric Sheikh Nimr al-Nimr and 46 other people. Nimr was a critic of Riyadh. After that, protesters gathered outside the Saudi embassy in the Iranian capital, Tehran, and the consulate building in the city of Mashhad. Some people attacked the Zio-Wahhabi diplomatic missions during the protests. Iranian authorities strongly condemned the attacks and some 60 people were detained.

Riyadh severed its ties with Tehran on January 3.

Somalia was among those countries that declared they were cutting diplomatic relations with Iran. Bahrain, Sudan, Djibouti and Comoros also have severed ties with Iran. Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates recalled ambassadors.

The Somali government has not confirmed or denied the pledge, but Mogadishu claims the Zio-Wahhabi support for Somalia, which has been long-running, is not related to the decision to break diplomatic ties with Iran. The Zio-Wahhabi Foreign Ministry did not respond to requests for comment.

Posted in Iran, Saudi Arabia, Somalia0 Comments

CIA Plotting Mall-Related Terror Attacks

NOVANEWS

Will Likely Scapegoat Al Shabaab and/or ISIS

Mall of America Al Shabaab

AUTHOR’S NOTE

Because I, David Chase Taylor, am currently in the process of applying for political asylum inSwitzerland, which is coincidentally home to the CIA, the state-sponsored terror plots and so-called “natural disasters” I expose rarely come to fruition. In short, the Swiss CIA does not want to afford me any more publicity or credibility than they have to, lest they turn me into a modern-day prophet. They also do not want to provide yet another open-and-shut case as to why I deserve political asylum.

For those wondering why I would apply for political asylum in Switzerland, consider this: a) I originally applied for asylum in Switzerland on March 8, 2011, roughly 2-years before I discovered that Switzerland was harboring the CIA; and b) the CIA has historically not shat were it eats in Switzerland. That being said, the CIA has now been exposed for the first time in history. Consequently, they are extremely desperate and may attempt to assassinate me Switzerland.

ISIS ENDGAME: How and Why the CIA in Switzerland Created ISIS as Cover for Nuclear and Biological Terror Attacks

David Chase Taylor

SWITZERLAND, Zurich — Based on breaking news and events, it appears that the CIA in Switzerland is once again plotting mall-related terror attacks. Although the impending attacks could theoretically transpire anywhere in the world, the United States and its Mall of America are the most likely to suffer an attack.

Exactly what type of mall-related terror is planned is not known, but a gun-related massacre, hostage crisis and/or siege are the most likely terror scenarios. That being said, a 9/11-style attack, bio-terror attack, suicide bombing and/or car bombing are also theoretically possible.

In the event that U.S. malls suffer am attack, the state-sponsored terror group known as Al-Shabaab will likely be scapegoated just as they were in the aftermath of the state-sponsored Westgate Shopping Mall Attack in Nairobi, Kenya on September 21, 2013.

In what appears to be pre-mall terror attack programming, it was reported back on May 11, 2015, that 1 person was killed during a shooting at a shopping plaza in Pennsylvania That same day, May 11, 2015, a wild boar reportedly wandered into a Hong Kong shopping mall, a report designed to show that mall security is lacking.

In order to foreshadow the notion of a Boston Marathon Bombing-like attack on a U.S. mall, the U.S. Capitol Police reportedly destroyed a pressure cooker in a suspicious car at the National Mall in Washington, D.C. on Memorial Day, May 25, 2015.

The notion that the U.S. government (at the behest of the CIA in Switzerland) is actively plotting mall-related terror attacks was revealed back on February 23, 2015, when CNN published a report entitled “U.S. Staged Mock Mall Attacks to Test Readiness after Kenya Siege”. Suffice to say, practice makes perfect.

Westgate Mall Attack Kenya

Al Shabaab Mall Attack

In order to provide a timely motive for an Al-Shabaab-related revenge-like attack against the United States, it was reported back on March 18, 2015, that the leader of Al Shabaab, Adan Garar was killed by a U.S. drone strike. A day later on March 19, 2015, the Pentagon stated that Garar was the mastermind behind the Kenya mall attack. Needless to say, the Swiss CIA was the “mastermind” of the Westgate Shopping Mall Attack in Kenya.

Ahmed Abde Godane, the alleged Al Shabaab leader behind the Westgate Mall Attack, was previously killed back on September 2, 2014, in a U.S. drone strike. The purported executions of these men were reported in order to provide a timely motive for another mall-related terror attack. Lastly, on May 19, 2015, it was reported that 7 men in Minnesota have been arrested for using federal student loan money to join ISIS. The arrest of the Islamic terror patsies was evidently designed to sell the notion that there is an active terror cell in Minnesota which is coincidentally home to Mall of America.

FBI Mall Attack Initiative

Starting in 2013, all FBI field offices within the United States began hosting “facilitated discussions—or tabletop exercises—with public safety and private sector partners” that focused on preparedness, response, and recovery efforts necessary to effectively address a mall-related terror attack. The training exercise represents the current phase of theFBI’s Complex Mall Attack Initiative, which was developed to “promote preparedness and strengthen public/private partnerships”. Needless to say, the FBI program appears to be the cover for mall-related terror attacks which are currently being planned by the Obama administration.

Mall Terror Trending 

Prior to a high-profile mall-related terror attack, America must be psychologically prepared to accept that this is in fact possible. Fraudulent headlines and fabricated events are a slick way of convincing people that yes, it can happen. As evidenced mall-related terror is now at an all-time high which suggests that a state-sponsored terror attack at a U.S. mall is imminent.

2015 Mall Terror Timeline:

1. January 17, 2015: 1 person was killed, 2 more were wounded at Florida mall
2. January 28, 2015: Surveillance footage released from Dayton Mall shooting
3. February 8, 2015: Teen arrested in Pittsburgh-area mall shooting
4. February 15, 2015: Suspect In Foiled Canadian Mall Shooting Left Social Media Trail
5. May 11, 2015: 1 dead after shooting at Pennsylvania shopping plaza

[Does not purport to be a complete list of mall-related terror headlines]

Lockdown Drills Mall of America

Mall of America

The Mall of America is located in Bloomington, Minnesota (a suburb of the Twin Cities), and is the largest shopping center and entertainment complex in the United States. The Mall of America, which has been the target of numerous terror plots since 9/11, may come under attack in the near future. The entity responsible for security at Mall of America is the Israeli security firm entitled Rozin Security Consulting, LLC, which has been drilling various terror scenarios in Mall of America since 9/11. Rozin’s infamous “lockdown drills” are executed monthly and are designed to trap the shoppers inside the mall with terrorists, thus allowing for a greater number of casualties and the subsequent escape of the terrorists.

The lockdown drills also allow for the termination of potential witnesses and enable the terrorists to kill indiscriminately with no interference from law enforcement who would be locked outside the mall. Coincidentally, it was reported on September 25, 2013, that Mall of America has “boosted” their security after the Westgate Mall attack in Kenya, an ominous sign that it may targeted in the near future.

Mall of America Terror Threat

In order to psychologically prepare Americans for a horrific terror attack on Mall of America, current Homeland Security Chief Jeh Johnson warned of a terror threat to Mall of America from Al Shabaab. Mall of America was singled out for attacks in a new video posted by Al-Shabaab which claimed responsibility for the deadly siege at the Westgate shopping center in Nairobi in 2013. That same day, February 22, 2015, an Obama aide also warned mall shoppers to be vigilantagainst the Islamic terror threat despite the fact that the FBI says there is “no indication” of any specific threat. In other words, be scared and prepare for a state-sponsored mall attacks.

Since Minnesota is home to both Mall of America and the largest Somali population in the United States, it appears that the CIA is setting up the necessary media narrative for an Al-Shabaab-related terror attack on Mall of America. Lastly, on February 24, 2015, USA Today published a report entitled “Mall of America Reveals Extensive Security Measures”. According to the report, Mall of America is now executing lockdown terror drills which feature active shooter situations, including armed “undercover” officers who are now roaming the mall.

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Mall of America Attack

Because the term “American” is found within the title of “Mall of America” a terror attack on the mall would forever be used to demonize and disparage the good name of America, which is exactly why the mall would be targeted in the first place. Truther.org has identified and exposed numerous “America”-related terror plots, including but not limited to:American IdolAmerican SniperBank of AmericaBank of America StadiumGood Morning AmericaMiss America, andOperation American Spring, the Mall of America terror plot being the latest. In what may be the secret Mall of America attack headquarters, it was reported on January 15, 2015, that Mall of America’s Rainforest Cafe will temporarily close.

Whether this timely closure has provided the necessary cover for the installation of weapons and/or explosives within Mall of America is not known, but it’s possible. Prior to the 9/11 terror attacks, Zim American Israeli Shipping Co. broke a lease in order to vacate the World Trade Center just weeks prior to the attacks. The vacant office space was likely used to outfit the towers with demolition explosives as well as house the homing beacons which the airplanes used to strike the respective towers.

FLASHBACK: Black Friday Nordstrom Assassination 

Back on November 27, 2014, Truther.org published a terror alert in respect to malls and box stores which could be attacked on Black Friday, the busiest shopping day of the year. Two days later on November 29, 2014, a deadly Black Friday shooting transpired at a crowded Nordstrom store in Chicago, Illinois. Although only conjecture, it appears that the slated Black Friday gunman was ultimately double-crossed and executed prior to carrying out his slated attack. Assassins and patsies are routinely executed in the wake of foiled terror plots.

FLASHBACK: Westgate Mall Attack

In the event that mall terror strikes America, it will likely mirror the September 21, 2013, Westgate Shopping Mall Attackin Nairobi, Kenya. The brazen attack was the official coming out party for the state-sponsored terror group entitled “Al Shabaab” who predictably claimed responsibility for the attack the very same day. In an obvious sign that the attack was a false-flag, it was reported on September 22, 2013, that Israel was reportedly “helping” Kenya during the shopping mall siege.

A week later on September 29, 2013, a report entitled “Was an American Security Team Inside Kenya Massacre Mall?” was published, ultimately covering for the Israeli team by inferring that an American terror squad was also present at the mall during the attack. Another red flag in respect to the attack is the fact that a renowned Ghanaian poet4 British citizens, and the nephew of the President of Kenyan were reportedly killed in the attacks. The alleged deaths of celebrities and foreigners were evidently part of a coordinated intelligence effort to milk the mall attack for as much publicity as possible.

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Wahhabi Widow Has Masterminded 400 Murders, Who Is She?

NOVANEWS

White Widow Samantha Lewthwaite has masterminded the murder of 400 people after becoming a key member of terror group Al Shabaab, it was claimed last night.
Saudi Zio-Wahhabi Widow Samantha Lewthwaite has masterminded the murder of 400 people after becoming a key member of Zio-Wahhabi terror group Al Shabaab, it was claimed last night.
Zio-Wahhabi Widow Samantha Lewthwaite has masterminded the murder of 400 people after becoming a key member of Zio-Wahhabi terror group Al Shabaab, it was claimed last night.

The British “jihadi” is thought to have orchestrated a number of attacks including last month’s slaughter of 148 people at a university in northern Kenya.

Lewthwaite, the widow of London 7/7 bomber Jermaine Lindsay, is believed to have risen rapidly through the ranks and is now very close to its leader Ahmad Umar.

The London University graduate is now coordinating car bombs and suicide attacks in Somalia and Kenya as well as trying to recruit children as “jihadis”, according to an officer in the Somali security forces.

The anti-terror officer told the Daily Mirror last night that mother of four Lewthwaite is ‘an evil person but a very clever operator’ who has been quickly promoted after many of al Shabaab’s leaders have been killed in drone strikes.

The official also said the 31-year-old Briton was offering poverty-stricken families £300 to use their children and women as suicide bombers.He added: ‘We share all our information with British agents here in Mogadishu.

They are here to keep an eye on the lady and other Britons in Somalia. ‘The SAS are ready to get her or we are ready to call in a drone strike against her. We will get her eventually’. We will get her eventually.

Lewthwaite left her home in Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire, in the wake of the 7/7 attacks in 2005 and has been on the run for nearly four years after plotting to kill tourists in Mombasa.

 

Posted in Somalia, UKComments Off on Wahhabi Widow Has Masterminded 400 Murders, Who Is She?

Al Shabaab Benefited from Western Destruction of Libyan State

NOVANEWS
Global Research
Al-Shabaab_2154133b

Al Shabaab, the Islamic terrorist group that has just laid siege to a Kenyan university, killing nearly 150 people, benefited from the 2011 Western aggression that backed al Qaeda and affiliated militias to destroy the state of Libya:

The Telegraph:

Libyan arms that went missing during the fighting to remove Col Muammar Gaddafi are now spreading even further afield…

The new report by a special UN security council committee suggests that they have now travelled even further, with Libyan ammunition showing up in the continuing war being waged by al-Shabab [pictured above], an al-Qaeda offshoot in Somalia.

Somalia borders Kenya, where Al Shabaab has just attacked a university.

Al Shabaab has “Wahhabi roots”; Wahhabism is the extremist version of Islam exported by missionary theocracy Saudi Arabia, which is itself currently carrying out US-coordinated terrorist attacks against people in Yemen.  “Al-Wahhab’s teachings are state-sponsored and are the official form of Sunni Islam in 21st century Saudi Arabia”.

In addition to support for Saudi Arabia dating to the 1930s, the US has on numerous occasions openly or indirectly supported al Qaeda and other Wahhabi terrorist groups.

The Western aggression that destroyed Libya also benefitted other al Qaeda and al Qaeda linked militias, such as Boko Haram:

  • Al Jazeera: “…heavy weapons such as SAM-7 anti-aircraft and anti-tank missiles…were either surreptitiously obtained by posing as Gaddafi’s supporters or indirectly purchased from mercenaries who had acquired these arms from Libyan depositories. …these arms have been transferred to groups such as Ansar Dine, Boko Haram and MUJAO, emboldening and enabling them to mount more deadly and audacious attacks.
  • Human Rights First: “Unsecured Libyan stockpiles empower Boko Haram and destabilize African Sahel”
  • NBC News: “Apart from benefiting from sympathizers in the Nigerian military, the Islamic terror group is able to purchase small arms and occasionally some larger weaponry in nearby conflict zones, ‘probably Libya’ … The collapse of Libya has further flooded the market”
  • Reuters and United Nations: “The Libyan civil war may have given militant groups in Africa’s Sahel region like Boko Haram and al Qaeda access to large weapons caches, according to a U.N. report released on Thursday. … Boko Haram killed more than 500 people last year and more than 250 this year in Nigeria.”
  • Washington Post: “Boko Haram … militants, who traveled to northern Mali last year to join the fight there, have returned with heavy weapons from Libya, presumably from former Libyan leader Moammar Gaddafi’s arsenal.”

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Al-SHABAAB, Somali Zio-Wahhabi Terrorist calls for lone wolf attacks

NOVANEWS

On Shopping Malls in the West

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Zio-Wahhabi al-Qaeda branch in Somalia released a video Saturday celebrating the September 2013 attack on the Westgate shopping mall in Nairobi, Kenya, that killed 60 people in a four-day siege. In the 66-minute video,  al-Shabaab calls for attacks on specific targets in the U.S., Canada, and Britain.

westgate-shabaab

“If just a handful of mujahedeen [militant jihadists] fighters could bring Kenya to a complete standstill for nearly a week, just imagine what the dedicated mujahedeen could do in the West to American or Jewish shopping centers across the world,” a masked gunman says toward the end of the video.

“What if such an attack were to occur in the Mall of America in Minnesota? Or the West Edmonton Mall in Canada? Or in London’s Oxford Street?”

Central-London-Terrorist-Attack-Terror-Attack-in-London-UK-Highlighted-in-New-Terror-Video-256856

The video raises concern it could help inspire lone-wolf attacks by radicalized individuals in these countries who are teetering on committing violent acts in the name of Allah. Online social media has helped widen the audience for Zio-Wahhabi  propaganda despite efforts by Facebook and Twitter to weed out troubling broadcasts.

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While social media sites are filled with militant Islamist propaganda calls for violence (such as how to make bombs in your mother’s kitchen or praising the usefulness of Honda motorcycles to commit terrorist acts), it’s unusual for terrorists to be so specific about civilian targets. News of the video was first reported by Bethesda, Maryland, SITE Intelligence Group, which monitors activities of extremist groups.

car_bombs

“The English-speaking narrator in this video sounds remarkably similar to the narrator from past Shabab releases,” Al-Shabab has released similar videos in the past, including one cheering the murder of British soldier Lee Rigby, who was killed May 22, 2013, by British citizens Michael Adebolajo and Michael Adebowale. In August, Brusthom Ziamani, 19, was arrested for allegedly plotting to behead a British soldier in a lone-wolf copycat attack inspired by the Rigby murder.

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Al-Shabab (which means “the youth” in Arabic) claimed responsibility for the Friday suicide attacks in Mogadishu that killed at least 25 and wounded 40 at a hotel where government officials were meeting. Somalian President Hassan Sheik Mohamoud condemned the attack and pledged to continue to work for stability in the war-ravaged East African country.

Ewwww, this sign will scare away the bad guys

Ewwww, this sign will scare away the bad guys

Al-Shabab still maintains a strong presence in the country, however, and has staged numerous smaller attacks in the capital in recent months. A suicide car bomber Jan. 22 attacked a Mogadishu hotel where a group of Turkish officials were preparing for a state visit by Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan. That attack killed three Somali civilians.

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Somalia’s future befouled by failed initiatives

NOVANEWS

Mohamud M Uluso

Nearly two decades of foreign interventions have failed to build peace or a viable state. International engagement has served to deepen the humanitarian and political crisis in Somalia.

Despite an unprecedented number of foreign interventions particularly since 2000, Somalia lingers on as a failed state, which is a threat to the international peace and security. The installation of a permanent federal government in 2012 and the victories over the terrorist group Al Shabab did not change Somalia’s misfortune because Somalia’ future is befouled by the outcomes of failed peace processes or initiatives. Foreign actors decided to welcome and applaud disreputable and lately unconstitutional agreements that sully Somali politics. Wittingly or unwittingly, they are deepening Somalia’s crisis.

Generally there has been common consensus that the peace and reconciliation conferences sponsored by the international community from 2000 to date have failed and have not produced positive durable results. But donors and neighboring countries continue to claim success and progress on the basis of disreputable agreements that became instrumental and justifications for prolonged foreign interventions.

In 2010, Conciliation Resources (CR) – a UK International NGO – in collaboration with Interpeace published a review of the international peace processes in Somalia. The review edited by Mark Bradbury and Sally Healy was titled Whose peace is it anyway? The central conclusion of the review is: “Nearly two decades of foreign interventions have failed to build peace or a viable state. International engagement has served to deepen the humanitarian and political crisis in Somalia.” This well documented conclusion is still valid as of today.

In 2011 the international community sponsored the roadmap process for ending the transition period and formed a permanent national government based on a provisional constitution. Puntland President Professor Abdiweli Mohamed Ali Gas was the cheerleader of the process. Today, he distrusts, trashes and mutilates the outcomes of the process, which are the provisional constitution and the federal government. The process has been seen as a failure.

When the federal government lost moral and political compass, the international actors – IGAD, UN, EU, and US – stepped in to run the “Vision 2016” show. Except for President Hassan Sheikh who announced in 2014 his presidential candidacy for 2016 election, hardly anyone believes in the integrity, legitimacy, and endgame of this new initiative. Professors Hassan Sheikh, Mohamed Sheikh Osman Jawari, Abdiweli Gas, and many others had the intellectual capacity, political acumen and opportunity to foresee what is wrong with each process. But they decided for personal interest to close their minds and eyes and throw their people and country into a ditch of disputes and indignity.

IGAD, UN and the EU solicited Garowe agreement between the federal government and Puntland regional state (a show produced for Copenhagen, Denmark international conference on Somalia) is another instrument to shame the Somali people for their lack of a sense of nationalism and good conscience as the foundation for nation building. Foreign representatives witnessed the conference posters and clan images displayed during the 3-day meeting to prove that Somalis like to exist as clans rather than as a nation. IGAD is delegated to be the enforcer of clan segregation (clan federalism) in Somalia.

Granting the important point about the inadequate consultation on the scope of “Secret Vision 2016” among all Somali stakeholders, the agreement seeks to make the federal government a fiefdom and reinstate the territorial divisions of Somalia into South Central, Somaliland, and Puntland enclaves. In fact, with the signing of Garowe agreement by the Prime Minister and Deputy speaker of parliament with IGAD, UN, EU, the federal government has lost the vestiges of national legitimate authority. The question is, who does the federal government represent?

A far more distrustful perspective has been identified in Puntland by researchers of the Heritage Institute for Policy Studies during their field research on federalism and reconciliation in Garowe on September 18. They reported, “A common theme in our public and private conversations was the urgent need for social and political reconciliation among the Somali people. The scars of the civil war were all too evident in people’s minds and hearts. Federating the country was repeatedly referred to as a secondary priority to reconciliation.” This observation supports the public discourse in which each clan accuses other clan or clans for real, perceived, or fabricated crimes and abuses committed by a member or members of the accused clan or clans in public or private capacity. This happens after more than 17 peace processes. Without prejudice to the gravity of abuses inflicted on any clan, adversarial accusations flying among clans are:

1. Darod holds grievances against Hawiye, Isaq, Digil and Mirifle, and Minority groups;
2. Hawiye holds grievances against Darod;
3. Digil and Mirifle holds grievances against Darod and Hawiye;
4. Minority groups hold grievance against Hawiye, Darod, and Digil and Mirifle;
5. Isaq holds grievance against Southerners- Darod, Hawiye, Digil and Mirifle, and Minority groups but forgave grievances against Northerner clans – Dhulbahante and Warsangeli (Darod) in exchange for their support to Somaliland secession.

Despite these inter-clan grievances, clans are not separated and have intense economic and social ties. But clan federalism destroys these ties. Divisive clan politics encouraged by foreign powers fuel social, political, and institutional fragmentation and chaos.

The Somali misfortune is also exacerbated by a dangerous confusion on understanding and appreciating the civil war concepts such as conflict resolution, national reconciliation, peace, and statebuilding. This confusion represents an obstacle to statebuilding. Somalis miss to appreciate that reconciliation is not only a goal but a process carried out for social integration and cooperation without external interventions through indigenous institutions established during the process of conflict resolution. The aim of reconciliation is to promote a shared narrative about the civil war and the future under the rule of a democratic state. The shared narrative about the civil war prohibits repetition of group narratives developed before conflict resolution.

Furthermore, the cited observation of the Heritage researchers questions the raison d’être of the federal government and the aptness to form federal member states on clan identity. The shared aspirations of the Somali citizens are to get true justice, equality, accountability and effective participation in the political process at all levels and places. Somaliland and Puntland provide empirical evidence for exclusion and marginalization. Poverty, hunger, social injustice, corruption, and abuse of power, human rights violations are all considered violence.

The Prime Minister of Canada, Stephan Harper, said in his speech at the 2014 UN General Assembly meeting that: “Where human misery abounds, where grinding poverty is the rule, where justice is systematically denied, there is no real peace, only the seeds of future conflict. We understand how the worst of human nature – perverse ideologies, religious extremism, and the lust for power and plunder – can rob people in so many places of property, of hope, and of life itself.” Humanitarian organizations are warning of famine and acute economic deprivation in Mogadishu.

The released 2014 report of the UN Somalia and Eritrea Monitoring Group (SEMG) details incredible levels of misappropriation of public funds used for partisan agendas which constitute threats to peace and security. The rate of misappropriation is estimated at between 70 and 80 percent, while around a third (1/3) of domestic revenues from Mogadishu port cannot be accounted for. More alarming, the report reveals that Al Shabab receives a lion share of $ 250 million revenue from the charcoal exported in 2013-2014 through seaports controlled by African Union and Somali government forces. Secret foreign contracts with foreign private companies became major sources of dirty financial resources outside the public financial management control. These unprecedented scandals could bring down the federal government before 2016 election.

The solution could be a Somali owned initiative that responds to the principles of the New Deal Strategy endorsed by the international community. Clan based governments are recipe for corruption and clan antagonism that will perpetuate the failed state condition.

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Stoning in Lower Shebelle: Recent incidents highlight continued brutality

NOVANEWS

SIHA is calling for action from both parties within and outside Somalia to prevent stoning and other form of torture and violence from continuing to cripple the ability of Somali people to lead viable lives

In a series of actions that violate human rights norms and humanitarian, customary, domestic, and Islamic forms of law, al-Shabab militants operating in rural areas of Lower Shebelle region of Somalia recently stoned to death Safia Ahmed Jimale, a 33-year old mother found guilty of adultery (zina) and 18-year old Hasan Ahmad Ali, who was found guilty of rape.

‘The stoning emphasizes the continued suffering of Somali civilians in the name of dubious and militant interpretations of Islamic law,’ said Hala Elkarib, Director of SIHA. The stoning also represents a broader trend, which SIHA regularly confronts, whereby militancy is used by select groups despite the presence and validity of peaceful and social-justice oriented interpretations of Islam which carry currency for far larger segments of the global Muslim population.

Further, in Ms. Jimale’s case, she was alleged by al-Shabaab authorities to have confessed to the crime of adultery. A confession by an alleged adulterer negates the obligation of the accusing tribunal to ‘prove’ that the adultery occurred, with proof of adultery typically relying on the testimony of four witnesses said to have directly witnessed the illicit act. In Somalia and other areas of the world where stoning has occurred, the confessions of the accused have often been fabricated to make up for a lack acceptable proof the act occurred. In 2008, 13-year old Aisha Duhulow’sfiling of a police report after she was gang raped by three armed men was considered by al-Shabab as evidence of her ‘confession’ to the crime of adultery and led to her execution by stoning. Similar ‘confessions have led to stoning sentences in other contexts in recent years. The tribunal verdict issued in regards to Mr. Ali demonstrates that even in absence of a supposed confession, the proving of accused’s guilt as mandated by Islamic law is not a priority – Mr. Ali denied that he had raped anyone, had said the sex was consensual, yet was judged guilty and executed nonetheless without the required witnesses which Islamic law says are necessary to file a guilty verdict on charges of adultery or rape.

Additionally, SIHA has established that Ms. Jimale was mentally unfit to stand trial, make confessions for crimes, or receive punishment for crimes. A small-scale trader from Barawe who witnessed Ms. Jimale’s execution told SIHA that it was widely-known in Barawe that Ms. Jimale was mentally unwell, and that her family repeatedly communicated this fact with al-Shabab prior to the sentencing and execution. In Islamic law, mentally unwell individuals, referred to as majnun, are said to lack legal responsibility (taklif) for their actions, and thus are not eligible for the punishments mandated by Islamic law for mentally well adults. Violations of Islamic law committed by majnun, such as the alleged adultery committed by Ms. Jimale, are viewed in Islamic jurisprudence as unintentional acts and are therefore not punishable. Despite there being a clear process in place in Islamic jurisprudence for establishing the mental capacity of the accused to stand trial, no such process appears to have been engaged in by al-Shabab tribunal members prior to the stoning.

A closer look at classical and Islamic jurisprudence emerging from madhhahib as early as the 8th century reveals scholarship discouraging the brutality of stoning. It is unacceptable that in the 21st century the decisions to stone a person to death is still being made in any part of the Muslim world despite a wealth of accumulated knowledge, wisdom and interpretations of Islam not supporting the practice.

The brutality of stoning lacks, therefore, a foundation in Islamic law, and acts of stoning carried out against Somali citizens ought to be understood not as something which select groups are compelled to do because of religious affiliation but more simply as the preference of some to employ violence as a means of intimidation and population control.

SIHA is calling for action from both parties within and outside Somalia to prevent stoning and other form of torture and violence from continuing to cripple the ability of Somali people to lead viable lives and contribute to the rebuilding of their country.

TO THE INTERNATIONAL MUSLIM COMMUNITY:

The continuation of stoning carried out in the name of Islam must be challenged by Muslim communities and countries around the world. [url=http://www.trust.org/item/20130927172339-hoq1u/]Stoning is not part of the legal system in most Muslim countries[/url=]; these States should share their experience with countries in the Horn of Africa which are resistant or unable to pursue abolishing the practice.

TO INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS ACTORS AND POLICY MAKERS:

Respond proactively to incidents of stoning and other terror occurring in Somalia and advocate for the referencing the universality of human rights protections like the UN Convention Against Torture which is binding whether or not a State or party is present as a signatory;
Develop means of receiving information from communities which have experienced violence through strengthened communication and funding channels to locally based human rights defenders and organizations;

Maintain pressure on the Government of Somalia as well as the African Union Mission to Somalia (AMISOM) to improve on their capacity to improve security in regions across Somalia;

Ensure AMISOM forces work towards the establishing security of Somalia and avoid becoming perpetrators in human rights violations themselves. Encourage, by liaising with donor nations contributing to AMISOM, the development of stronger oversight and justice mechanisms for any armed forced discovered to be committing human rights violations, particularly sexual violence and extrajudicial killing.

TO THE GOVERNMENT OF SOMALIA:

Ensure that the Human Rights Commission mandated by the Constitution receives necessary parliamentary support to become an effective body by which human rights violations like stoning can be investigated and perpetrators of human right violations brought to relevant judiciary bodies;

Work to build and maintain security corridors by which qualified human rights agencies, humanitarian actors, and key stakeholders can gain better access to key regions in southern Somalia where significant human right violations are known to occur in an atmosphere of impunity. Increasing the ‘footprint’ of human right and humanitarian actors is an established means of deterring extremism and supporting isolated communities suffering under it.

FURTHER NOTES:

In terms of Human Rights Law (HRL), the broadly reaching Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) in instructive regarding punishments like stoning; acts of torture committed by any party constitute violations of a variety of articles of the UDHR, particularly those protecting against violations of human dignity (Article 1), protecting against torture and cruel punishment (Article 5), and guaranteeing fair trial (Article 10) and Article 30, which broadly prohibits acts of individual States or groups to attempt to destroy or invalidate human rights contained in the UDHR. In Customary International Law (CIL), the most relevant instrument regarding stoning is likely the UN Convention Against Torture, which is increasingly becoming absorbed into customary law world over and also underpins other international prohibitions (see: Article 5, African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights) against punishments like stoning. Given that Somalia is beset by a non-international armed conflict, International Humanitarian Law (IHL), is also a key consideration. At the time of Ms. Jimale’s execution in Barawe, al-Shabab was the de facto controlling force in what was at the time their last stronghold in southern Somalia. IHL regarding occupying forces is most clearly spelled out in the 1907 Hague Regulations and the Fourth Geneva Convention. Under these obligations, occupying forces ‘must respect the laws in force in the occupied territory,’ ‘must take measures to restore and ensure, as far as possible, public order and safety,’ and must comply with [url=https://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/misc/69mjxc.htm]a variety of prohibitions against torture[/url=] and other forms of ill treatment, all regulations which are violated by the stoning of civilians.

Somali domestic law, represented by the Provisional Constitution adopted in 2012, also has important prohibitions against violence against women, torture, and inhumane treatment (Article 15.2). Additionally, the Constitution mandates the forming, in the face of clear incidents of human right violations occurring within Somalia, of a Human Rights Commission charged with identifying and investigating allegations of human rights violations (Article 41.1-2). Yet, despite extreme violence and human rights violations occurring throughout Somalia since the adoption of the Constitution, the Somali Parliament has consistently lagged behind to form a viable Human Rights Commission and to clearly define leadership, roles, and objectives of the Commission.

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