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“Fake Scholarship” and the Future of America’s University

"Class and Conflict" at  the "Neoliberal" University

Harvard University has established a modern version of the Catholic Church’s Index Librorum Prohibitorum, a list of prohibited online publications which are tagged as “fake” and “false”, broadly following the politically tainted “List” of censored independent and alternative media. As we recall the Catholic Church’s Index was a list of books “deemed heretical, anti-clerical or lascivious”.1 

Ex Cathedra, Harvard has decided in one fell swoop that virtually the entire US based “Alternative Media” pertaining to tens of thousands of authors would be categorized not only as fake news, but fake science, knowledge and analysis.

The Harvard Index however goes far beyond the Catholic Church’s Index which selectively banned books after careful reading, review and evaluation within the Church’s hierarchy. This frivolous decision by Harvard constitutes a violation of the most fundamental principles of  university education which are debate, discussion, critique and analysis.

The Harvard Index acts as a Lynchpin. It establishes a “new normal”, a guideline to colleges and universities across the land, regarding what we can or cannot read, what we can or cannot write. 

Is it a conspiracy? Yes it is.  Harvard’s Index broadly undermines the foundation of University education. It instates academic mediocrity.

In turn, the targeted websites– including Global Research-  are the object of a “wiki-smear” campaign, which has become embedded in online search engines. The latter tend to be increasingly skewed against alternative media content.

The “alternative media” sites are thereby casually tagged as promoting “fake news” and “conspiracy theories”.

Harvard Library lists the “authoritative” “Fact-Checking” sites and Plugins required by both students and professors to detect ‘Fake news”.

The “universus” is the totality of  analysis and conceptualization: debate, discussion, observation, critique, interaction. The University as an institution encompasses the development of knowledge, learning and research in the sciences, humanities, philosophy, history, social sciences, applied sciences, medicine, the study of law and justice, engineering, environmental analysis, policy analysis, management as well as all creative endeavors in the fine arts and music.

The various interrelated disciplines constitute the “universus”, the totality of knowledge, the learning process which characterizes humanity. Collegiality is what unites teachers, researchers (colleagues) within an academic environment in which independence of thought and mutual respect prevail.

Of course there are dominant schools of thought particularly in establishment academic institutions, certainly in the fields of economics and political science; there are vested interests which pervade academia, there is ideology and “politically correct” perspectives which pervade teaching and research.  But there is also plurality of thought and freedom of expression. Students are not discouraged or prevented from reading from an Index of prohibited books and publications.

The university is the place where universal values are debated. The advance of knowledge is humanity’s guiding force.

Harvard established their list without reading or even consulting the contents of the alleged fake online publications.

We’re talking about an extensive archive of hundreds of thousand of articles and authors including award winning scientists, prominent journalists, university professors, Nobel laureates, artists, actors, movie directors, distinguished politicians including  members of the US Congress as well as young and committed authors and bloggers, not to mention university, college and high school students. Ironically, within this extensive archive are numerous university professors, prominent researchers, many of whom coincidentally are graduates of America’s “best” universities (including Harvard).

What are the implications? Is Harvard’s Censorship initiative, as a “leading” Ivy League institution intent upon triggering  a process whereby universities in the US, Canada  and Western Europe establish what is true and what is false, without analysis, dialogue or critique, thereby banning the truth and upholding the lie?

America’s global military agenda, not to mention extensive war crimes is supported by a vast propaganda apparatus which now”officially” includes Harvard University.

What is the endgame?

The filtering out and the eventual closing down of the alternative online media?

The systematic smearing of critical thought?

The transformation of the university into a de facto instrument of indoctrination, where science and knowledge are used to justify police state surveillance and America’s hegemonic wars?

Within America’s universities, the learning process is to be revamped. Alternative views are to be discarded. Critical debate on the geopolitics of war are to be foreclosed.  The criminalization of US politics is not an object of debate within the nation’s colleges and universities.

How is this carried out.

Students –who unduly refer or quote independent or dissident scholars and scientist–  will not be allowed to graduate.

In turn, the universities will not recruit professors and researchers who do not conform to establishment scholarship.

Critical debate and plurality are gradually phased out. It’s a reproductive process which consists in eliminating dissident views within academia.

The American Inquisition

An inquisitorial system is unfolding in some regards similar to the Spanish inquisition. A consensus building process is established within the nation’s institutions of higher learning.  It requires social subordination in areas of analysis and scientific research.

The political consensus cannot be questioned. In its contemporary version, the inquisition requires and demands submission to the notion that war is a means to spreading Western values and democracy. And the university is part of a consensus building process, whereby concepts and realities are turned upside down.

War is peace. The ‘big lie’ becomes the truth … and the real truth becomes a ‘conspiracy theory’.

And a witch hunt against the independent media is launched.

Those who are committed to the Truth are categorized as “Terrorists”. War is upheld as a peace-making endeavor. When war becomes peace, the Lie becomes the truth. There is no turning backwards.

When war is upheld as a humanitarian endeavor,  the judicial system is criminalized, the entire international legal system is turned upside down: pacifism and the antiwar movement are criminalized.

Has Harvard joined the bandwagon, with precise guidelines to its professors and students? Has academia joined the corporate media in obfuscating the unspoken truth, namely that America’s hegemonic wars destroy humanity?

The compliance of intellectuals within “leading”universities and research institutions is crucial to sustaining the “Big Lie”. Opposing the war is taboo within colleges and universities.

The Lie prevails. A world of fantasy permeates the mainstream media. The Universus is fractured and destroyed. Concepts are turned upside down.  Political insanity prevails.

We are at a dangerous crossroads in our history. No more scientific analysis, no more critique: Tactical nuclear weapons (B61-11) “are harmless to the surrounding civilian population because the explosion is underground” (according to co-opted “scientists” on contract the Pentagon). Those who decide on waging nuclear war believe their own propaganda. They are totally ignorant as to the broader consequences of using nuclear weapons.

The danger of a third world war is obfuscated by both the media and academia. University scholarship conforms.

When Propaganda becomes knowledge

Analysis and debate on the impacts of global warfare and the future humanity are foreclosed.  The University now tells us: you have a responsibility to support “humanitarian wars”.

The Big Lie must be exposed for what it is and what it does.

It sanctions the indiscriminate killing of men, women and children.

It destroys families and people. It destroys the commitment of people towards their fellow human beings.

It prevents people from expressing their solidarity for those who suffer. It upholds war and the police state as the sole avenue.

It destroys both nationalism and internationalism.

When the lie becomes the truth there is no turning backwards. (Michel Chossudovsky, When the Lie Becomes the Truth

Action

Break the propaganda and media disinformation nexus.

Rebuild the anti-war movement,

Initiate a broad movement in colleges, universities against “Fake Scholarship”.

Note

1. See Grendler, Paul F. “Printing and censorship” in The Cambridge History of Renaissance PhilosophyCharles B. Schmitt, ed, Cambridge University Press, 1988, pp. 45–46. Quoted by Wikipedia.

Posted in USA, Education0 Comments

The Birth of AI-Wahabi Movement And it’s Historic Roots

NOVANEWS

By: John Phoenix

Image result for AI-Wahhabi Movement CARTOON

The Birth of AI-Wahabi Movement and it’s Historic Roots

Preface

1. The purpose ofthis study is to learn about the history of AI-Wahabi Movement and the harmful elements it contains.

AI-Wahabi movement claims that; it strives to recant all kinds of polytheism, but such allegations at the time of practice have transformed into the killing of Muslims, destructing, demolishing, and promoting the turmoil. So we can say that such behaviour with its pure superficial and discriminating teachings is nothing but a deadly weapon in the hand of the occupation and the enemies of Islam who use AI-Wahabi Movement in the political arena to prevent the unity of Muslims.

We have to frankly say that; AI-Wahabi’s superficial and false teachings, and grasping on to the shell is the main obstacle standing in the way of Muslims’ goal to unit, and the biggest cause ofthe killing, dispersing, and breaking up of Muslims.

This kind of hostility towards Muslims, antagonising them, considering them disbelievers, hitting them, insulting them, and hurting them reveals an ugly and dangerous face of AI-Wahabi features which depicts it as a destructive and chaotic group raising the slogan of destruction, savageness and harshness. 1

The classification markings are original to the Iraqi documents and do not reflect current US classification.

2. AI-Wahabi today is subconsciously working in all its power on promoting occupation in all its power in order to achieve its despicable desires. The Wahabis have worn the Muslim robe inside out therefore; they couldn’t apprehend any of the Muslim goals, because how is it possible for someone who seeks the help of infidels to speak of unity? They sign treaties of peace and friendship with the criminals, surrender and bow in front of the masters of rotten politics.

3. Therefore; I wanted in my study to focus on the history of this movement from the stand point ofits relation with the British government and how Britain had employed all its spies in Muslim countries in order to establish and spread this movement to destroy Muslim religion and create heterodoxies in Islam.

I also wanted to touch on the creator of this movement; Muhammad Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab, his meetings with Muhammad Bin Su’ud and their agreement to support each other, and in conclusion show opinions of historians and writers who discussed this movement, and the history of the Su’ud Family which many have agreed that it is on of the destructive religious movements that is conceived, extreme and aiming to destroy Islam through Jews and British.

The Purpose:

4. To find the connection between this movement and the British government and how they found the so called; Muhammad Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab, and his meetings with the leaders of Sa’ud Family to facilitate their suspicious plans which aim at striking at Islam and create division among Muslim.

First Topic:

Britain and its animosity towards Islam

Britain and fabrication ofbeliefs to serve dispersion

Britain’s goals to weaken the Muslim religion

The British plans to dominate the Muslim countries

How Britain deployed its spies and created differences among Muslims.

 

Britain and making up of beliefs to serve dispersion:

5. Colonialism continues to look for ways to force its power, and still uses its old slogan (divide and rule), and one of the most important methods of achieve that is to create a decadent environment of disbelieving and immoral society therefore; colonialism tops the list ofimportant and major factors which create the environment of disbelieve and immorality in a Muslim society, and in creating a sense of distrust among Muslim groups and false accusations. We will not be exaggerating if we say that the most successful methods used by colonialism to weaken the strength of Muslims and demolish Islam; are the methods of dividing, discriminating and fabricating believes and creating profits.

In order to reveal the reasons which made the colonialism go this rout and the goals desired from it, and the methods used to achieve such goals; we have to mention few things before we go into our main topic.

Britain’s objectives from the weakening of the Muslim religion:

6. Colonialism countries face so many obstacles among each other when attempting to dominate powerless countries, for the purpose of plundering the material and immaterial wealth ofthese countries. It was never as simple as to occupy a country and have its people welcome them with open arms. At minimum, at the very beginning they are faced with many problems and obstacles. There were so many factors that made people oppose the colonialism such as; nationalism, language, culture, and religion. Some of these factors had temporary effects on the fight against colonialism, and lost their effectiveness gradually until they lost their impact eventually. The only factor remained as a well fortified barrier against the goals of colonialism is; the influence of religion on people, with Islam in the forefront. Since the day when the representative of colonialism stood in the British House of Commons holding the Koran in his hand saying: ( Europe has to know that; as long as this book is the guide to all Muslims, we will not be able to establish the foundations for our colonialism policy in these countries) and up to this day, Islam is considered the largest barrier facing colonialism, and the biggest threat to its interests because; Islam has distinguished characteristics each alone stands as a mountain in the way of achieving the goals colonialism the thing that all other religions lack.

The teachings of colonialism [I think that this is a misprint and the correct sentence should be the teachings ofIslam] and its political worship rituals, have always been a danger to colonialism and its objectives because; Islam refuses all forms of colonialism and exploitation in any shape or form 4 , condemn, motivate Muslims to fight injustice and tyrants, calls for struggle to bring social fairness in all areas on the face of earth, and to free the weak from slavery and occupation. And it goes without saying that this struggle is not only to free Muslims alone, but it is for saving all weak nations in the world and free them.

7. Therefore; Islam finds itself obligated to extend a helping hand to all liberation movements as much as possible “0 ye who believe! Take not my enemies and yours as friends (or protectors) – offering them your love”l, “These are the ones who wait and watch about you” 2, “Let not the Believers take for protectors Unbelievers, rather than Believers”3 then it puts forth the motto of adhering to God for he is the ultimate master “And hold fast all together, by the Rope which Allah stretched out for you, and be not divided among yourselves”4  “A Believer is a brother of another Believer, they are like one body if one part is in pain the rest of the body parts suffer the same way”. “Muhammad is the messenger of Allah; and those who are with him are strong against unbelievers, but compassionate amongst each other.” 5.  Muslims are responsible one to another and get angry at infidels and don’t get into compromises with them, “Truly Allah loves those who fight in his cause in battle array, as if they were a solid cemented structure”6. This meaning has always been the source of inspiration and strength for all Muslims in their struggle against tyrants and arrogant throughout history. Such content of Islam has created in the heart of Islam, all this movement, enthusiasm, creativity, change, and steadiness in fighting injustice. If we were to study all uprisings which took place in the recent century; we would have more dearly found the role of Islamic teaching in stirring those people against injustice, arrogance and oppression. Friend and enemy admit, for example, admit to the dynamics prompted by Islam in the liberation revolution of the Algerian people which threw the French occupation outside the 10 of 56 172 The classification markings are original to the Iraqi documents and do not reflect current US classification. -11- country. About this wrote two well known writers; (Collette) and (Francis Johnson)7 (No doubt that Islam had a great influence on the Algerians, demand for freedom, and the Algerians have become aware since day one of the French occupation’s objective to destroy Islam, and based on this they come to realise that Islam is their way to liberation, and they all have to hold on to Islam in order to be liberated). And when colonialism found it hard to penetrate Islam, it started to look for a successful way to fight it and started to use all its power and capabilities to remove this obstacle, and tried all kinds of methods to achieve its objective. Such methods are the following:

A. Direct confrontation First, by direct military confrontation such as the Crusaders war, and military occupation ofIslamic countries as in the case of Libya, Iraq, Afghanistan, Algeria and others. Second, by attacking Islamic teachings by means of; twisting and reversing their principles, accusing Islam, and slandering its sanctuaries.

B. Indirect confrontation First, promote immoralities and corruption among Muslims to weaken their adherence to religion. Second, promote feelings of nationalist and patriotism to divide individuals as well as groups into different parties in Islamic countries. Third, create division and dissimilarities by spreading accusations, mistrust, and suspension among Muslims.

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Foot Notes:
1 Al-Mumtahinah: 1 [CL: verse 1 from the Koran Chapter Al-Mumtahinah]
2 Al-Nisa’: 141 [CL: verse 141 from the Koran Chapter Al-Nisa’]
3 Al ‘Urnran: 28 [CL: verse 28 from Koran Chapter Al-‘Urnran]
4 Al ‘Urnran: 103 [CL: verse 103 from Koran Chapter Al-‘Urnran]
5 AI-Fath: 29 [CL: verse 29 from Koran Chapter Al-Fath]
6 Al-Saff: 4 [CL: verse 4 from Koran Chapter Al-Saff]
7 “2 schools” cited from Propagation and Colonialism in Arabic Countries by Dr. Mustafa Khalid; page 64. 5

 

The British Plans to Dominate Islamic Countries

8.In 1973, the autobiography of the British spy Humfer in regards to his work in Iraq and Istanbul was translated, and it included the British plans to dominate the Muslim countries. Great Britain has been, since long time ago, thinking about keeping its influence on its many colonies in India, China, the Middle East and others. It is true that it wasn’t actually controlling big parts of these countries because; it was in the hands of its own people, but its policy was a successful and effective policy, and it used to think twice. 1

a. Once to continue controlling what has been practically controlled.

b. And once to add to its properties what hasn’t been practically controlled. And based on this, the British government had allocated special committees in every part of these countries particularly to study the task:

First: India

Through the “Eastern Company of India”, whose apparent role was strictly commercial, yet deep inside was to strengthen the means to control India and the roads leading to these huge lands extending to the end of the continent. The British government was so sure ofIndia where the nationalities are different; religions are scattered, dissimilar languages, and conflicting interests. And this way the government was sure of China where; the Buddhism and the Confucianism, which is the most prominent in that country, both were not a threat for they are dead religions focusing on the spiritual side and have no connection with the living side therefore; it was far fetched to see a feeling of patriotism among people of these two areas. And that is why the British government had no concern when it came to these two countries, and it worked out long term plans to create division, ignorance, poverty, and sometimes keep these countries in sickness. They were applying an old Buddhist proverb (Let the patient crave his medicine even ifit tastes severely bitter).

 

Second: The Muslim Caliphs State:

What concerned the British government was the Muslim countries and they used to call them; the Sick Man. Many treaties were signed and all were for the advantage of the British government, and the outlook ofthe British Colonies’ Ministry is that the Man will breathe his last in less than a century.

 

Third: The Governments in the Persian States:

The British government had secretly signed many treaties with the Persian government and they set out spies and agents in it and resulted in bribery and corrupted administration and the engagement ofits kings in corruption and clotted the body of this country

Reasons for Britain’s fear of the Islamic countries:

9. In spite of planting spies and agents in the Islamic countries, and despite the spreading ofbribery and corrupted administration the British government was un-confident of the results due to the following reasons:

a. The strength ofIslam in the souls ofits followers against all schemes the thing that make Muslim Men different than men of other religions.Due to the fact that the Islamic features and characteristics are planted in the Muslim Man and the make him stand steadfast

b. Islam as a religion Whereas Islam is a religion of life and control, it is hard to tell the masters that you are slaves. The arrogance of supremacy pushes the human being to superiority no matter how weak or low he is. Therefore, the British government was unable to forge the history of Islam.

c. The awakening ofthe Islamic awareness The British government feared that Muslims in their hearts will become aware; the thing that if happens; will result in the failure of all its plans aiming to control. It is true that the Islamic country had reached a great deal of weakness but the existence of a centralized government which the people support and its aspiration is supremacy, money and arms makes the people unsafe.

d. Apprehensiveness of Muslim scholars The government was extremely apprehensive ofMuslim scholars, because AI-Azhar scholars, Iraq scholars and Persia scholars were the toughest barrier in facing the ambitions of the British government; they were extremely ignorant about the modem life principles. They made heaven, which the Koran had promised them of their number one priority so they would not compromise their principles and the people followed them and the sultan feared them.

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Footnotes:

I Humfer’s Autobiography

 

How Britain deployed its spies and created its different parties among Muslims

10. The British government held many conferences to remove all reasons for fear and to establish sufficient solutions for all these uneasy problems, but they have not reached a good solution yet and all the reports that they received from their agents and spies were disappointing as well as the results of all these conferences were not good. One time they held a conference in the Ministry that was attended by representatives from each of Britain, France, and Russia. It was discussed at the highest level and the attendees were diplomats and religious men. In this conference they mentioned ways to rip Muslims apart and strip them of their belief, but the results were not at the required level and(it is hard to pull the roots of a tree that had grown to the east and to the west of the Land, but man has to overcome difficulties at any cost)!

In 1710 A.D. the British Colonies Ministry sent its spies to each of Egypt, Iraq, Tehran, AI-Hijaz, and Estonia to gather information that will help tear apart Muslims and dominate Muslim countries. The ministry had already provided them with sufficient money, sufficient information, possible maps, names of governors, scholars, tribes and family chiefs.

Footnotes
1Taken with liberty from the autobiography ofHumfer

These spies started to learn the Turkish language and the language ofthe Arabs (The language of Koran) and the Persian language. Some of them pretended to be Muslims and attended the Muslim mosques and met with men of religion to learn all the Islamic rules, and they learned the holy Koran, the practice of ablution and prayer; they were taught by Muslim scholars. After they stayed for a period oftwo years spying in the Islamic countries they received orders from the Ministry to go back to London. There were ten spies assigned with the espionage duty, but only six of them returned and as for the other four, one of them became a Muslim and stayed in Egypt, one went to Russia where he was originally from, the third died in the outskirts of the city of Balad near by Baghdad because of a disease spread all over the country, as for the fourth, his whereabouts are unknown. The ministry had followed him until he got to Sanaa in Yemen and his reports were sent regularly to the ministry for a period of a year but was interrupted after that and the ministry has no information about him. The ministry considered the loss off our out often a catastrophe because they precisely accounted for each one of them.

11. The ministry had met with the six spies and listened to their reports, evaluated them, and advised them. After six months, the British Colonies’ Ministry sent the trained spy Mr. Humfer to the city ofBaghdad in Iraq in order to creat~ disorder between the Sunni and Shiites and find the weak point ofMuslims so he can penetrate his body to defuse the unity ofIslam. Also, his mission in this trip was to identify the conflicts among Muslims and create an atmosphere ofdisagreement, expiation, and mistrust among them as well as make up different faiths and form fake colonial religions to enable the colonizer to reach its objectives in creating division and spread disperse among Muslims instead of eliminating Islam and Muslims religious beliefs. the orders given by the British colonizer to its spies in the Islamic countries were in the following fashion (spread fake and made up faiths and beliefs in Islamic regions within fully considered, matured and organized plans where they preach after they evaluate upon suitable, intellectual background among the different classes ofpeople. There should be no rush…and should spread these beliefs and preach them, they should not be limited to only popular areas, rather they should be spread among the four groups of Sunni in order to create extreme differences and disputes among these groups hence each group would claim that they represent the true Islam and the others are renegades and infidels and must be killed)].

and according to these orders, the spies started carefully to study and to get familiar with the social and political sites in the Islamic societies and their extreme trends; they also started to create the necessary groups to achieve the objectives of their colonial masters. It is obvious that the colonizers didn’t do this first hand; yet to achieve their goals, they were looking for individuals who do not relish strength in faith and fear of God and possess different trends. The colonizer used to excessively offer these individuals financial and moral aids and urge them to establish the various groups. As an example to these, here we point to two groups that fit the subject we are discussing….

a. AI-Shaykhiyyah Group:

An extremist Shiite group which is active in Iraq, and was later called by the name of(AI-Shaykhiyyah), founded by a person called Sheikh Ahmad AI-Ihsani and his student Mr. Kazim AI-Rashti. This group started to praise the virtuous 15 of 56 177 The classification markings are original to the Iraqi documents and do not reflect current US classification. -16- imams to the level of God and presented many overstated notions at this level, and to pave the way for the other extremist group (Al-Wahabi) so they can direct accusations and expiation at each other.

b. Al-Wahabi Group:

Next to Al- Shaykhiyyah, the colonizer created another extreme Sunni group called (Al-Wahabiyyah). The British found in Muhammad ‘Abd-al-Wahab many attributes such as the love of glory, immorality, and extreme views so; they came to realize that he is the right person to establish the group they wanted. Thus they started following him step by step until they found the right opportunity; hence they pointed out to him, the birth of the new faith. Afterwards, they ordered him to concur with another well known agent ofthe seasoned British colonizer that is; Su’ud Bin ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz, and they provided them with the required means to attract followers. Within a given period of fulfilling the duty assigned to them, they killed Al-Hajjaj and everyone who wouldn’t accept their new faith whether he is Shiite or Sunni, was destined to death and plundering, and everyone who thought ofvisiting the holy tomb of profit Muhammad (God’s blessing and peace be upon him) and the holy sites was treated as if he was (infidel) (polytheist).

12. Al-Wahabi principles are based on the expiation ofIslamic faiths and promoting division among Muslims and eliminating the traces ofthe spiritual Islamic message. Al-Hijaz is the homeland ofthis group, and recently the activities ofthis group have increased; everyday they issue a book or an article attacking the Islamic sanctuaries. The Su’ud family spends lots ofmoney in compliance with their masters’ orders to prevent the unity of Muslims, create division among them, expiate them, and to stray each other from the right path. Both groups; Al-Wahabi and Al-Shaykhiyyah are established on wrong views therefore they brought about disorder, blood shedding, and killing 10 of Muslims. Hence, Muhammad Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab established his mission based on visions of(Ibn Timiah)and his intentions. The later was a fan of(Ibn Tawmart) who claimed to be Al-Mihdi [CL: translates the Guide] in North Africa, and his ideas dominated parts of Spain, Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco for two centuries; he was nicknamed Mihdi Al-Muwahadin [CL: The guide of those who are united] Then he worked together with Muhammad Su’ud and both their swords and the swords of their followers trickled with blood, and wherever they went, blood was flowing, and they called the Muslims infidels; they killed everyone who didn’t support them and obeyed them. The Wahabis ordeal was big and truly strange to the extent that the Muslim world up to date couldn’t cover up its damages.

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Footnotes: ] Humfer’s autobiography.

 

Second Topic:

AI-Wahabi Movement’s Missionary

Najd in History

AI-Wahabi movement and it’s founder Muhammad’Abd-al-Wahab

Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab’s trips before the missionary

His encounter with Muhammad Bin Su’ud in AI-Dar’iyyah

Najd in History

13. Najd means the elevated land; it is the name designated for the middle part ofthe Arabic Peninsula which is the largest part of the middle of the island. When the Ottoman State emerged on the political scene in the Arabic Peninsula in 1517, it became satisfied with the nominal authority of this area, and the tribalism was in full swing in Najd; every tribe had its own state, and every group had its own sheikhdom which; takes pride in its authority and praises its name.

Every governor had his own possessions and had no ties to his neighbour, and the Ottoman policy has been mobilised for that purpose. In the twelfth century of Hegira, disorder had dominated Najd, division prevailed, the gap had widened, and emirates had multiplied; the family of Mu’ammar in Al-‘Ayniyyah, the family ofSu’ud in Al-Dar’iyyah, and the Family of Dawwas in Riyadh; Al-Ahsa’ was the emirate of Bani Khalid, Najdan the family of Hazal, Ha’il the family of ‘Ali, Al-Qasyim and the Northern borders of Najd the family ofHajaylan, and in Southern Iraq the emirate was for the family of Shabib.

All ofthe families and the sheikhdoms were in a state ofinstability and confusion with disturbance spread throughout. These groups had no identified political order or a civilization that is worth mentioning, plus the ruling system was in a tribal form l .

Furthermore; there were very little documentation for the history ofthe area by its own people; ‘Uthman Bin Bishir Al-Najdi stated that: (The origin ofNajd and its ancient and modem scholars was not to the extent where they paid attention to the history oftheir land, who built it, what happened in it, who came to it, and who left it; except for very little that was written by few of their scholars) in addition he said: (Then I wanted to gather a collection offacts about the family of Su’ud, their news and their stories, but was unable to find someone who would tell me true information)2

As for the religious situation of Najd; during the era of Tasam and Jiryis, they use to worship AlTiyl which are houses shaped like cubes looking like cells made of clay rise from 200 to 300 yards in height. Paganism was founded afterwards; the tribes ofTaghlib and Bakr Bin wa’il had an idol called ( Dha Al-Ka’bayin) and Magianism grew out ofit and was joined by Bani Tamim in the sixth century A.D. Then Christianity got about and became widespread among the tribes ofTaghlib and Bakr bin Wa’il; also the religion ofAl-Sabi’ah which worships the stars and was adopted by the tribes of Dayran of Bani Tamim, while the people of Najd took up Islam, but after the death of profit Muhammad (God’s blessing and peace be upon him) some tribes have recanted and were engaged in a war that ended with the victory of Muslims. After Islam entered its dark ages; Najd became the breeding ground for myths and heresies and its scholars became divided between introverted and men who carried Islam only by name 13

After the Ottoman nation engaged in wars in Eastern Europe and the defeat that followed; the Arabic nation became under clear confusion and a state offorfeiture; consequently the control over Najd and Hijaz which is owned by the Hashemite became nominal.

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Footnotes:
1 Husayn Khalaf Al-Shaykh Khaz’al, The biography of Sheikh Muhammad Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab, Dar Al-Kitab Press, Beirut 1968 A.D.
2 The Scholar ‘Uthman Bin Bishr Al-Najdi, The Glory in the History ofNajd; part one, Al-Riyad Library, Riyadh, page 4.

Al-Wahabi Movement and its Founder Muhammad ‘Abd-al-Wahab

14. The Wahabi Movement is ascribed to Muhammad Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab Bin Sulayman who traces back to Wahib Al-Tamimi. Sheikh Khaz’al traces back the ancestry of Muhammad Bin’Abd-al-Wahab Bin Sulayman Bin’Ali Bin Ahmad Bin Rashid Bin Yazid Bin Muhammad Bin Yazid to the family of Musharraf who belongs to Bani Tamim tribe which goes back in its descent to ‘Adnan1.Whereas Mustafa Tawran states that; Muhammad Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab is a descent of a family from the Jews ofAI-Dunamah in Turkey. Al-Dunmah refers to the Jews who declared their embracement of Islam in an effort to insult Islam and to escape the pursuit by the Ottoman sultans. Subsequently; Tawran confinns that Sulayman; the grandfather ofthe sheikh, is (Shulman); he is Jew from the merchants ofthe city ofBurstah in Turkey, he had left it and settled in Damascus, grew his beard, and wore the Muslim turban, but was thrown out for being voodoo. Then he fled to Egypt and he faced by strong objection so; he left to Hijaz and settled in Al-‘Ayniyyah where he got married and had child whom he called ‘Abd-al-Wahab and claimed to be from the descent of Rabi’iyyah, and that he was born in Morocco. This has also been supported by sheikh Rifat Salim Kabar in his book, the Jews ofAl-Dunmah and the Origin of the Saudi Wahabis 3

Muhammad Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab was born in Al-‘Ayniyyah in Najd in 1703 from a father who wiped out the faith ofImam Hanbal; he taught jurisprudence and Hadith at Al-‘Ayniyyah mosque. Muhammad was taught in Al-Madinah by sheikh’Abdallah Bin Ibrahim Bin Sina’, and became a student at sixteen years old under Sheikh Hassan Al-Tamimi in Al-Mu’tasim. He was a fan ofIbn Timyah and received his education at the hand ofSheikh Hasan AI-Islambuli; Judge of AI-Basra, and Sheikh Zayn-al-Din Al-Mughrabi and Sulayman Al-Kurdi, ‘Abd-al-Karim AlKurdi, and Sheikh ‘Ali Al-Daghistani. ‘Abd-al-Wahab got married about twenty times, the first time

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Footnotes:
1Sheikh Khaz’aI, Biography ofSheikh Muhammad, Previous reference – page 42 2 Sheikh Khaz’al, previous reference – page 49, also scholar Al-Najdi, the Histori ofNajd, previous reference – page 89
3 Turan, Dr. Mustafa, the Jews ofAl-Dunamah, Translation ofKamal Al-Khawjah, Cairo 1989 – page 14.

in AI-‘Ayniyyah and also in Baghdad, she died immediately and he took a spouse the daughter of prince ‘Abdallah Bin Mu’ammar and she gave birth to six boys and six girls. He died after he suffered from a disease that took his life shortly afterwards on June 2, 1792 and was buried in AI-Dar’iyyah graveyard that was designated to Su’ud family and his grave is known there till this day!.

At the very beginning, Muhammad Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab learned from many ofthe scholars of Mecca and AI-Madinah; his father ‘Abda-al-Wahab was a good scholar and used to insult him and warn people about him. His brother Sulayman bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab wrote a book to answer him; in his early days, he was fond ofreading about those who claim prophecy like; Musaylamah, Sajah, AI-Aswad AI-‘Ansi, and Talihat AI-Asadi and such. He has four children; ‘Abdallah, Hasan, Husayn, and ‘Ali.

The supporter of Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab and the one who spread his faith was Muhammad bin Su’ud, after that his sons; ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz and Su’ud and then Su’ud bin ‘Abd-al- ,Aziz who humiliated Iraq and prevented Muslims from going to Hajj; thus Hajj was interrupted in his time for years.

15. The origin ofthe Wahabi movement is that the Arabs, especially those masters ofthe demons said that; a poor herdsman by the name of Sulayman had a dream that a flame emerged from him, spread throughout the land, and started to bum everyone that had an encounter with it. He told of his dream to someone who interpreted it as; a son of his will establish a strong land. So his dream came true in the ideology of Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab. Thus when Muhammad grew up, he became respected [CL: The study has a typo that reads Muhtarifan instead of Muhtaraman] by the people of his town because of that dream which he didn’t know of. In the beginning, he secretly revealed his faith and a group ofpeople followed him; then he traveled to Great Syria, but no one there followed him so; he returned to the Land of the Arabs after he left it for three years, he came to Najd and revealed this faith or (the Movement). Su’ud followed him and they both had strength in each other; Su’ud strengthened his emirate through religion by following Muhammad bin ‘Abdai-Wahab in his faith, yet bin’Abd-al-Wahab promoted his missionary by means ofsword. With Su’ud following him and becoming victorious through him, Su’ud became the ruling prince and bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab the religious leader and their children thereafter took over the rank oftheir predecessors.

After Su’ud became the ruler ofhis tribe, he conquered two tribes from Yemen and a large number ofArab tribes became subjected to this faith and so did all the Arabs of Najd; they picked the city of AI-Dar’iyyah to be the capital oftheir country which is situated in the south east of AI-Basra. Fifteen years later, the Su’ud emirate expanded; he had aspiration to grow, and used to take one ten ofthe livestock, money, honor, even souls. He takes one ten from people by lottery so; he collected enormous amounts ofmoney and his army exceeded hundred.

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Footnotes:
! Sheikh Khaz’al, previous reference – page 333, The History ofNajd, previous reference – page 88

and twenty thousand fighters. Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab started to emerge in the year of 1143 of Hegira and became famous after he turned fifty where he revealed the false faith in Najd and its dependant territories; starting off with the support ofMuhammad bin Su’ud, prince of Al-Dar’iyyah he prompted its people to follow him so they did. Many Arabs obeyed him, until he became strong and the desert feared him. He used to tell them: I am calling upon you to unite and leave polytheism.

Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab, according to the “History ofNajd” book by Mahmud Shukri AI-Alusi; grew up in the town ofAl-‘Ayniyyah, the land ofNajd, he read religion to his father in accordance with the school of Ahmad bin Hanbal, and ever since he was a little child; he spoke words which Muslims didn’t know and furthermore he was denying them what they have agreed to do. Yet no one helped him in that respect so; he traveled from AI-‘Ayniyyah to Mecca, then to AI-Medina where he learned from sheikh ‘Abdallah bin Ibrahim bin Sayf, and he emphasized AI-Tankir [CL: That is to deny something be it the profit or practices in Islam etc…] over appealing to the profit Muhammad (God’s blessing and peace be upon him) by his tomb. Later on he moved to Najd then to Basra; when he arrived in Basra, he stayed there for a period oftime where he learned from Sheikh Muhammad AI-Majmu’i, and lied to its people about many things so they threw him out. He fled there, and after many moves he arrived in a town called Huraymulah in Najd, the town where his father came from; he stayed with him and read to him and showed disapproval of Muslim beliefs in Najd; his father reprimanded him but Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab wouldn’t stop until they got into a big dispute. Furthermore, he engaged into many arguments with the Muslims of Huraymulah that lasted for two years until his father passed away in 1153 of Hegira and he became bold enough to bring out his beliefs and disapprove of what Muslim have concurred. The scum of people have joined him until the people of the town became fed up with his articles and were determined to kill him so; he moved from Huraymulah to Al-‘Ayniyyah which was governed by ‘Uthman bin Ahmad bin Mu’ammar. Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab allured him ofbecoming the king of Najd so; ‘Uthman helped him and he told the people ofhis disapproval ofMuslims and was followed by few ofthe people of Al-‘Ayniyyah. He demolished the dome of Zayd bin AI-Khattab by AI-Jubaylah which made him important and his news reached Sulayman bin Muhammad bin ‘Aziz AI-Hamidi owner of AI-Ihsa’, as well as Alqatif and its dependant territories so; Sulayman sent a letter to ‘Uthman ordering him to kill bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab and warning him of violating his order. ‘Uthman didn’t care and violated the order so, Sulayman ordered him to leave his kingdom, bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab told him then: ifyou support me you will rule Najd, but Sulayman didn’t listen to him therefore; he left to AI-Dar’iyyah in 1160 ofHegira (which is the land of Musaylimah the Liar) and its ruler at the time was; Muhammad bin Su’ud, from the tribe of’ Anayzah. He begged him and allured him of ruling the land of Najd so he followed him and supported him in killing Muslims. Thus he wrote to the people of Najd, their Rulers, and their judges requesting their allegiance. Few ofthem submitted to him and few didn’t pay him attention so; he ordered the people of AI-Dar’iyyah to fight, so they complied and fought with him the people of Najd and AIhsa’ many times, until some ofthem submitted to him willingly or unwillingly, and the emirate ofNajd became the property of the family ofSu’ud helplessly and by force.

Sheikh Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab was known among his relatives by his shrewdness and brightness and portrayed as active, polite and extremely hard working. He used to give his followers everything he had; he was taught 22 of 56 184 The classification markings are original to the Iraqi documents and do not reflect current US classification. – 23- 16 by great teachers, wise men, and scholars and he became the herald ofthis nation. He conformed to A1- Hanafiyyah method, mimicking Imam Aba Hanifah in the fundamentals, but following his personal views when it comes to ramifications. Afterwards he went on giving legal opinions independently based on his own discretion, and he called people upon this. Such these discretions are considered all Muslim denominations, Jews, Christians, and all types ofpeople are infidels, polytheists, and same as idol worshipers; his proof ofthat is that the glorification and reverence ofMuslims for profit Muhammad’s tomb (God’s blessing and peace be upon him), his holy garden, and the tombs ofthe virtuous, is nothing but worshipping idols. That is the same for the case of Christians and Jews who set up statues of Musa and Christ (Peace and prayer be upon him) in their churches and temples. However; devotion to God is to kneel to the very incumbent of existence and worship him, might and majesty belongs to him, and have no partners with him.

A crowd of his own tribe and the public followed him in that, and he become to have circles that have voice and can come to results. Yet he is still threatening to demolish the dome of God’s messenger Muhammad (God’s blessing and peace be upon him) and all holy tombs. He is putting before his eyes that once he takes over the power, he will make them even with ground and abolish any trace to them. Although this movement or faith emerged and spread during the era of Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab in the eighteenth century; yet the very first seed was since the days ofAhmad bin Tamimah in the seventeenth century and his student, bin Maytham AI-Jawziyyah.

Muhammad Bin ‘Abd-AI-Wahab’s Trips Before The Missionary

16. Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab’s trip to Mecca was for acquiring education and Hajj, then he went to AI-Medina AI-Munawwarah where he learned religion from narrator; AI-Sayyd Hayat AI Sundi and the scholar AI-Majdi ‘Abdallah bin Ibrahim Al Sayifin 1723 A.D. Then he returned to his home town afterwards and started to deny openly the acts of obsession with the profit, the guardians, and the holy men, and considered that polytheism. He was opposed with sarcasm for saying that which made him leave AI-‘Ayniyyah in 1724 A.D. passing thru AI-Ihsa and stayed with sheikh ‘Abdallah bin Muhammad AI-Shafi’i AI-Ihsa’i, then he entered Iraq and went to Basra and stayed at the school of sheikh Muhammad bin AI-Majmu’i located in the famous district ofAI-Mujamma’a in Basra. Because of his missionary, the people ofAI-Basra started to harass him so he left it walking on foot, and almost died ofheat and tiresome. He arrived at AI-Zubayr and returned to his family in Huraymulah after his family moved to it as a result oftheir dispute with its prince. Then Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab left to Baghdad and stayed in AI-Wazir mosque (AI-Malik bin Husayn). He worked in teaching theology to Sheikh ‘Abd-al-Karim AI-Kurdi AI-Shafi’i and Sheikh Sabghatallah AI-Haydari. He was elected Imam to one ofthe mosques in Baghdad, and there he met sheikh ‘Abd-al-Rahman AI-Suwaydi; one of Baghdad’s senior scholars. He married a rich woman there, after she died, he inherited lots money from her and stayed in Baghdad three years. After his wife’s death, Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab left to Kurdistan and stayed for one year there; he moved from there to Iran and lived in Al-‘Abbasi School in Asfahan and was educated by Mirza Khan AI-Asfahani. He stayed for a year then moved to Tehran accompanied by his student from Baghdad; ‘Ali AI-Ghazar.

Afterwards he moved to Turkey teaching people the faith of Hanbal although their faith was Hanafi. He left there and returned to Syria where he stayed six months in Aleppo studying Arabic language; then he moved to Damascus where the school ofHanbali teachings is and the home of Timiyyah and AI-Jawziyyah. There he condemned acts of Sufis, Darawish, and Naqshbandies, and their glorifying to the tomb oftheir sheikh; Muhi-al-Din bin’Arabi.

Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab left Damascus heading to Jerusalem which he then left to Cairo and lived in AI-Azhar and was the student of Sheikh Muhammad Zain-al-Din, he stayed there for two years, and returned to his family in 1738 A.D. This trip enabled him to learn about the common people, and what they do; it also gave him abundant knowledge of the Muslim schools offaith until he announced his calling and was opposed by his father. He remained isolated for two years until the death ofhis father late 1739 A.D. He was appointed a judge after his father, but because of his calling, the people of the town attempted to assassin him so; he escaped to Al-‘Ayniyyah and was received by its prince; he married AI-Jawharh bint ‘Abdallah bin AI-Mu’ammar from the prince and started his calling from there. He worked in teaching the tribes and together with the prince, they demolished the dome of the tomb of Zain bin AI-Kattab, removed the embellishments, and threw stones at a prostitute. In addition to that, he wrote the book (Al-Tawhid) which made the prince of AI-Hisa order the prince ofAl-‘Ayniyyah to throw him out so; he left to AI-Dar’iyyah in the year 1745 A.D.l

His Encounter with Muhammad Bin Su’ud in AI-Dar’iyyah

17. After leaving Al-‘Ayniyyah, Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab headed to AI-Dar’iyyah. He arrived there in the year 1745 A.D. There he met Muhammad bin Su’ud who was nicknamed AlSheikh, but he was given the title Prince and the name sheikh was restricted to men of religion. The first meeting between the prince and the sheikh was in the home of Sheikh Ahmad bin Suwaylim Al- ‘Arrifi, they both agreed to support each other and to give the religious power to Muhammad bin ‘AbdaI-Wahab while the family of Su’ud will be in charge ofthe secular power (government). They agreed and shook hands saying (Blood for blood and destruction for destruction)2

For the close relation between the Family of Su’ud and AI-Wahabi Movement, we will have a brief introduction to Muhammad bin Su’ud.

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Footnotes:
I Cited with liberty from the book ofSheikh Khaz’al and Sheikh Al-Najdi, reference previously mentioned. 2 Sheikh Khaz’al, reference previously mentioned, page 159 -160, also Al-‘Allamah Al-Najdi is a previous reference, page 49.

Muhammad bin Su’ud was born in Al-Dar’iyyah in 1687 AD. He is Muhammad bin Su’ud bin Miqrin bin Markhan bin Ibrahim bin Musa bin Rabi’ah bin Mani’. His ancestors trace back to the tribe of ‘Anzah, one ofthe Arabic tribes. Books which support the family ofSu’ud, agree thatl ; he took the sheikdom of Al-Dar’iyyah for forty years, he spent half of them, before the arrival of the Sheik, and married one ofthe sheikh’s daughters and had four boys; Su’ud and Faysal were killed in his life time, whereas ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz and ‘Abdallah ere left. He died while he was in AI-Dar’iyyah and was buried there in the year 1765 AD.

As for the books that do not support his calling; they mention something different. Yusif Hatatah states that (Bin Su’ud is not related to one of the famous Arabic homes, neither pre Islamic times, nor during Islamic times Y. Yet ‘Abd-al-Wahab Al-Shammari says (Muhammad Bin Su’ud is ofa Jewish descent also, and traces back to the Jewish Mardakhai bin Ibrahim bin Mushi; who was a merchant in AlBasra, he was approached by a group from the tribe of’Anza, and Al-Masalikh subdivision to buy from him; he claimed to be one of them and was extremely generous with them and traveled with them to Najd and his name became Markhan bin Ibrahim bin Musa, men gathered around him because of his money and wealth?

Yet Nasir Al-Su’ud; he says in his book (The History ofthe Su’ud Family) that the Saudi ambassador in Cairo, ‘Abdallah bin Ibrahim Al-Mufaddal, had paid Muhammad Al-Tamimi thirty five thousand Jinee in the year 1943 AD. to place a fake tree for the family of Su’ud and the family of ‘Abd-al Wahab and merge them together in one tree claiming that they are from the origin of profit Muhammad (God’s blessing and peace be upon him). The Saudis have rewarded him by appointing him a manager for all Saudi libraries 4. Then Al-Shammari goes back to mention that the ancestors of the family of Su’ud is Jewish because; the name Muhammad bin Su’ud bin Muqrin bin Makun bin Mardakhai bin Ibrahim bin Mushi, is not Arabic and Arabs do not use names such as (Mardakhai), (Mushi or Makwan) which were changed later to (Markhan, Musa, and Muqrin).

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Footnotes:
I Same previous reference, page 50.
2 YusifKamil Hatatah, a book by the name; Al-Mas’alah Al-Hijaziyyah [CL: translates; Al-Hijaz Affair]
3 Al-Shammari, Al-Wahabi Movement, preiously mentioned reference, page 21.
4 Al-Sa’id Nasir, The History ofthe Su’ud Family, Part 1, page 17.

Third Topic:

Invasions and the Wahabi connections; and the views ofwriters and historians

.:. The Wahabi invasions in Najd

. •:. The Wahabis and AI-Hijaz.

•:. AI-Wahabi movement and Iraq.

•:. The Wahabi – British relations.

•:. Different views ofthe Wahabi Movement

.:. Conclusion

The Wahabi Invasions in Najd

18. Sheikh Khaz’al states in his book (Bin Su’ud and Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab were in full agreement in all oftheir behaviors as ifthey were one personality with two functions in life. Thus the prince never took an important decision or started a project without the approval of the Sheikh)l. After two years of his stay in Al-Dar’iyyah, Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab ordered its people to fight other tribes and call upon them to his ideology. His first invasion was on Al-‘Arab [CL: The Bedouins]; they killed them and took their money. In 1746 and 1755 the people ofHuraymulah lead by their judge Sheikh Sulayman, brother of Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab, threw out the prince of the Su’ud family, consequently; ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz bin Su’ud along with 800 fighters marched towards Huraymulah, killed its people and took possession ofit. In 1757 A.D. ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz prepared an army in which he seized (Manfluhah) and wrecked its dam (Al-Rasha) and the fighting went on between them until’Abd-al- ‘Aziz killed its chiefs, conquered it in 1761, and demolished its homes and domes. In 1747 the emirate of the Su’ud family directed an army which conquered Shadiq, seized its livestock, and killed many of its people. In 1756 Ashiqar was seized and conquered after few invasions. In 1761, they invaded AlSadir in Northern Najd. The Su’ud Family forces killed people, burnt houses, seized livestock and money during their invasions.

In Muhammad bin Su’ud’s era, his army engaged in wars and invaded the areas of Riyadh, Najdan, and Ihsa’ in which; Su’ud and Faysal the sons ofthe Prince were killed upon the attack by Daham bin Daras, owner of Riyadh in 1747 and Riyadh was subjugated to the rule ofthe Su’ud family following many battles in 1764. In 1765 Prince Muhammad bin Su’ud died leaving ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz behind; who seized AI-Zulfa in 1780 A.D. and Al-Mujamma’a, that was famous for its hostility towards the Wahabi Movement, in 1779 A.D. And with that, the whole region was conquered; with the leadership of Su’ud bin Muhammad. In the year 1774 A.D. Al-Dulm was seized and its owner Zayd bin Zamil and its people were killed. In 1782 A.D. Al-‘Aqim was seized, and 1785 A.D. ‘Antarah was seized, and over there Prince Su’ud bin’Abd-al-‘Aziz was acknowledged as crown prince, and Muhammad bin’AbdaI-Wahab secluded himselffrom politics, stayed put at home, and referred matters to Prince ‘Abd-al- ‘Aziz bin Su’ud.

In 1790 A.D., AI-Ihsa’ was completely conquered and the Su’ud family reigned over Najd; and stirred its direction to Hijaz where Mecca, Medina, Jedda, Al-Ta’if, and Yanbu’ are; and the reign there was for the Nobles of Mecca, The Hashemite who had absolute power under nominal rule of the Ottoman State!.

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Sheikh Khaz’al, previously mentioned reference, page 265.

The Wahabis and AI-Hijaz

19. AI-Hijaz is the dividing mountains between the high Najd and the low coast line ofthe Red Sea; its most popular cities are Mecca, Medina, Al-Ta’if, and Yanbu’. It was successively ruled by the Nobles ofMecca, but when Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab declared his missionary in Najd; the people ofAI-Hijaz started to follow the course of that missionary. After the Sheikh [CL: That is Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab] stopped in AI-Dar’iyyah and began to fight his opponents and destroy domes, and the practices that are related to this missionary; the nobles ofMecca joined his opposition and declared their war against the missionary, and decided to do away with it. The first one to confront the Wahabi Movement was the Noble Mas’ud bin Sa’id who submitted reports to the Sublime Port [CL: Ottoman authority] explaining the threat of the missionary to the Islamic Caliphate in Turkey; he gained the blessing from the Sublime Port in which the people ofNajd were prohibited from making the pilgrimage and entering Mecca. After his death, his brother (Musa’id) took over the matters of Mecca and kept his brother’s position until he died leaving behind, ‘Abdallah bin Sa’id; who ruled for few days, and his brother (Ahmad) took over. His nephews; the family ofMusa’id, arouse against him and forced him out. The emirate was turned over to Surur bin Musa’id who permitted the Wahabis to fulfill the religious obligation of pilgrimage after they pay levy just like foreigners. When the power was turned over to Noble Ghalib; he deployed ten thousand fighters from Arabs, Turks, Egyptians, and Moroccans; with the leadership of his brother ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz and the nobles ofMecca he attacked Najd however; they were faced with strong resistance and noble Ghalib was forced to enter into peace agreement.
After long battles, the Su’ud family with the leadership of ‘Uthman AI-Mudaiqi were able to conquer Al-Ta’if, and Prince Ghalib was forced to leave it in 1803 A.D., two hundred men of its people were killed, its wealth and weapons were seized, and ‘Uthman was appointed its prince2 • The Su’ud family then was able to rein Mecca after it was turned over by noble’Abd-al-Mu’in in exchange for him continuing to be its prince. In the year 1804 A.D., Medina surrendered after the forces of the Su’ud family have laid a strong and strict siege, imposed tax upon its people, seized the treasures located in the grave of profit Muhammad (God’s blessing and peace be upon him), and tried to wreck the dome of the profit’s grave but they were faced with strong resistance so they left it
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Footnotes:

1 Cited and summarised with liberty from the book of The Biography of Sheikh Muhammad bin ‘Abd al-Wahab, and the books of The History ofNajd and The History of the Su’ud Family.

2 Sheikh Khaz’al, previously mentioned reference, page 375.

3 Al-Sammari, The Wahabi Movement, previously mentioned reference, page 75.

Thus were the Wahabis able to control Al-Hijaz and make its people believe in the missionary Furthermore; they were able to impose the ambitious-al-‘Aziz bin ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz so he became wealthy and began to communicate with the kings and princes of the Arabic and Islamic countries, explain the objectives ofthe missionary and its substance and call upon them to accept it. The Ottoman State was skeptical about the movement and saw a dangerous threat to setting forth its power on the Arabic countries and the establishing of the emirates which will succeed it. Therefore; it authorized Muhammad’Ali, the governor ofEgypt, to stifle it, and appointed him governor ofAlHijaz in addition to Egypt. Muhammad’Ali sent a military expedition yet it came to nothing so; he sent another expedition lead by his son; Ibrahim Pasha who gained victory over the Su’ud family and inflicted enormous losses upon them, seized Al-Hijaz, destroyed Al-Dar’iyyah which is the centre of the Wahabi leadership, and arrested ‘Abdallah bin Su’ud and sent him to Astana where he was executed.
After that; Turki bin ‘Abdallah bin Muhammad bin Su’ud came into sight in the year 1888. He was able to bring back the authority over Najd. He started actively uniting his state and spreading his missionary; he was able to stretch out his rule to reach Al-Ihsa’, assumed AI-Riyadh his capital, and began communicating with countries in the East and the West to call upon them to accept his missionary. He described himself as guardian of all Muslims and was called Imam. His son Faysal succeeded him, he was more eager which scared the Ottomans. Thus; they sent an expedition during Muhammad ‘Ali’s time and was destined to make triumph over Faysal who managed to escape and recaptured his power over Najd, and edges of Al-Hijaz and ‘Asir in 1260 of Hegira; He forced the princes ofMasqat, Bahrain, and the coasts of the Arab Gulfto pay annual levy . After his death, his son ‘Abd-al-Rahman succeeded him in 1288 of Hegira, where the fighting among the Su’ud family over the reign had started which helped the coming out ofthe prince of Shamar; Muhammad bin ‘AbdaI-Rashid. He came to be of widespread authority covered Najd, Al-Ihsa’ up to the Arab Gulf east, and the mountains of Hawran, Wadi Al-Dawasir, and Wadi Al-Rumman West. He made Ha’il the center of his state; and was caught in many big conflicts with the Su’ud family, conquered AI-Riyadh, defeated the Wahabis, and forced ‘Abd-al-Rahman to escape and go to the Kuwaiti sheikhs.
In the year 1900 A.D. ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz bin ‘Abd-al-Rahman, managed to attack AI-Rashid family and reclaimed AI-Riyadh, the conflict between them lasted for twenty years, where the Ottoman government supported the Rashid family which made the Su’ud family get in touch with the British and sign a treaty with them in 1914 A.D. thus England acknowledged the emirate ofthe Su’ud family over Najd, Al-Ihsa’, Al-Qatif, and AI-Jabal; and promised to help them against any attacks provided that, they do not deal with anyone else but them also; they shall not interfere in the affairs of Kuwait and the Gulf States which; were under the protection of Britain. Also Britain dedicated a financial aid that amounts to forty thousand golden sterling pounds

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Footnotes:
1 Darwazah, Muhammad ‘Izzah, The Birth ofthe Modem Arabic Movement. The Modem Library Beirut 1949 A.D., page 70.
and through this alliance; the Sa’ud family was able to remove the emirate ofAI-Rashid family and subjugate them to the authority of the family of Sa’ud Al-Wahab
After that, a conflict erupted between the Nobles of Mecca and the Su’ud family and the reason was that SharifHusayn bin ‘Ali; noble of Mecca, had signed with Britain his famous agreement in which he teamed up with the British and declared a revolution against the Ottoman State and became king in the year 1916 and considered Najd included in his area of reign. ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz refused that, and the conflict between them began with’Abdul-‘Aziz coming out victorious when he attached Al-Ta’if and seized it in 1924 A.D. then he proceeded to Mecca then Rabi’ and Medina and seized them. Thereupon; SharifHusayn pulled back to Jeddah where he transferred the monarchy to his son ‘Ali who receded for his inability so; it was ascended by ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz and Al-‘Asir in 1930 where he negotiated with the British and signed an agreement with them in which they acknowledged his reign over Najd and Hijaz. In the year 1932 A.D. and his kingdom was called; (The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia).
The Wahabi Movement and Iraq
20. The power in Southern Iraq was in the hand ofthe Shabib family and the princes ofAlMuttafaq at that time and Thawini bin ‘Abdalah Al-Mutawlli was ruling Al-Muttafaq, and carried out many expeditions over Al-Qasim gaining many victories. He also launched an attack on AI-Dar’iyyah, but before he got to it, the prince of Su’ud took them by surprise and marched an army to meet Thawini and his tribes, a fight erupted among them ended with the defeat of Thawini’s army and his forces, leaving plunder and money and heading towards Safwan where he was chased by the army of Su’ud whom he had defeated and returned victorious to Al-Dar’iyyah. In 1789 A.D. Thawini returned with another expedition on Al-Qasim, and with the direction and the support of the Ottoman State in 179 A.D. Similar to that, the Su’ud family prepared three armies; entrusted the first one to Muhammad bin Mu’ayqil which camped in the village ofAl-Ma’ Al-Ma’rufin Al-Ta’iff, the other one was under  the command of Imishari bin Su’ud which camped in AI-Ihsa’, and the third one lead by prince Su’ud, planned to be a cover for the other two armies. Met after the arrival of Thawini in AI-Ihsa’, and Hasan bin Imsahri assumed the general command, and was able to intercept Thawini’s forces who was killed in his tent, in the hands of a slave who was authorized by prince Su’ud in the year 1797; the thing which prompted the army’s anger, destroyed it, and helped the Su’ud family to defeat them, kill them, and chase them until they arrived at The Kuwaiti Sheikhdom.
In retaliation for the attack of AI-Muttafaq tribes; the Su’ud family, the Wababis, set out an expedition on Iraq led by Su’ud. He penetrated the Iraqi border until he went deeply into Suq AI-Shuyukh, killed its people, and violated its sanctuaries which made its escape

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I Darwazah, previously mentioned reference, page 71 24
and they died drowning in the Euphrates river in the year 1798 A.D. He left it afterwards to go to Samawah, attacked the tribes of Shammar, tribes ofAI-Zafir, the family of Ba’iyj and Zaqarit, killed the chiefof Shammar (Matlaq), and seized the money and the prizes I. In the year 18 01 A.D. Prince Su’ud attacked Iraq’s Southern border and proceeded into the Middle Euphrates, (Shattatah Tribes) in ‘Ayn AI-Tamr in Karbala’ and camped out there; he entered the city climbing up its walls in March 23, 1802. There was no army in it so; its people rushed to resist them, but they were not able to face such barbaric attacks, many ofthem were killed and the Su’ud forces took hold oftheir money goods, and looted everything inside the dome of Imam AI-Husayn’s (peace be upon him) tomb from valuable statues and precious gems. Furthermore; they took the monument located on the bed ofthe Imam, sabotaged the bed and ruined it2 • The forces of the Wahabi family of Su’ud carried out killing, looting, and destroying all Shiite sights in Karbala’3.
Darwazah stated that the forces of the Su’ud family attacked all shrines glorified by the Shiite in Iraq; such as the toms of ‘Ali and Husayn (peace be upon them) and others. They destroyed them, and looted their relics, alleging that these shrines; are violations with all their embellishments, the celebrations that take place on their ground 6554 s, sacrifices that are offered to them and the prayers and appeals which are cited for them. Furthermore; these forces have murdered all Shiite who opposed them 4.
In the beginning ofthe seventeenth century, the Wahabis attacked convoys ofpilgrims from the tribes of(AI-Khaza’il) ofthe people of Iraq near Najd. The threat ofthe Wahabis increased and they raided the town of(‘Annah) in the year 1800 A.D., they killed its people, and looted their wealth. Also; they raided the village of(Kabisah) but its people resisted them with all their power 5.
In the year 1810 A.D. a Gang of Wahabis led by ‘Abdallah bin Mas’ud reached a place near by Baghdad and proceeded robbing people and killing them. As a result of all these atrocities and others, a man from Northern Iraq by the name of’Uthman AI-Kurdi, travelled to AI-Dar’iyyah and stayed there claiming that he is seeking education and religion killed prince’ Abd-al-Amir bin Su’ud in AI-Ta’ifmosque, which is known in AI-Dar’iyyah; in October 3,1803 A.D. As a revenge for his family, Su’ud was inaugurated their prince!. Himli comments by saying:”The new ideology found very little popularity in Iraq; the alleged Wahabi armies were received just like deserters and thieves because; the tribes of Iraq, Sunni and Shiite, were not able to change their faith with one paved by fire and invasion of livestock)2. He adds about the invasion of Karbala’ (The rough Wahabis have worked up their way to the holy shrines and started to destroy them…. and on top ofthese acts, they killed about fifty people near the shrine and 500 others outside the shrine in AI-Sahn… They mercilessly killed everyone they encountered and robbed every house) 3.

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1 Sheikh Khaz’al, previously mentioned reference, page 386
2 AI-Wa’ili, ‘Uthman bin Sanad AI-Wa’ili AI-Basari, Study of the Su’ud family, Dar AI-Hikmah press/ Baghdad, 1991 A.D.
3 AI-Khafni ‘Abd-al-Mun’im, Encyclopedia of Difference, Groups, schools, and Islamic Movements, second edition, Madbuli N. book store, Egypt 1999 A.D., page 681
4 Darwazah, The Birth of The Modem Arabic Movement, previously mentioned reference, page 71.
5 AI-Shammari, The Wahabi Movement, previously mentioned reference, page 70.

The British-Wahabi Relation

21. Humfer mentioned in his biography his relation with Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab when he met him in AI-Basra, and how he befriended him and their relationship became very strong to the extent that Humfer was able to stir ‘Abd-al-Wahab in the way that serves the British intelligence without him knowing. In Isfahan, ‘Abd-al-Wahab was approached to fulfil a British plan provided that Britain will protect him, provide him with money and arms, and to give him a small emirate in the outskirts ofNajd under the following conditions:
a. Expiation of Muslims and justify killing them and robbing their money.
b. Demolish the Kaaba and the tombs of the pioneer Muslims, consider them idols, and disrespect the Profit and the Caliphates.
Humfer listed the complete details which led him to this result since its beginning in 1710 A.D. when Britain delegated him to collect information for bracing the ways to break Muslims and control their land in Turkey, Iraq, Egypt, Iran, and AI-Hijaz. He called himself Muhammad and learned Persian, Turkish, and Arabic languages in London; until he reached Turkey and stayed in a mosque for the purpose of learning. He mastered the Turkish and Arabic languages and learned Islamic science for two years; then he moved to Basra and worked as a carpenter claiming to be from Azerbaijan. People believed him because of his looks and his Turkish language. He met Bin Abd-al-Wahab there, the ambitious young man irritable and resentful of the Turkish rule. Humfer says that: (The ambitious young man Muhammad, used to think of himself as wise as the Koran and Sunna, and stipulated the views of the scholars, not just the scholars ofhis own time and the four Islamic schools of thought yet; the views ofAbi Bakr and ‘Vmar [CL: Muslim Caliphates] too, as he understood the Koran in a way different from them, and he used to say: “I am leaving you with the Koran and the Sunna and didn’t say, I am leaving you with Koran, Sunna, AI-Sahaba [CL: the companions ofthe profit] and the schools ofthought” Humfer found his long sought goal in Muhammad who used to look down upon the Caliphates and Imams such as Abi Hanifah, and said: (I am more discerning than Abi Hanifah). This Spy mentions that ‘Abd-al-Wahab started to explain Koran in light of the views they present to him, not according to the understanding ofthe profit’s companions and the sheikhdoms, and this is where he became under control, poison his thoughts, cause him to fall into mistakes, and commit sins. He started permitting himself what God had prohibited him from doing. Afterwards; ‘Abd-al-Wahab was approached to work for the interest ofBritain, and he agreed; and they gave him their big plan to destroy Islam. Following that; ‘Abd-al-Wahab went to see his family along with Humfer whom he claimed to be a slave that he bought from the market; he stayed with him for two years during which the plan to emerge the missionary was concluded. Humfer had gathered the men around him, gave them arms and money, and years after according to Humfer, the British ministry was able to bring Muhammad bin Su’ud to ‘Abd-al-Wahab’s side and together they assumed Al-Dar’iyyah, the capital of the new religion!.

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I Same previous reference, page 72
2 Loncaric, Mr Steven Homily, Four Centuries ofIraq’s Modern History, Translated by Ja’far Al-Khayyat, third edition, Baghdad 1963 A.D., page 211
3 Same previous reference, page 265.
22. The relationship between the Wahabis and Britain didn’t end after Humfer (or Muhammad), as he called himself, completed his mission. Thus Britain worked on emerging the so called Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab, and arranged for his meeting with Muhammad bin Su’ud to destroy the Arabic Islamic State, and for the sake of the British interests; the British! Wahabi relations lasted from the eighteenth century till this date. In the early twentieth century, the British began developing these relationships in a form of treaties, and to fulfill their plans; the Indian government appointed a Jewish British officer by the name (David Shakespeare) and sent him to Riyadh, upon the breakout of the First World War, to represent the British interests. This British officer led one ofthe Wahabi invasions in 1915 A.D. with ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz bin Su’ud to seize Ha’il along with five thousand individuals who started out from Kuwait to kill the family ofRashid who was against Britain; the family of Shammar was able to defeat them and kill (Shakespeare)2. Thus the leadership was tended to (Johan Philippi) to coordinate between the Wahabis and Britain, and due to the fact, he changed his name to (Muhammad Philippi) and changed later to Hajj (‘Abdallah Philippi), he grew his beard, gave a monthly salary equal to 500 sterling pounds to ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz and to his father ‘Abd-al-Rahman and 25 sterling pounds to each of his brothers. Also; he brought 30,000 rifles with their ammunition and formed a religious army that abide by the image of the sheikhs completely, and was called (the Brotherhood Army) their distinctive mark is a (turban) over the head and their motto is (The smell of Paradise is approaching, who wants to be first?) 1 .
Philippi led the first meeting between Bracey Cocas, the British envoy to the Arab Gulf, and’Abd-al- ‘Aziz bin Su’ud in Al-Qasir Camp in 1915; by virtue ofwhich he granted ‘Abd-a1-‘Aziz the medal of the British Sultanate for his service to Britain, Bracey Cocas, in that meeting, called on the problem of the Palestinians and the Jews and asked for ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz’s help by giving the Palestinian land to the Jews as a collateral for the endurance of his power, hence he said: (I think this is a guarantee for your endurance as it is in the interest of Britain that the Jews have a homeland and existence, and Britain’s interests are, by all means, in your interest) ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz replied: (Yes; if my acknowledgement means so much to you, I acknowledge thousand times granting a homeland to the Jews in Palestine or other than Palestine) 2

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Footnotes:
1 Summarized with liberty from Humfer’s autobiography, page 31-49.
2 J.D. Discove, Kuwait and its Neighbors, translated by Jasim Al-Mubarak, first edition, part one, Kuwait, 1964 A.D., page 146.

Various views in the Wahabi Movement

23. Historians and writers who have discussed the Wahabi movement and the History of the Su’ud family have differed in their views, some of them consider it a corrective movement, some have ranked it among the destructive religious movements that are he research extreme, some considered it a foreign movement that has slipped in to destroy Islam by means of the Jews, Britain, the western, and America, others considered it a religious movement at the beginning, but has been made for the purpose of the Su’ud family that is eager to control the Arabic Peninsula in Najd and AL-Hijaz. I deemed it appropriate to list most of the views I have read:
In that respect, Darwazah stated that: (This movement ia ascribed to a scholar from Najd bt the name of Sheikh Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab, originally from a town by the name of’Ayniyyah in Najd. He was educated by AI-Hanbali school of Islamic thought. He was in Iraq and other Arabic countries and witnessed what the Arab Muslims were up to from heresies, religiously and morally forbidden acts, and bad habits which contradict Islam. He began to disapprove that and condemn that, and to call upon them to return to Islam and its attributes in the book of God and his Profit)3.
Another view states that (During the days of Sultan Salim, injustice grew on the hands of every wicked giant, and so did the mighty power of’Abd-al-‘Aziz bin Sa’ud; he made roads scary, by filling them with bombs, and soldiers calling for the heresy of Muhammad Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab flaring up fires every where there is population and structure and calling everyone who believed in one God and spent his day and night praying; infidel. He permitted shedding blood of Muslims and called them by the names which are attributed to infidels)! As for Father Karmaly he says ofthe Wahabi calling that (they are Sunnis from Ahmad bin Hanbal’s school ofthought, or AI- Wahabi because the Wahabis are Hanbalis[ CL: ascribed Ahmad bin Hanbal]. Yet the reformists who are enemies from Najd called them that because they want to ascribe to a new faith and accuse them of being infidels, yet that is not the case, the Hanbalis are Wahabis and the Wahabis are Hanbalis in their faith although the name is new but the religion of the people of AI-Khumaysiyyah (a City in Najd) is the religion of the forefathers CL: That is the religion of Profit Muhammad and his Companions] and the religion of the Islamic Sheikh Bin Taymiya the religion of its student sheikh Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab)2.
Whereas ‘Abd- aI-Wahab AI-Shammari mentions in his introducing ofAI-Wahabi Movement (The Wahabi is the movement ofAI-Tunisi in Tunis and a friend of Hasan Khan in Mubal and Amir’Ali in Kalkalta) 3

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! Nasar AI-Sah’id, the history Sa’ud, previously mentioned reference, part 1 page 58-59
2 Same previous reference, page 156-159
3Darwazah, the Birth ofthe Modem Religious Movement, previous reference page 70
Al-Shammari goes back to say: (The Jewish origins had reflected on the attitude of the Wahabies and the Su’ud family who have used Terrorism, Killing, Slaughtering, and destruction against the Arab Muslims. Through their alliance with the British, the foreigners, and some of Jewish Masonic leaders)4 And Khahni justifies this as follow (when the followers of; Abd al-Wahab set out destroying domes and removing what was on the grave ofthe profit( God’s blessing and peace be upon him) from ornaments and Jewels; He and his friends were accused of infidelity and atheism. As a matter offact; There was no need for this annoyance because the base of the Wahabi actions is connected to Sunnaitself because it was the recommendations of the profit (God-, blessing and peace be upon him)s And so does Darwazah to drop charges of the Wahabis when he says (The Ottoman state & Muhammad ‘Ali, have collaborated on spreading a propaganda against the Wahabi missionary and depict it as a distorted faith, or movement, from the book ofGod and the Sunna of his profit, So in order to make their Muslim soldiers fight them because of their faith and prompt all the skins to approve that just like what Al- Zaydiyyah did with their war on the Zaydi Imams. Although there is no deviation from the book of God and the Sunna of his profit especially in The Wahabi movement there is a calling to return to the book of God and the Sunna of his profit) 6

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Footnotes: lAl- Wa’ili, Study ofthe Su’ud family, previously mentioned reference, page 177.
2 Father Karmily (AI- Khamisiyyah), Lughat Al Arab magazine [CL: The language ofthe Arabs] 1911 A.D. Page 18
3 AI- Khafni, The Encyclopedia AI- Farq, previous mentioned reform page 68.
4 AI- Shammari, Roots on the Wahabi movement & previousely mentioned reference, page 30
5 AI- Khafui, the encyclopedia AI-Farq previous mentioned reforms
6 Darwazah, The Birth ofthe Arabic Movement previously reference page 72-73
However; the professor attorney Mr. Faryid mentions in his book (The Wahabis are people who followed the method of Muhammad bin ‘Abd- al- Wahab; a man who was born in AI- Dar’iyyah, Arab land form of Najd and AI-Hijaz Ever since he was little he displayed signs of noble descent and, determination, he was also known for his noble deeds among all who resort to him. After he studied AI- Hanfi school ofthought in his home land, he traveled to Isfahan, Seeking its scholars and learned from them until his religious information became vast especially in the area or interpreting the Koran. He Returned to his homeland in 1171 Hegira and adopted the faith of Aba Hanifah and used religion as means to achieve the intentions ofhis prejudice faith or political goals, and used the method of force, adventure and war as means of expanding and attacking. Thus, the Wahabis considered all Muslims infedals and their land is the land of atheism, and should be conquered as long as they don’t believe in the Wahabi missionary that denied all Islamic schools of thought).1
Yet Muhammad Jawad Maghniyyah describes the Wahabi movement saying; (Since the Wahabi movement had emerged in the Arabic Peninsula during the eighteenth century hostility, killing women, children, and elderly of Arab Muslims in the Arabic Peninsula and what surrounded him from the land ofIraq and of Great Syria. It is not strange that the final goal of Wahabis is to destroy Islam, and create division between Sunnis and Shiite)2 Darwazah then returns to remind that (No matter how the Wahabi movement originally possessed corrective religious feature, yet the inclusion of Su’ud family in it, the mixing with politics, and the end conclusion which was led by this Great Kingdom; all of that can be considered from the features of the Arabic Renaissance and the modem Arabic movement)3
Dr. Al- Khafni describes them in his encyclopedia by saying (Al- Wahabi movement is an elapsed movement driven by Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab 1115-1206 ofHegira spread out by many. It was said that is a corrective religious notion which transformed the theroical thoughts of Bin Timiyyah into application. It was also said of Muhammad bin Abd-al-wahab that, he is the chiefofthe modem corrective religious movement in the Arab Peninsula and he followed the righteous method ofthe ancestors calling for pure unity and condemning heresies and destroying what had gotten stuck to Islam from delusions. His missionary which he declared in 1143 of Hegira was the first flare for the Arabic renaissance in the whole world and the reform in India, Egypt, Iraq, Great Syria and Morocco and others. Who were affected so; AI-Alusi emerged in Iraq, Al- Afghani in Afghanistan, Muhammad’Abbduh in Egypt, Jamal-ai-Din Al-Tunisi in Tunisia Sadiq Hasan Khan in Mubal, and Amir Ali in Kalkata then his company made him become diligent and independent, thus he established an independent faith which was acknowledged by his followers who attended to him, and many people accepted the faith)!. But Dr. Maymunah Khalifah stated that (Its is imperative that we judge the Wahabi movement by the standards ofits era in order to admit that; it brought on good deed to the region ofNajd and rescued it from the state of ciaos and division that prevailed)2
Then she goes back to say (The Wahabi movement is distinguished by a violent and strong feature; at the time in which it maintained its religious appearance, it became an extreme national political movement in essence aiming for unity and the establishment of an Arabic empire and threw out the Persian and Turkish foreign influence from the region. For that reason, the Wahabis got in conflict with most oftheir neighbors; everyone who was not a Wahabi was accused of atheism and deviation from what is right)3.

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1 AI-Shammari, the Wahabi Movement, previously reference, page 7
2 Maghliyyah, Muhammad Jawad, This is the Wahabi, AI-Jabal press, Beirut 1964 A.D., page 6-7
3 Darwazah, The History of the Arabic Movement, previously reference, page 75
Lonkirk describes the Wahabi movement by saying: (Since then, the Najdi Empire ofBin Su’ud was known by the Wahabi faith. Thus the believers of this narrow minded, anti-existence, and deserters faith have expanded their tiny state by fighting Muslims whose faith became spoiled in their dealing with their neighbors; each invasion had its religious Fatwah. Their hatred to prosperous deserters surrounding Najd from every direction made them, not just, use extreme violence yet; they committed acts that made many people believe that their intention is to attack Islam itself. As a matter offact; their toughest citizens or their most savage tribes and fighters knew very little ofthe Koran and Suuna)4.

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Footnotes
1 AI-Khafni, AI-Farq encyclopedia, previously mentioned reference, page 681.
2 AI-Sabah, The Kuwait Relations, previously mentioned reference, page 96.
3 Same reference, page 97
4 Lonkirk, Four Centuries, previously mentioned reference, page 111 and page 210.

The Conclusion

24. The many trips of’Abd-al-Wahab, his interaction with Muslim Scholars all over the world, and what he had learned and seen have affected his ideological structure. First; he studied AI-Hanbali school of thought, then AI-Hanafi school of thought in Iraq and Turkey, and the Shiite faith in Iran; all of these studies had equipped him with more information about religion and interpretation which made him conceded so; he picked up a new school of thought in which he denied Muslims, many of their traditions and worship principles, and accused them of atheism, the thing that made Muslims hate him more. His father, who was mentioned in the books they wrote, was among the first to oppose he prevented him from going too far with his missionary. Soon after his father parted with life, he declared his missionary again until his brother Sulayman; judge ofHuraymulah, confronted him and accused him of being atheist and heresy, and that is proved in the publications of Sheikh Khaz’al who is close to the Wahabis, and in all issuances of the Islamic world that consider the Wahabi movement destructive.
After ‘Abd-al-Wahab met with Muhammad bin Su’ud and combined their efforts, this religious movement became political with dimensions and goals set for power and religion, in which the movement have tried to control the Arabic Peninsula and its outer skirts and subjugate it to the power of the Saudi Wahabis, by using hostile practices such as killing, captivity, robbing wealth and properties from their opponents in addition to destroying cities, burning them down, demolishing the domes ofits holy men, and stealing their treasures as to what happened to the dome ofZayd bin AI-Khattab’s grave in AI-‘Ayniyyah, and what they did to the shrines of ‘Ali and AI-Husayn (peace be upon him) in the cities of Najaf, Karbala’, and others.
The common interests between the Wahabis and the British have agreed in aggression and expansion. They have agreed by means of secret and open treaties, the first have imposed expansion in the Arabic Peninsula and eliminate their opponent from Arabic tribes, and the second goal was to control the countries of the Arab Gulf, rob their wealth and subjugate them to the power ofthe Su’ud family. In addition to that; they passed the Jewish-British scheme to find a home land for the Jews in Palestine. The Wahabis were able to pass few heresies by mixing them with the Islamic teachings in order to enable weakness of the mind and belief in their calling. However; these myths had surfaces and were cleared up by the efforts of Muslims who have worked hard to expose the hidden evil intentions which the Wahabis were aiming at.
Finally, I ask God almighty and all powerful that I was successful in this modest work ofmine, and God is the guardian of success.

References

1. Hatatah, YusifKamil, The book of The Hijazi Matter, 1st edition, Baghdad 1926 A.D.
2. AI-Khafni, Dr. ‘Abd-al-Mun’im, The Encyclopedia of Denominations, Groups, Schools of Thought, Parties and Islamic Movements, 2nd edition, Madbuli, Egypt, 1999
3. Sheikh Khaz’al, Husay Khalaf, Biography of Sheikh Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab, Dar AlKutub Press, 1st edition, Beiruth 1968 A.D.
4. Darwazah, Muhammad ‘Izzah, The Birth of the Modem Arabic Movement, The Modem Library, 2nd edition, Beirut 1949 A.D.
5. Dixon, 1. D. Kuwait and its Neighbors, Traslation of Qasim Al-Mubarak, 1st edition, Part one, Kuwait 1964 A.D.
6. Al-Sa’id, Nasir, History of the Su’ud Family, 1 st edition, Part one.
7. Al-Shammari, Abd-al-Wahab, The True Wahabi Movement and The Roots, Dar Al-‘Urubah, Beirut 1992 A.D.
8. TAwran, Mustafa, The Jews ofAl-Dawnamah, Translation of Kamal Al-Khawjah, Dar AlKutub Al-Masriyyah, Cairo 1989 A.D.
9. ‘Abd-al-Wahab, AI-Sheikh Muhammad, Publication of Sheikh Muhammad bin’Abd-alWahab, Compiled by ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz Al-Rumi and others, Islamic University of Muhammad bin Su’ud, Riyadh 1398 of Hegira.
10. Attorney Professor; Muhammad Farid Beh, History of the High Ottoman State, Dar AI-Jabal, Beirut 1977 A.D.
11. Maghniyyah, Muhammad Wahab, This is the Wahabi, 1st edition, AI-Jabal Press, Beirut 1964 A.D.
12. Al-Najdi, Scholar ‘Uthman bin Bishr Al-Najdi, The Title of Glory in the History of Najd, Parts one and two, Riyadh.
13. Loankrik, Four Centuries ofThe Modem History of Iraq, Translation ofJa’far Al-Khayyat, 3rd edition, Baghdad 1968 A.D.
14. Al-Wa’ili, ‘Uthman bin Sa’d Al-Basari, Study of the Su’ud Family, Report ofDr. ‘Imad ‘AbdaI-Salam, Dar Al-Kitab Press, Baghdad 1991 A.D.
15. The Language ofthe Arabs Magazine, Issue no. 1, year 1911 A.D., Al-Adab Press, Baghdad 1911 A.D.
16. The Arabic Historian Magazine, Issue no. 34, year 1988 A.D., Baghdad.

Posted in Education, Saudi Arabia0 Comments

The Crisis of Student Debt in America

NOVANEWS

 

The Crisis of Student Debt in America

First published by Global Research in May 2012, this article is of relevance in relation to mounting student debt and the curtailment of social programs under the Trump administration

It was the best of times, it was the worst of times; it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness; it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity; it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness; it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair; we had everything before us, we had nothing before us; we were all going directly to Heaven, we were all going the other way. ~ Charles Dickens

We are in a time of crisis, a time of austerity, a time the where poor are getting poorer and the rich are getting richer at a faster pace than at any other time in recent US history.

We have gone from having a well-functioning economy to a real unemployment rate of 14.5% [1]. During all of this, the situation has greatly affected college students, who are taking on massive debt just to further their education. With student debt at over $1 trillion, an examination is underway of how we have gotten into this scenario and how we can get our way out of it.

The situation began in 1964 when Lyndon B. Johnson established a task force to examine the role of federal government in student aid, headed by John W. Gardener. The taskforce firmly believed that cost shouldn’t be a barrier in attaining a college education and to this end they concerned themselves with how lack of funds contributed to students being unable to attend college. Gardener :

focused on a study which revealed that one out of six students who took the National Merit Scholarship test in high school did not attend college. Of the students who did not attend college and who had families who could contribute only $300 or less to their education, about 75 percent of the men and 55 percent of the women indicated that they would have attended college if they had had more money available. [2] (emphasis added)

Upon seeing this information, Johnson was shocked as he viewed the situation as a loss in human capital. This drove him to sign the the Higher Education Opportunity Act of 1965 into law. The bill included the recommendations put forth by the Gardener taskforce that the federal government should aid student in their journey to attain a higher education by providing loans, remedial classes, and grants to college-aspiring students as well as special programs and projects for low-income students who have an interest in attending college. This allowed for low-income and middle-class students who have an opportunity to go to college.

There was an uphill battle, though, as the American Bank Association was against the loan guarantee provision. The ABA was mainly concerned about possible government encroachment in their business, arguing that “the federal government could not replicate the working relationships that locally-owned financial institutions had with state and private non-profit guarantee programs” and “the federal government would end up taking over the industry because there would be little incentive for the state and private non-profit agencies to establish their own programs.” [3] To solve this problem, the Johnson administration met with the ABA and worked to “[assure] the bankers the loans would pay them back handsomely over time because they were investing in young people who would become their best customers in the future,” [4] as well as telling the banks that the government would be the ultimate loan guarantor if there was no one else available. Thus, with the banks placated, the bill could be passed.

There were several reauthorizations of the Higher Education Opportunity Act, but one of the most important reauthorizations was in 1972. In the 1972 bill, there were several new programs created, yet one of the most important ones was the Basic Educational Opportunity Grant which sends “a payment directly from the federal government to undergraduate students based on their financial need,” yet this act also “tied institutional aid to the number of students receiving federal student aid at the given institution.” [5] Tying institutional aid in this manner only served to increase costs. According to the Bennett hypothesis, first proposed in the 1980s by Secretary of Education William J. Bennett, colleges absorb federal student aid by increasing tuition costs. (This was proven in a paper done by two economics professors at the University of Oregon. [6]) While these increases in tuition were not seen in the 1970s, they began to be felt substantially during the 1980s, thus causing students to increase their debt levels. However there was another factor involved that led to student debt increase: President Ronald Reagan.

During the presidency of Ronald Reagan, he launched a massive attack on federal student aid. Reagan’s budget included a proposal that would cut deeply into the two major student assistance programs, the Pell grants and the Guaranteed Student Loans, to reduce sharply or eliminate a series of categorical programs in higher education, and to eliminate a group of social or economic programs which either directly or indirectly affect higher education. With rare exception, every college campus would be affected by the proposed cuts beginning in academic year 1981-82. [7] (emphasis added)

In cutting these student assistance programs, Reagan went against the spirit of the 1965 Higher Educational Opportunity Act, in which the main goal was to ensure that a college education was both accessible and affordable. In addition to this, he was effectively targeting low-income and middle class people who needed that assistance in order to afford a college education. Congress attempted to enact amendments to the Higher Education bill that would allow for both programs to continue until 1985 and expanded programs such as Guaranteed Student Loans to middle-class families.

Yet, there were complaints from the Reagan administration, specifically Secretary of Education Terrence Bell, that the expanding such programs “had the potential for eroding the traditional roles of the student and the family in the financing of educational costs” [8] and that the Guaranteed Student Loans program was actually an entitlement program as its costs couldn’t be constricted without Congressional approval. Rather than actually allow students greater access to education, the Reagan administration was able to pass a plan that would gut federal student aid assistance by cutting the amount of aid per Pell Grant from $1,900 to $1,750, limiting Guaranteed Student Loans to remaining need, and eliminating the in-school interest subsidy and the subsidy to lenders on Parent Loans.

This decrease in federal aid only served to disenfranchise millions of potential college students from attaining an education. Student debt also increased. A survey done by the College Scholarship Service and National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators showed that “those students at public institutions who borrow will graduate with an average debt of $6,685, while their counterparts at private colleges and universities will assume $8,950 in debt on average.”

This decrease in aid hit minority students quite hard as in 1987 there was a seven percent decline in college enrollment for Native Americans and eleven percent for blacks. Many minority groups depended on grants and scholarships to go to college, but now their only option was to borrow money or just not go at all. This would have a major ripple effect as “Many studies have shown that one of the most important factors influencing the decision to go to college is parental educational level” and that “If today’s minority high school graduates choose not to participate in further education, out of concern for loan burdens or for other reasons, their children may not be as likely to go to college as the next generation of white and Asian students.” [9] This would only serve to further increase educational- and with it economic- disparities between races.

The situation did not get any better in the next decade as the median student loan debt more than doubled in a 10 year period, increasing from $4,000 in 1990 to about $11,000 in 1999. [10] It was to become even worse with the passing of the Higher Education Amendments of 1998, which stated that student loans could no longer be forgiven under bankruptcy. Thus, if one found themselves in bankruptcy, but had student loans, they would be in debt bondage until the loans were paid. In such a situation, the only possible out is to default on one’s student loans, however, that would not only worsen your credit but your entire financial life can potentially be destroyed as if you default

  • Your entire loan balance will be due in full, immediately.
  • Collection fees can be added to your outstanding balance.
  • Up to 15% of your paychecks can be taken.
  • Your Social Security, disability income, and state and federal tax refunds can be seized.
  • You will lose eligibility for federal aid, including Pell grants.
  • You will lose deferment or forbearance options.
  • Outstanding fees and unpaid interest can be capitalized (added) onto your principal balance. [11]

Thus, by the very circumstances, a situation of ‘damned if you do, damned if you don’t’ is created and students are put into de facto debt slavery.

This brings us to our current situation where student debt nationwide is over $1 trillion. Student debt can potentially turn into a major problem by threatening economic growth due to the fact that people are defaulting on their student loans as they cannot find jobs. A recent article came out from the Associated Press which stated that 53% of college graduates are either unemployed or underemployed and that when “underemployment [is taken] into consideration, the job prospects for bachelor’s degree holders fell last year to the lowest level in more than a decade.” [12] This is an even further economic threat when one realizes that the current level of student is unsustainable and that there will be major ripple effects on the economy when this house of cards comes crashing down.

In order to deal with the situation, there are some in Washington who favor rewriting bankruptcy laws as to allow for a return for student debt to be cleared in bankruptcy, however, this would only apply to private student loans, thus the student would still be on the hook for any federal loans owed. Yet, allowing federal loans to be absolved in bankruptcy is quite a thorny issue as taxpayers would have to pick up the tab. Once again, just as in 1965, the American Bankers Association is against such a proposal “saying it would tempt students to rack up big debt that they won’t repay [and that] ‘The bankruptcy system would be opened to abuse.’” [13] It will be interesting to see whether or not the government can once again placate the banks.

The only way to get out of this mess is forgiving loans. There is already some support in Congress as bill H.R. 4170 also known as The Student Loan Forgiveness Act is currently being proposed. The bill would fully forgive the loans of those who have been making payment for the past decade or will be able to do so in the coming years. It also “caps interest rates on federal student loans at 3.4 percent and enables existing borrowers to break free from crushing fees by converting many private loans into federal loans.” Such a bill would free students from debt slavery and “would give Americans greater purchasing power, helping to jumpstart our economy and create jobs.” [14]

This is what needs to be done in order to aid getting our economy back on track. If the government can spend over $1 trillion on wars and billions to bailout corrupt banks, hopefully they can spare a couple billion to bailout America’s college graduates.

The alternative is to have the student debt bubble explode in our faces and the economy slump into even more dire straits and banks tighten up the flow of credit.

America now has a choice before it concerning its young people: they can either set them free, aiding in economic regrowth or risk shattering the economic recovery and mantain their children in the shackles of debt slavery.

Notes

1: Portal Seven, Unemployment Rate U-6, http://portalseven.com/employment/unemployment_rate_u6.jsp
2 TG Research and Analytical Services, Higher Education Opportunity Act, http://www.tgslc.org/pdf/hea_history.pdf (November 2005)
3: Ibid
4: Ibid
5: Thomas R. Wolanin, “Federal Policy Making in Higher Education,” American Association of University Professors 61:4 (1975), 309
6:  Larry D. Singell, Jr., Joe A. Stone, “For Whom the Pell Tolls: The Response of University Tuition to Federal Grants-in-Aid,” University of Oregon, September 2005 (http://web.archive.org/web/20081011160038/http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~lsingell/Pell_Bennett.pdf )
7: Alfred D. Sumberg, “The Reagan Budget: Attacks on Student Assistance,” American Association of University Professors 67:2 (1981), 102
8: Sumberg, 103
9: Kathryn Mohrman, “Unintended Consequences of Federal Aid Student Policies,” The Brookings Review 5:4 (1987) 24, 26
10: Department of Education, Student Loans Overview: Fiscal Year 2012 Budget Request. http://www2.ed.gov/about/overview/budget/budget12/justifications/s-loansoverview.pdf, pg 19
11: American Student Assistance, Default Consequences, http://www.asa.org/in-default/consequences/default.aspx
12: Hope Yen, “Half of recent college grads underemployed or jobless, analysis says,” Associated Press, April 23, 2012 (http://www.cleveland.com/business/index.ssf/2012/04/half_of_recent_college_grads_u.html )
13: Josh Mitchell, “Trying to Shed Student Debt,” Wall Street Journal, April 27, 2012 (http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052702303978104577364120264435092.html?mod=WSJ_WSJ_US_News_5 )
14: Hansen Clarke, “Trillion Dollar Crisis: The Case for Student Loan Forgiveness,” Huffington Post, April, 25, 2012 (http://www.huffingtonpost.com/rep-hansen-clarke/student-loan-forgiveness_b_1454241.html )

Posted in USA, Education0 Comments

Zionist university to be established on Palestinian land in Salfit

NOVANEWS

Image result for Israeli university CARTOON

 

Nazi forces have leveled Palestinian lands in Mesha village, to the west of Salfit province, in favor of illegal Nazi Jewish settlement expansion.

Speaking with PIC, head of Mesha village council, Sabah Amer, said Palestinian lands have been increasingly seized and leveled by the Nazi occupation forces and authorities as part of underway endeavors to expand the Qana and She’ari Tekva illegal outposts.

Researcher Khaled Maali also said Palestinian lands in the area have been confiscated to establish an Zionist university at the expense of Palestinian lands, referring to the establishment of an Zionist university in Ariel outpost, at which nearly 25,000 Nazi Jewish settlers have been enrolled, as another case in point.

According to Maali, such moves contravene international humanitarian law, the Fourth Geneva Convention, and the Hague Convention, which prohibit the establishment of government institutions on occupied land.

Maali added that the swift pace of illegal Nazi Jewish settlement construction led to the dismemberment of over 90% of Palestinian lands in Mesha village and the isolation of Palestinian communities behind the apartheid fence. Serious damage has also been wrought on olive trees grown by Palestinian farmers in the area.

Mesha is surrounded by three illegal Nazi Jewish settlement outposts, including Qana and She’ari Tekva.

Posted in Palestine Affairs, ZIO-NAZI, Education0 Comments

A Black History Month Special: Revolutionary Struggle, Malcolm X, MLK, Mumia, MOVE

NOVANEWS
Global Research News Hour Episode 171
 
Malcolm X

I believe that there will ultimately be a clash between the oppressed and those that do the oppressing. I believe that there will be a clash between those who want freedom, justice, and equality for everyone and those who want to continue the systems of exploitation… It is incorrect to classify the revolt of the Negro as simply a racial conflict of black against white, or as a purely American problem. Rather, we are today seeing a global rebellion of the oppressed against the oppressor, the exploited against the exploiter.

– Malcolm X (January 1965) [1]

 

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Length (59:34)

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The modern history of the world is saturated with convenient narratives typically serving the interests of the victors of war and conquest.

Mainstream media discourse around Black History month is apt to ignore inconvenient truths about the indelible links between a specific set of economic relationships today, and abundant psychological pathologies diminishing others based on ethnicity and race.

The legendary Malcolm X entertained no illusions about the realities of race in America. He pulled no punches articulating the ugly realities of racism and connecting the black liberation struggle in the U.S. with liberation struggles against imperialism abroad.

The week of February 21st marks the 52 year anniversary of his assassination. To commemorate that occasion, and Black History month generally, the Global Research News Hour probes how the Black Radical tradition in the United States can inform and inspire some of the contemporary battles taking place under U.S. President Trump.

In the show’s first half hour we hear from Abayomi Azikiwe, editor of Pan African News Wire and frequent contributor to Global Research. Azikiwe provides background on Malcolm X, the revolutionary spirit that both Malcolm and Dr. Martin Luther King in his later years brought to the freedom movement, and on the need for a successful battle against racism in America that must also encompass a challenge to capitalist and militarist systems.

Profiled on this program a year ago, MOVE is the revolutionary predominantly African-American organization which claims to embrace a philosophy of protecting life. It has not been shy of criticizing the violence of Philadelphia authorities in its dealings with the black, poor and Latino populations of the city.

Nine members of the group were sentenced to 30 to 100 years in prison on the charge of shooting a police officer to death. The charge is contested, and the ongoing incarceration of these individuals, and the bombing of the group’s home in 1985 is seen as part of an undeclared war on MOVE rather than a responsibility to serve and protect the general public. [3]

Ramona Africa is the Minister of Communications for MOVE and the sole adult survivor of the 1985 bombing attack. In this week’s exclusive interview, recorded in July of 2016, Ramona explains how she came to be involved with MOVE, the depth of the system’s indoctrination and the unlikelihood of politicians within that system to bring about meaningful change.

The program ends with an update on Mumia Abu Jamal. A journalist, former Black Panther and supporter of MOVE, Jamal was arrested and sentenced initially to death for the murder of police officer Daniel Faulkner. There are numerous indications however, that Jamal was denied a fair trial.[4]

While spared the Death Penalty as of December 2011, Jamal is serving a life sentence. He has however been ailing from a Hepatitis-C infection. The prison facility in which he is housed refuses to provide available treatments that could save his life.[5]

Suzanne Ross, a representative of International Concerned Family and Friends of Mumia Abu Jamal returns to the Global Research News Hour to provide listeners with a vital update.

For more on MOVE and their upcoming conference:

onamove.com

For more on Mumia Abu Jamal and the March 1 “Water is Life” National Day of Action:

www.freemumia.com  

LISTEN TO THE SHOW

Length (59:34)

Click to Download audio (MP3 Format)

 

The Global Research News Hour airs every Friday at 1pm CT on CKUW 95.9FM in Winnipeg. The programme is also podcast at globalresearch.ca . The show can be heard on the Progressive Radio Network at prn.fm. Listen in everyThursday at 6pm ET.

Community Radio Stations carrying the Global Research News Hour:

CHLY 101.7fm in Nanaimo, B.C – Thursdays at 1pm PT

Boston College Radio WZBC 90.3FM NEWTONS  during the Truth and Justice Radio Programming slot -Sundays at 7am ET.

Port Perry Radio in Port Perry, Ontario –1  Thursdays at 1pm ET

Burnaby Radio Station CJSF out of Simon Fraser University. 90.1FM to most of Greater Vancouver, from Langley to Point Grey and from the North Shore to the US Border.

It is also available on 93.9 FM cable in the communities of SFU, Burnaby, New Westminister, Coquitlam, Port Coquitlam, Port Moody, Surrey and Delta, in British Columbia, Canada. – Tune in  at its new time – Wednesdays at 4pm PT.

Radio station CFUV 101.9FM based at the University of Victoria airs the Global Research News Hour every Sunday from 7 to 8am PT.

CORTES COMMUNITY RADIO CKTZ  89.5 out of Manson’s Landing, B.C airs the show Tuesday mornings at 10am Pacific time.

Cowichan Valley Community Radio CICV 98.7 FM serving the Cowichan Lake area of Vancouver Island, BC airs the program Thursdays at 6am pacific time.

Campus and community radio CFMH 107.3fm in  Saint John, N.B. airs the Global Research News Hour Fridays at 10am.

Caper Radio CJBU 107.3FM in Sydney, Cape Breton, Nova Scotia airs the Global Research News Hour starting Wednesday Morning from 8:00 to 9:00am. Find more details at www.caperradio.ca  

Notes:

1) http://socialistreview.org.uk/399/malcolm-x-road-revolution

2) Alan Yuhas (May 13, 2015), The Guardian, Philadelphia’s Osage Avenue police bombing, 30 years on: ‘This story is a parable’ “; http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2015/may/13/osage-avenue-bombing-philadelphia-30-years

3) http://onamove.com

4) http://www.freemumia.com/who-is-mumia-abu-jamal/

5) ibid

Posted in USA, Education0 Comments

How to remain completely anonymous and hidden online

NOVANEWS

anonymous in mexico
Maintaining online anonymity is no easy task. Today’s ad-driven and heavily surveilled internet ecosystem endeavors to accomplish the exact opposite result. Be it for national security or to sell you a smartphone, governments and companies want to know everything they can about you. To make them lose your trail is not a simple matter.

It is possible to be remain anonymous online, but it’s getting more difficult as time progresses. No measure you take will ever be perfect, but unless you’re a high profile criminal, you can make it more difficult than it’s worth for anyone to expose you.

Being anonymous has its benefits. Certain freedoms come with being unrecognizable and untraceable. It also requires sacrifice. Many of the conveniences of the modern web were built around profiling, tracking, and analyzing user behavior.

Bearing that in mind, these are the steps you can take and the tools you’ll need to stay anonymous and hidden online.

Tor

No anonymity checklist would be complete without Tor. This network of volunteer nodes around the world is synonymous with anonymity. Tor, short for “the onion router”, allows you to encrypt your internet traffic and, each time you connect to a web server, route that traffic through a random array of nodes before heading to the final destination.

There are dozens of ways to use Tor from many different devices. The Tor Browser is the most popular. Simply installing this Firefox-based application on your Mac or PC will allow you to anonymously browse the web. For Android devices, try Orbot. iOS users don’t have any official support from the Tor project, but the Onion Browser seems like a decent option.

tor browser wikileaks url bar

Tor does have a few downsides. For one, it’s slow. Tor isn’t suitable for streaming video or torrenting files. You can browse the web and that’s pretty much it due to the lack of volunteer resources and competing traffic from other users.

Secondly, even though your internet traffic is encrypted and untraceable, an internet service provider can still detect whether or not you are using Tor. This alone might be enough to raise suspicions, as Tor is often used for criminal activity online. Your ISP could choke your bandwidth, send you a cease and desist letter, or report you to the authorities even if you haven’t done anything wrong.

For this reason, we advise Tor users to use an obfuscation tool like Obfsproxy, turn on a VPN when using Tor, or both. Obfsproxy is a Tor project that makes encrypted Tor traffic look like normal un-encrypted traffic so that it doesn’t draw undue attention. More on VPNs further down.

Finally, there’s considerable speculation that the US government successfully used traffic analysis on Tor on at least a few occasions that led to arrests, including that of the infamous Dread Pirate Roberts of the Silk Road illicit goods marketplace. Rumor has it that governments also operate and monitor activity on several Tor exit nodes. None of these allegations come with concrete evidence, so take it with a big grain of salt.

Live OS

A browser is suitable for escaping targeted advertisements and occasional visits to the DarkNet, but those who require complete anonymity will need a more nuclear option. While no one can track your browsing activity on Tor Browser, for instance, chances are you’ve still got multiple applications running in the background. These applications–word processors, video players, update managers–send data to the web. Rumor has it that authorities have used unencrypted error reports from the Windows operating system to find people. Windows 10 includes a litany of tracking software that’s enabled by default.

You could disable all of those settings and uninstall all of your applications, but that’s not very practical. Instead, we recommend a live operating system. Live operating systems can be installed on USB drives or DVDs. By tweaking a few settings in your computer’s bootloader, you can launch an entirely independent operating system from a thumb drive on your everyday laptop.

Tails is the official live OS from the Tor Project. All internet traffic–not just web browsing–goes through the Tor Network. The OS leaves no trace on your computer and all instant messages, emails, and files are encrypted. It’s simple to use and is designed to be idiot proof.

If Tails doesn’t seem suitable for whatever reason, another option is Whonix. Whonix isn’t an independent live OS. Instead, it runs in a virtual machine on your existing operating system. It has all the advantages of Tails (it also uses the Tor Network) plus it is designed so that IP address leaks–which can be used to track users–are impossible. The downsides are that it takes a reasonably powerful computer to run a virtual machine and it’s rather complicated to set up.

Other options are also on the table. Kali, Qubes, and ZeusGuard are all alternatives to Tails and Whonix worth considering. Do your research and figure out what’s best for you.

Logless VPN

A VPN, or virtual private network, encrypts all of a device’s internet traffic and then routes it through an intermediary server in a location of the user’s choosing. The end result is that the device’s IP address is masked and third parties–including ISPs–cannot monitor traffic.

Most VPN providers utilize shared IP addresses on their servers. Multiple users–dozens, hundreds, and even thousands–are assigned a single IP address. This makes it nearly impossible to trace the activity of a single person in the pool.

ipvanishclient_3

VPNs are built for privacy and not anonymity, however, so we caution against using them alone if you want to truly remain hidden. Privacy and anonymity often go hand in hand, but remember this important distinction: anonymity means no one can identify you, but privacy implies no can see what you’re doing.

Using a VPN requires a certain degree of trust in your VPN provider and the entities that host their servers. Very few VPN providers own their own physical server infrastructure. Your traffic is encrypted on your local device and remains encrypted until it arrives at the VPN server. It is then decrypted before being sent onto its destination. For a brief moment, your activity is visible to the VPN provider.

This is why we highly recommend “logless” VPNs. Branded with a “logless”, “no-logs”, or “zero-logs” policy, this means that the VPN provider does not store any information about the content of users traffic. Assuming the VPN provider is telling the truth, that’s a good thing.

But it’s not so simple as that. Some VPN providers claim to be logless but in reality they still store metadata. Depending on how anonymous you want to be, this is a nuance to be wary of. Metadata doesn’t contain any information about the contents of your traffic, but it can include details such as when you used the VPN, for how long, how much data was transferred, and even your original IP address. Always skim through a VPN provider’s privacy policy for devilish details like these.

Even the few true zero-logs VPNs out there require customers to trust them. There’s no way of knowing whether they are being honest and how they will react when faced with a government subpoena. For the highest level of anonymity, then, try combining your VPN with Tor. Avoid VPNs based in the United States and Europe, where data retention laws and government intelligence agencies could put your data at risk.

Simply running Tor Browser while connected to the VPN makes tracing the user twice as difficult. VPNs can also be configured manually in live operating systems like Tails.

Logless DNS

When a URL is entered into a browser, a request is sent to a DNS server to lookup the IP address that matches the URL. Even when using a proxy like a VPN, these DNS requests can be sent outside the encrypted tunnel to the default server. By default, DNS requests usually go to and are recorded by a nearby server operated by the user’s ISP.

If this happens when using a VPN, it’s called a DNS leak. Many VPN providers offer DNS leak protection, which ensures that all internet traffic, including DNS requests, are directed through the VPN. These VPNs typically operate their own DNS servers, which won’t record which websites you visit if they meet the logless criteria outlined above.

Even if a VPN advertises DNS leak protection, that statement often only applies to IPv4 DNS leaks. IPV6 DNS requests can still travel on the default network and be picked up by both web servers and ISPs. It would be great if more VPNs would set up IPv6 DNS servers to handle this situation, but at the moment the best solution is simply to disable IPv6 in the device’s internet settings.

If the VPN you use lacks DNS leak protection, or you aren’t using a VPN at all, try opting for a public no-logs DNS server. You can change your device’s DNS settings so that requests aren’t sent through your ISP. We recommend DNS.WATCH or OpenNIC.

Burner emails

It goes without saying that remaining anonymous online means not logging into any of your existing accounts. But since many apps and websites require users to sign up, you’ll need an email address or two.

Several services offer free fake and burner email accounts. For one-off registrations and messages, we recommend Guerilla Mail. No registration is required and it includes a password manager to help remember the passwords associated with those accounts.

guerrilla mail ss

For a more long-term untraceable email account, the best option is probably ProtonMail. This end-to-end encrypted service is open-source and uses zero-knowledge apps for web and mobile. Unfortunately, new users must apply for an invite due to limited server capacity. ProtonMail is donation-based.

If you don’t want to wait around for an invite, Zmail is another alternative. It allows you to send emails from fake addresses.

Never use your own email account when trying to be anonymous. Don’t even read your email or log into the account. If you want to send encrypted email from a burner account, you’ll have to set up new PGP or S/MIME keys.

Cryptocurrencies

If you want to make an anonymous purchase or donation, cryptocurrencies are superior to PayPal and obviously credit cards. That doesn’t mean that you can just open up a Bitcoin wallet with a big exchange like Coinbase and start spending, though.

There’s a big misconception that bitcoin is always anonymous, when in fact the very nature of blockchain technology means every transaction is tracked and verified. This publicly available ledger can be analyzed so that the wallets you use and the transactions you make could be linked to your identity.

By analyzing the activity which is visible to anybody on the public blockchain an observer may well be able to link your personal identity with all of the wallets you use and therefore your entire transaction history. In a way, this makes Bitcoin even less private than a bank account.

To get around this, use wallets that change your bitcoin address after each transaction. This makes you harder to trace. Use a bitcoin mixing service, which pools your bitcoins with other people’s and mixes them up before making a payment to the receiver.

Perhaps the most difficult part is anonymously buying bitcoins in the first place, as doing so requires fiat currency. Private deals and peer-to-peer exchanges like LocalBitcoins are not for the careless, but they are the best means of anonymously getting your hands on coins.

Remember that Bitcoin isn’t the only player in town, although it is the biggest. Litecoin, DarkCoin, and Dogecoin are popular as well.

Search engines

Google keeps track of every search query and link you click on. If you’re using Tor, this doesn’t matter so much, but it’s still a good idea to opt for an alternative.

DuckDuckGo is perhaps the most popular search engine that doesn’t track or profile users. It can be set as the default search engine in your browser.

DuckDuckGo is a fully independent browser, so, let’s be honest, the results won’t be as good as Google’s. Luckily, there’s a way to get Google results without Google.

startpage ss

StartPage removes all your identifying information and submits a search query to Google on your behalf. It doesn’t log or track user activity. All search results are displayed with a proxy link beneath them, allowing you to click through to any site while retaining your privacy through a proxy.

File transfers

The moment might arise when you need to anonymously send a file that’s too big for an email attachment. If you’re a whistleblower who wants to leak a large trove of damning documents to the public, uploading the files to Dropbox just won’t do.

FileDropper is a simple and convenient solution that allows uploads of up to 5GB with no registration required. WeTransfer is another option that allows files up to 2GB without signing up. For these types of services, just upload a file and then send the link to whoever you want to receive it.

Remember to access the site using Tor and share the links using a burner email or some other anonymous method, as the website might well be gathering information on site visitors despite the fact that registration isn’t required.

Choose your browser extensions carefully

The Tor Browser has very little support for extensions, and there’s a good reason for that. Advertising companies are getting smarter about how they track users. One of the most advanced methods is called fingerprinting. By gathering information about your web browser–what extensions are installed, what device you use, what language you read in, etc–ad tech companies can create a “fingerprint” that identifies a user. Fingerprints are superior to IP addresses because they don’t change if a user switches wifi networks or connects to a VPN.

Many extensions can help maintain your privacy–ABP, Disconnect, Privacy Badger, HTTPS Everywhere, etc–but they also contribute to a more well-formed fingerprint. This is one of several reasons it’s so difficult to be anonymous on a popular browser like FireFox or Chrome.

If you want to test how well your browser protects you from tracking, head over to the Panopticlick website. This tool made by the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) can show you in excruciating detail how an ad agency can identify your browser using a unique fingerprint.

Besides fingerprinting, browser extensions can communicate with servers in the background without your knowledge, potentially logging metadata that could help identify you and your online activity.

Read more: 75+ free tools to protect your privacy online

Encrypted communications

Besides email, you’ll also want to cover your tracks when sending messages and making calls. Encryption is more focused on privacy than anonymity; even if a message is encrypted, a snoop still knows who the sender and receiver is. But if you’re going through the trouble of being anonymous, you might as well take every precaution.

Signal is the premier app for encrypted voice calls on smartphones. It also includes instant messaging. Users can verify the identities of their contacts by comparing key fingerprints.

cryptocat ss

For encrypted text and media messaging, there’s a wealth of free and private options. TorChat uses peer-to-peer encrypted messaging on the Tor network. It requires no installation and can be run from a USB drive. Other alternatives include Pidgin, and CryptoCat.

Encrypted backup

Even anons need to back up and store large files, and sometimes allow other people to access them. Stay away from Google Drive and Dropbox, as these contain no real privacy protections such as encryption and aren’t anonymous at any rate.

Backups are best done locally to an encrypted external hard drive. Crashplan offers a free version of its software that makes this easy.

backblaze web app

If you want a cloud solution, it will require trusting a provider. Seek out a “zero knowledge” service that allows you to set your own encryption key. SpiderOak, iDrive, BackBlaze, and Crashplan all offer this option, which prevents the provider from decrypting your files.

If you insist on using Google Drive, Dropbox, or some other un-encrypted storage provider, you can always encrypt your files before uploading them to the cloud.

Secure your webcam

It’s been proven that webcams can be remotely activated and used to spy on users. The head of the FBI and Mark Zuckerberg both go so far as to put tape over their webcams for this very reason.

Webcams are usually remotely activated through malware, so a real-time virus scanner and regular system scans can prevent this from happening. If your laptop has an LED light that turns on whenever the webcam is active, make sure it’s enabled. If you don’t want to put tape on your webcam, make sure you close the laptop when not in use.

Learn more about securing your webcam here.

Secure your wifi router

Many of us never bother changing the settings that our wifi routers came with from the factory. Unsecured routers can make users extremely vulnerable to nearby snoops. Routers can be used to intercept, read, and modify internet traffic. If you’re on someone else’s wifi network, be sure to use a VPN.

If you want to remain anonymous, it’s important to change the router’s login credentials, update the firmware, set the strongest level of encryption (usually WPA2), restrict inbound and outbound traffic, turn off WPS, disable unused services, check port 32764, enable and read logs, and log out of your router when finished.

You can learn more about how to take all of these steps and more in our guide on securing wireless routers.

iOS and Android are not optimal for anonymity

If you’re choosing between iOS and Android based on which is more anonymous, go with Android. But don’t get comfortable and think you can be totally anonymous on either.

It is far more difficult to be anonymous on a smartphone than on a computer. Anonymity tools for Tor just haven’t matured to a point where they work well on mobile, yet. Apple and Google are too deeply embedded in these devices. You might be able to browse an onion site with Orbot on Android, but that’s about as far as you’ll get. There are no official Tor browsers for iOS.

There are no live operating systems that can be utilized by smartphones like TAILS for desktops.

Smartphones have IMEI numbers, MAC addresses, and possibly vulnerable firmware that cannot be altered and can be used to identify a specific device when connected to the internet. Because Android is usually modified by manufacturers, it’s difficult to audit and keep up with each device’s potential vulnerabilities. Apple and Google have the power to track almost every iOS and Android phone, respectively.

Apps constantly communicate with servers over the internet, passing data back and forth that could be used to track users. Even something as basic as a keyboard could be used to monitor activity. Cameras and microphones can be hacked into to spy on users. Any time a device receives a signal from a cell tower, their device’s location can be traced. Simply put, there’s just too much that could go wrong on Android and iOS that the user cannot see.

While making smartphones completely anonymous might be a futile effort, they can be made significantly more private. Android devices can be encrypted and iPhones are all encrypted by default. Use VPNs to encrypt internet traffic, and set up a self destruct sequence if the passcode is entered incorrectly too many times.

Finally, companies like Silent Circle make Android-based smartphones with security first in mind. The Blackphone, for instance, is fully encrypted and runs several “virtual phones” to compartmentalize data. Silent Circle also has a subscription service to make iPhones private. Again, the key difference is that this phone is focused on privacy, not anonymity. While the contents of the phone are protected, the same isn’t necessarily true for the identity of the user.

Be wary of the Internet-of-Things

The internet of things presents a whole new wave of opportunity for hackers and snoopers. Security has unfortunately been an afterthought for many IoT manufacturers. A simple log of when your smart air conditioner is activated, for example, can tell a lot about a person’s daily routine. Critics have warned against devices like the Amazon Echo, which are always listening for input even when deactivated.

Depending on your online activity, this can be a threat to a user’s anonymity. Use IoT devices with caution.

Make a checklist

No anonymity tool, even Tor, is perfect. But that doesn’t mean they aren’t effective. While a well-funded corporation or government agency could spend huge amounts of time and money running traffic analysis on the Tor network to eventually find the person they are looking for, it’s much more likely that person will make a mistake and drop a clue somewhere along the way.

So how do you avoid making mistakes? The same way surgeons and other high-risk occupations do: with lists. Every time you want to be anonymous online, start from the beginning of your checklist. Write it down on a piece of paper, but don’t include any login credentials or other identifying information. Here’s what one might look like based on everything discussed:

  • Connected to a logless VPN
  • Connected to the internet through Tor Browser/Tails
  • DNS settings are configured to use a logless DNS
  • Logged out of all online accounts
  • Closed all apps and background services connected to the web
  • All tracking in my browser and OS are turned off and blocked
  • Emails are sent using burner accounts
  • New accounts registered and logged in with burner emails
  • Search with DuckDuckGo or StartPage
  • Bitcoins are properly mixed and using a third-party wallet

With a standard protocol in place, you can drastically reduce the chances of making mistakes. Don’t be overconfident. Anonymity is something you can get right 100 times, but it only takes one misstep for it all to crumble.

Posted in Education, PoliticsComments Off on How to remain completely anonymous and hidden online

The Shocking Truth Why Pope Benedict Resigned

NOVANEWS

Image result for Pope Benedict CARTOON

This video (edited version) is intended to educate viewers of the circumstance surrounding the most controversial resignation of Pope Benedict the XVI. The Catholic church is beacon of light and source of hope to many of it’s followers, the failings of it’s hierarchy to uphold it’s theocratic responsibility should serve as a warning to other Christian institutions of the grave consequences of their actions.

Vatican City is the smallest country in the world.

Encircled by a 2-mile border with Italy, Vatican City is an independent city-state that covers just over 100 acres, making it one-eighth the size of New York’s Central Park. Vatican City is governed as an absolute monarchy with the pope at its head. The Vatican mints its own euros, prints its own stamps, issues passports and license plates, operates media outlets and has its own flag and anthem. One government function it lacks: taxation. Museum admission fees, stamp and souvenir sales, and contributions generate the Vatican’s revenue.

St. Peter’s Basilica sits atop a city of the dead, including its namesake’s tomb.
A Roman necropolis stood on Vatican Hill in pagan times. When a great fire leveled much of Rome in A.D. 64, Emperor Nero, seeking to shift blame from himself, accused the Christians of starting the blaze. He executed them by burning them at the stake, tearing them apart with wild beasts and crucifying them. Among those crucified was St. Peter—disciple of Jesus Christ, leader of the Apostles and the first bishop of Rome—who was supposedly buried in a shallow grave on Vatican Hill. By the fourth century and official recognition of the Christian religion in Rome, Emperor Constantine began construction of the original basilica atop the ancient burial ground with what was believed to be the tomb of St. Peter at its center. The present basilica, built starting in the 1500s, sits over a maze of catacombs and St. Peter’s suspected grave.

For nearly 60 years in the 1800s and 1900s, popes refused to leave the Vatican.
Popes ruled over a collection of sovereign Papal States throughout central Italy until the country was unified in 1870. The new secular government had seized all the land of the Papal States with the exception of the small patch of the Vatican, and a cold war of sorts then broke out between the church and the Italian government. Popes refused to recognize the authority of the Kingdom of Italy, and the Vatican remained beyond Italian national control. Pope Pius IX proclaimed himself a “prisoner of the Vatican,” and for almost 60 years popes refused to leave the Vatican and submit to the authority of the Italian government. When Italian troops were present in St. Peter’s Square, popes even refused to give blessings or appear from the balcony overlooking the public space.

At several times during the Vatican’s history, popes escaped through a secret passageway.
In 1277, a half-mile-long elevated covered passageway, the Passetto di Borgo, was constructed to link the Vatican with the fortified Castel Sant’Angelo on the banks of the Tiber River. It served as an escape route for popes, most notably in 1527 when it likely saved the life of Pope Clement VII during the sack of Rome. As the forces of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V rampaged through the city and murdered priests and nuns, the Swiss Guard held back the enemy long enough to allow Clement to safely reach the Castel Sant’Angelo, although 147 of the pope’s forces lost their lives in the battle.

http://www.history.com/news/10-things.

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With Jesus’ birth, why does the Bible list two different family trees?

NOVANEWS

Image result for bible photos

 

THE QUESTION:

In the accounts of Jesus’ Nativity in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke, why are the genealogies so different?

THE RELIGION GUY’S ANSWER:

Because there are no Christmas-y questions from readers awaiting answers, The Guy raises this Yuletide classic himself. When Matthew and Luke recount the birth of Jesus they present different genealogies with fascinating intricacies. The following can only sketch a few basics from the immense literature on this.

The Bible provides no roadmap, leaving us to ponder who was included, who was omitted, how the passages were structured, and what all this might mean. Reader comprehension is difficult due to multiple names given the same person, the lack of specific Hebrew and Greek words so that a “son-in-law” was called a “son,” legal adoption, and “levirate marriage” where a widow wed her late husband’s brother to maintain the family line.

Family trees were of keen importance for the Hebrews and carefully preserved. The central purpose in both Gospels was to establish Jesus within King David’s family line, a key qualification for recognition as the promised Messiah.

Matthew starts right off with the genealogy in the first 17 verses of chapter 1. Beginning from the patriarch Abraham, it extends through three sections of 14 generations each, down to the conclusion with “Joseph, the husband of Mary, of whom Jesus was born, who is called Christ.” The passage then immediately specifies that Joseph was not the biological father because Jesus was conceived miraculously by the Holy Spirit (1:18-21).

In Luke, which also depicts this “virgin birth,” the genealogy appears later on (3:23-38) after Jesus in baptized by John and a heavenly voice proclaims him the Son of God. Here the chronology is reversed, starting from Jesus “the son (as was supposed) of Joseph, and son of Heli,” moving backward through 77 generations, beyond David and Abraham all the way to Adam.

Experts tell us Matthew built the scenario on Abraham, the founder of the Israelites, because the Jewish writer(s) compiled this Gospel largely for fellow Jews. Luke was framed especially for Gentile converts, so the genealogy traces to Adam to announce Jesus as the savior of all humanity, though also a Jewish descendant of Abraham and David.

Despite the Jewish audience, Matthew hinted at the same universality when the Gentile Magi appear to worship in chapter 2, and explicitly at the end of the final chapter when Jesus issues his commission to reach “all nations.” Exegetes see an echo of the Bible’s creation story because Matthew 1:1 can be translated “book of the genesis.” Also compare the first words of the Book of Genesis with Luke 1:2 (“from the beginning”), Mark 1:1 (“the beginning”) and John 1:1 (“in the beginning”).

The general consensus on the differences is that Matthew depicted Jesus’ legal descent from David, on the assumption Joseph adopted him. If Mary had no brothers, by common custom Joseph would have been his father-in-law’s legal “son” and heir through the marriage. Luke defined Jesus through Mary as a blood descendant of David. Some Luke texts insert a “Jacob” between Joseph and Heli, but these are late manuscripts judged unreliable.

Matthew’s listing is selective rather than naming each and every generation, since there are royal omissions a Jew would have noticed. Perhaps these unnamed personalities were scorned. Omissions were nothing usual in family trees since, for example, the succession in 1 Chronicles 3:10-14 omitted monarchs we know about from the Bible’s historical narratives.

Matthew’s first set of 14 covered patriarchs, the second listed only royalty, and the third named private citizens. The stylized structure of three 14’s was either because that’s double the sacred number of seven, or because in gematria (Jewish number symbolism) the name David adds up to 14 and his is the 14th name, doubly listed. Or all the above.

Since ancient family trees traced through males, it’s striking that Matthew made a point of including four women in addition to Mary. Moreover, three (Rahab, Ruth, Tamar) were Gentiles and possibly also the fourth (Bathsheba). Equally surprising is that alongside evil kings we find Rahab who was a prostitute, the incestuous seducer Tamar, and “the wife of Uriah” (the adulterous Bathsheba didn’t even deserve mention by name!).

Interpreters see here a forthright message: Jesus is the savior of both men and women, of Jews and of Gentiles, and even of notorious sinners.

Luke’s different structure consisted of eleven groups each naming the sacred number of seven, for a total of 77 generations. As in Matthew there are evident omissions (we’ll sidestep humanity’s chronology after Adam as seen by strict literalists and “creationists”).

The two listings are identical between Abraham and David, but from David to Jesus the lines diverge. Luke traced the family tree through David’s son Nathan, while Matthew followed the ruling line of David’s son Solomon. The traditional explanation is that Joseph and Mary descended from King David but by these two different paths.

Unlike Matthew, Luke omitted Jehoiachin, the three-month king of the Exile in Babylon, possibly to shun memory of that horror. Scholars say this king ended Judah’s royal line so a curse in Jeremiah 22:30 said he should be recorded “as if childless” (NIV) although the Bible says in fact he sired seven offspring.

Only two names between David and Jesus appear in both genealogies, Shealtiel and his son Zerubbabel (also transliterated as Salathiel and Zorababel), who helped restore the Jerusalem Temple after the Exile (see Ezra 3). If the Religion Guy presented even a summary of the discussion on that, this article would be twice as long.

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When Pastors Live In Multimillion Dollar Mansions

NOVANEWS
When Pastors Live In Multimillion Dollar Mansions, It’s Not A Sign Of God’s Blessing– But Our Sinfulness

A year ago this week I took these images while working in slums of Mumbai, India. As I was walking along with the local pastor I was spending the day with, he cautioned me saying:

“Be careful where you step, Pastor Benjamin, this is where the children make their shit”.

It took me a moment to get past the fact that a pastor had just said “shit” before I realized that there were human feces almost everywhere.

Such is life in the slums where there are no bathrooms, running water, and where homes look like American storage lockers.

Even with a level of poverty that most Americans could hardly imagine, the people of Mumbai– the people of India in general– are some of the happiest and most generous people I’ve ever been blessed to spend time with. It is one of the many reasons I continue to go back and why part of my heart is always somewhere on a dusty road in India.

While I would desire that all Americans be able to spend some time in the slums of Mumbai or other international traveling geared towards experiencing poverty instead of Club Med, the truth is most Americans probably couldn’t handle it. The reality of global poverty to many, would simply be too disgusting. However, it isn’t to me. The poor and oppressed of this world are my people– because they’re Jesus’ people– and I love being with them.

However, if you take a 16 hour flight from Mumbai back here to the United States, you’ll find some things that I actually do find disgusting: the association between Christianity and wealth.

This unholy matrimony between Jesus and cash is becoming especially true with many Christian leaders. It’s not just televangelists who are about Jesus + bling– this is a poison that is sickening churches of all sizes in America.

We have Pastor Steven Furtick from Elevation Church who just built a multimillion dollar mansion.

Jan Crouch from TBN who has a 50 Million dollar jet, 13 mansions, and a $100,000 mobile home for her dogs.

We have fear-peddlers such as John Hagee who was reported to be making over $1 Million a year before making his salary secret, guys like Kenneth Copeland who have their own fleet of jets, and folks like Ed Young who receives a $240,ooo PER YEAR housing allowance in addition to a $1 Million dollar salary.

Even in small towns like mine, you have churches of African refugees without enough money to care for themselves or even purchase Bibles for the church while two miles down the road, one can find a mega church with multimillion dollar building campaigns.

In the past, this gross association between wealth and Jesus was largely a thing for slimey televangelists, but sadly it isn’t anymore– this illness has permeated into much of American Christian culture, and it’s making all of us sick. With new mega churches cropping up every few days, the Christian idolatry of buildings, bodies, and bucks combined with secular idolatry that promotes the God of “me”,  we have been polluted by money to the point that it is hindering the Kingdom and keeping us from following Jesus.

However, it’s easy for us to stand back and point our finger at these rich poster children for American Christianity as somehow we’re off the hook and innocent parties in all this. We’re not! These folks get their money from…. us.

Let me be prophetically clear: rich pastors and mega church budgets are not a sign of God’s blessing but of our own (corporate) sinfulness.

The body of Christ in America, is guilty. Sure, not all of us use our money to make pastors rich– but we do spend most of our money on ourselves which is even worse. As a result, we are among the richest people in the world while we’re often oblivious to the way the rest of the world lives.

Oblivious to slums. Oblivious to communities where girls are such a financial burden that they’re killed on the day they’re born. Oblivious to a world where a leading cause of death is lack of access to clean water. We– rich, American Christians, are often oblivious to the world around us.

This association with wealth is inappropriate for those who wish to follow Jesus. Jesus is not the one who said “let me show you how to live your best life now” or “Come, let me show you eight steps to having the life you want”.

Instead, Jesus was the man who said: “Want to be perfect? Sell all your possessions and give them to the poor.” (Mt 19:21)

Jesus is the one who said: “If you want to follow me, you should first remember that I am a homeless person.” (Mt 8:20)

Jesus is the one who said: “If you want to follow me, grab a shovel and start digging your grave now.” (Lk 9:23)

Jesus is the one who said: “If money is what motivates you, it’s impossible for you to follow God.” (Mt 6:24)

Admittedly, I tricked you with the title of this post– because it’s not so much about calling rich Christian pastors to repent, as it is about calling me and you to repent.

Instead of the rich, American version of Christianity we must reclaim the truth:

Having an over abundance of wealth kept for ourselves is not a sign of God’s blessing, but damning evidence of our own sinfulness.

So the question becomes: how are we supposed to show solidarity with our poor and hungry brothers and sisters in the world when we’re driving in cars that have televisions and surround sound?

How are we suppose to bring healing to the nations when as Christians we’re spending almost all of our money on ourselves?

Today, I’m remembering the time I had to dodge a field of human feces in the slums of Mumbai. I’m also thinking about the association between American Christianity and wealth.

And to be honest, only one of those two things disgusts me.

 

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Capitalism vs. Socialism: A Changed Debate

NOVANEWS

By Richard D. Wolff, Truthout

(Image: Lw / TO; Adapted: Matthew Henry, Damian Gladal)

(Image: LW / TO; Adapted: Matthew Henry, Damian Gladal)

Once again, private capitalism’s contradictions, flaws and weaknesses threaten its own existence. Two major global collapses — first in the 1930s and more recently, since 2008 — plus periodic downturns every few years have underscored the instability that haunts the system. At the same time, deepening inequality has turned ever-larger populations into capitalism’s critics. Talk of reform and revolution has crowded onto political agendas. The capitalism versus socialism debate has returned everywhere. However, it is a changed debate transformed by lessons drawn from the Soviet Union and other similar experiences and experiments. The debate now displays three key alternative systems, not two: private capitalism, state capitalism and socialism. And that changes everything.

During the later nineteenth and twentieth centuries, we mostly believed ourselves to be caught up in a struggle between capitalism and socialism — as the two alternative economic systems differentiated by how the individual related to the state. Private versus public enterprises, free markets versus central planning: these were the epochal individual versus state oppositions that, especially in economics, took the form of capitalism versus socialism. But we know now that we should not equate the private-versus-public debate with a real consideration of capitalism versus socialism. Capitalism, we have learned, displays both private and state forms, and socialism differs from both of them. Capitalism, as we discuss further below, is a production system structured by its relationship of employer to employee as different persons or groups, regardless of whether employers are public or private. In contrast, socialism’s very different structure has employer and employee being the same person.

Reexamining past economic systems that coexisted with state apparatuses shows that they included both private and public enterprises. In many examples of slave economic systems, there were private masters alongside public masters. That is, private individuals or groups of citizens owned slaves, but so did local, regional or national state bodies and agencies. Likewise, in many examples of feudalism, we find private individuals who were lords ruling over serfs alongside, for example, kings or other state bodies who were also lords presiding over serfs.

Societies where slavery prevailed sometimes displayed struggles between the private and the state slave enterprises. Where feudalism prevailed, there were comparable struggles between the private and the state feudal enterprises. Such struggles sometimes broadened into grand oppositions between private and public, individual and state, citizen versus government, etc. But those struggles and oppositions usually occurred within one, shared class system: slavery or feudalism.

Capitalism has a parallel history. Private enterprises (owned and operated by private individuals and groups holding no position within any state apparatus) have frequently coexisted with public or state enterprises. The latter were owned by the state and operated by state officials. In both the private and public capitalist enterprises, the common basic relationship was between employer and employee. This matched the common relationship (master-slave) shared by private and public slave enterprises and the common relationship (lord-serf) shared by private and public feudal enterprises.

In slavery, feudalism and capitalism, the proportions of private versus state enterprises could and did vary. Public enterprises were sometimes a small and marginal portion of a region’s or nation’s total economy. They might also be altogether absent, or, at the opposite extreme, be the chief or even the only kind of enterprise. Depending on which form prevailed, economies could be described as private or state slavery, private or state feudalism, or private or state capitalism.

What obscured these parallels over the last century and a half was confusion between private versus state capitalism, on the one hand, and capitalism versus socialism on the other. Most people described the dominant opposition as capitalism versus socialism, but their definition of socialism equated it with state capitalism. They viewed capitalism as an economy based on private capitalist enterprises (or “free” enterprises) and markets as organizations for the distribution of enterprises’ resources and products. They viewed socialism as an economy of public enterprises (or “state” enterprises) and central planning as the organization for distributing resources and products. In effect, they conflated socialism with state capitalism.

These confusions of terms and meanings likely arose because nineteenth and twentieth century socialists focused strategically on capturing the state (either by revolution or by parliamentary politics). They planned to use the state as the means to transform capitalism into socialism. State capitalism would serve as a kind of way station where state capitalist enterprises and central planning prevailed (occupied the “commanding heights”) over private capitalist enterprises and markets. Such an economy would then be further transformed into socialism, presumably by the socialists who had captured state power. Socialists were often quite vague about their ultimate goal of socialism, especially when compared to their clear focus on political strategies to win state power and establish state capitalism.

Most socialists gradually stopped viewing the state as merely the means for (and state capitalism as a way-station to) a further transformation. Instead, state capitalism — operated by a state apparatus controlled by people who identified as socialists — came to be viewed as, in itself, the transformation of capitalism into socialism. Converting private to state capitalist enterprises and subordinating markets to central planning came to define the achievement of “socialism.” Two sequential transitions — the first from private to state capitalism and the second from state capitalism to socialism — were conflated into the first one alone.

The last century’s so-called great contest between capitalism and socialism was thus actually a contest between private and state capitalism. The US mostly favored private capitalism. It displayed chiefly private enterprises with significant instances of state capitalist enterprises; it likewise displayed a largely market system of distribution with significant instances of planned distributions. Meanwhile, the USSR was mostly a state capitalism. It displayed chiefly state capitalist enterprises and centrally planned distribution with significant instances of private capitalist enterprises and market distributions. However, most of its advocates and its critics alike described the USSR as “socialist.”

Historically, then, the revolution of 1917 achieved a transition from private Russian capitalism to Soviet state capitalism, while the 1989 implosion achieved precisely the reverse transition. In good dialectical fashion, those oscillations between private and state capitalisms enable us to clarify that socialism lies beyond them both.

The socialist alternative to both private and state forms of capitalism is the end, the supersession, of capitalism as the specific employer-employee organization of production. The replacement of private enterprises by state enterprises and markets by planning are changes that mostly leave in place the employer-employee organization of production, capitalism’s distinguishing mark. The employer-employee relationship in production differentiates capitalism from slavery (where master-slave is the distinguishing relationship). It differentiates capitalism likewise from feudalism (where lord-serf is the distinguishing relationship). Finally, the employer-employee relationship differentiates capitalism — in both its private and state forms — from socialism, in which the dualistic oppositions of master-slave, lord-serf, and employer-employee are all dissolved. In socialism — if we return to its original conception as a basic alternative to capitalism — the workers/employees themselves function as their own collective employer.

Worker coops — what might more precisely be called worker self-directed enterprises — are the core or definition of a socialist organization of production that is a systemic alternative to capitalism. In worker self-directed enterprises, no dichotomy of enterprise participants pits them against one another. No minority (masters, lords or employers) dictates to a majority (slaves, serfs or employees). Enterprises comprise a community of individuals democratically organizing all of their own work activities. The production process itself is thereby socialized. The socialization no longer applies merely to the ownership of means of production and the distribution of resources and products as in classical “socialism.” Worker self-directed enterprises democratize the enterprise, thereby providing more of a basis for the democratization of the economy and society than capitalism (private or state) could ever achieve.

Karl Marx’s analytical focus on exploitation — how surpluses are extracted from producers (slaves, serfs and proletarians) by exploiters (masters, lords and capitalists) — points toward a socialism that negates all forms of exploitation. In contrast, state capitalist enterprises change who the exploiters are and the conditions of that exploitation. State and private capitalisms can be and have been very different in their social consequences, political complexions, etc. Struggles between them have had momentous historical significance. But they did not end worker exploitation; they did not establish a socialist economy that banished exploitation.

For struggles between private and state capitalisms to become means for or steps toward transitions to socialism, their limits must be appreciated. The emerging twenty-first century socialism, focused on a system beyond state capitalism, represents both a return to Marx’s basic insights and a learning from the successes and failures of what the twentieth century called socialism. This will be a stronger, more developed kind of socialism, confronting a capitalism whose internal contradictions, flaws and weaknesses are now more widely appreciated than ever.

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