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The Plot to Scapegoat Russia

NOVANEWS
Book Review of Dan Kovalik’s Book
 

The Cold War we are familiar with ended with the collapse of the Soviet Union. In his new book “The Plot to Scapegoat Russia,” lawyer and human rights activist Dan Kovalik writes about a new Cold War against Russia – and about the peace that never came. He discusses the role of the Democratic Party and the CIA, but his book centers on exploring the cause of why hostilities are back.

The real motivations of revived confrontation are hardly the stuff of day-to-day news, and so the author relies upon the historical record for discovering the origins of a new Cold War. Along the way he explains why the old Cold War was waged.

He regards the commonly – accepted explanation as a pretext: “the Cold War, at least from the vantage point of the US, had little to do with fighting ‘Communism,’ and more to do with making the world safe for corporate plunder.”Implicitly this proposition serves to account for other U. S. wars and interventions.

Without elaborating, Kovalik casts the CIA as the lead plotter in these intrusions. It has the right skills, he suggests, because it is “a nefarious, criminal organization which often misleads the Ameri­can public and government into wars and misadventures,” In his own book, “The Devil’s Chessboard,” David Talbottraced the Cold War machinations of former CIA head Allen Dulles’ and thus was well qualified to provide an introduction for the present volume.

According to Talbot,

“Russia (long with China) is the only country capable of even marginally standing in the way of Washington’s vast imperial ventures.”

These two themes – the real reason for why the United States fights wars and the CIA’s role in such wars – set the tone for the history Kovalik recounts in his highly recommended book.

Image result for dan kovalik

Author, Dan Kovalik

Readers hungry to know about the “plot” advertised in the book’s title will need patience. At the point Kovalik is discussing the current U. S. – Russia confrontation, he has already conducted a tour over time and across the world that surveyed U. S. interventions and foreign meddling. Having identified patterns of U. S. aggression, he presents a scenario that clarifies U. S. motivations for abusing Russia.

This book offers materialso encompassing as to belie its small size. Kovalik’s writing is clear, evocative, and readable. Along the way, he recalls those causes and the outrage that fired up activists who were his contemporaries. That’s a side benefit.

In college Kovalik learned about CIA machinations in Central America. Revelations from former agents Philip Agee, Ray McGovern, and John Stockman astonished him. His first trip to Nicaragua exposed him to a harvest of killings and terror. He learned first-hand about the role of Contra paramilitaries, recruited and paid for by the CIA. At one point he was comforting a father burying his son, killed by the Contras, along with 50,000 other Nicaraguans.

The author recalls the four churchwomen and six Jesuit priests murdered by U. S. – trained soldiers in El Salvador, U. S. support for soldiers and paramilitaries who killed and displaced populations in Colombia, and the CIA’s Operation Condor by which South American client states murderedpolitical enemies. He recounts U. S – instigated coups in Iran, 1953; Guatemala, 1954; and Chile, 1973. Along the way he mentions U.S. war in Vietnam, occupation and war in Korea, nuclear bombs dropped on Japan, nuclear testing and dying in the Marshall Islands, and the CIA’srecruitment of the anti-Soviet Mujahideen in Afghan­istan.

This was the justification: keeping “the world safe from the threat of Soviet totalitarianism.” Then the Soviet Union was no more and the search was on for a new pretext. Having turned to “humanitarian intervention,” the Clinton administration soon was assisting the Paul Kagame regime in Rwanda and other African nations as they assaulted the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

“US mining interests” were satisfied, Kovalik says, but “nearly six million people” people died.

Clinton’s government intervened in Haiti and participated in the destruction of Yugoslavia, Europe’s last socialist state.Supposed humanitarian motivations were behind the United States role in delivering Libya into chaos. For the author, U. S. pretensions and brutality stand in contrast to the relatively benign nature of Russian misdeeds.

More recently, in Kovalik’s telling, the U. S. government settled upon the rationalization of  “American exceptionalism.” This is

“the belief that the US is a uniquely benign actor in the world, spreading peace and democracy.”

Thus terror was exported to Afghanistan, Iraq, Somalia, and Yemen, where Saudi Arabia acted as a U. S. proxy. The list includes the 2009 military coup in Honduras facilitated by Secretary of State Hillary Clinton.

For the author,

“The US’s outsized military exists not only to ensure the US’s quite unjust share of the world’s riches, but also to ensure that those riches are not shared with the poor huddled masses in this country.”

Good relations with Russia would be

“simply bad for business, in particular the business of war which so profoundly undergirds the US economy … As of 2015, the US had at least 800 military bases in over 70 nations, while Britain, France and Russia had only 30 military bases combined.”

And,

“under Obama alone, the US had Special Forces deployed in about 138 countries.”

Having surveyed decades worth of U.S. interventions abroad, military and otherwise, Kovalik turns to Russia. In the early 1990s that fledgling capitalist state was in crisis, he reports. Life expectancy had plummeted, the poverty rate was 75 percent, and investments in the economy were down 80 percent. National pride was in the cellar, the more so after the United States backed away from Secretary of State Baker’s 1991 promise that NATO would never move east, after the United States attacked Russia’s ally Serbia, and after the United States attacked Iraq in 2003 and Libya in 2011 without consulting Russia.

He regards Russia’s approach to Ukraine as defensible while reminding readers that Russia offered to cooperate with the United States in ending war in Syria. And U. S. claims about lack of democracy in Russia seem strained, especially when, as Kovalik insists, the United States abuses peoples the world over and itself suffers from a “severe democracy deficit.”

He argues that the Obama administration, particularly Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, was obsessed with Russia and that Democrats currently are fueling hostilities, backed by a compliant media. He discusses WikiLeaks revelations about the Democratic Party and hacking attributed to the Russians.

He also suggests, without offering specifics, that the CIA is involved. Kovalik doesn’t comment on possible interaction between Trump campaign personnel and Russian officials.

US Army training in Iraq in support of the ‘Global War on Terrorism’

But prior to his discussion of confrontation with Russia, Kovalik had devoted considerable attention to why and how the United States harasses other countries. The reader, therefore, already knows never to expect U.S. imperialism to give Russia a break and knows why that is so.

Kovalik’s treatment of the Soviet Union is an essential part of his narrative. For one thing, many of the U. S. military interventions he reports on wouldn’t have occurred if the Soviet Union still existed. But basically,

“the Soviet Union, did wield sizable polit­ical and ideological influence in the world for some time, due to the appeal of its socialist message as well as its critical role in winning [World War] II.”

Kovalik acknowledges “periods of great repression.” He adds, however, that

“the Russian Revolution and the USSR … delivered on many of their promises, and against great odds. …. In any case, the goals of the Russian Revolution—equality, worker control of the economy, universal health care and social security— were laudable ones.”

And,

“One of the reasons that the West continues to dance on the grave of the Soviet Union, and to emphasize the worst parts of that society and downplay its achievements, is to make sure that, as the world-wide economy worsens, and as the suffering of work­ing people around the world deepens, they don’t get any notions in their head to organize some new socialist revolution with such ideals.”

Ultimately, Kovalik sides with Martin Luther King, who remarked that,

‘The US is on the wrong side of the world-wide revolution’–

and with Daniel Ellsberg’s clarification:

‘The US is not on the wrong side; it is the wrong side.’”

*     *     *

Excerpt from the book:

An in-depth look at the decades-long effort to escalate hostilities with Russia and what it portends for the future.

Since 1945, the US has justified numerous wars, interventions, and military build-ups based on the pretext of the Russian Red Menace, even after the Soviet Union collapsed at the end of 1991 and Russia stopped being Red. In fact, the two biggest post-war American conflicts, the Korean and Vietnam wars, were not, as has been frequently claimed, about stopping Soviet aggression or even influence, but about maintaining old colonial relationships. Similarly, many lesser interventions and conflicts, such as those in Latin America, were also based upon an alleged Soviet threat, which was greatly overblown or nonexistent. And now the specter of a Russian Menace has been raised again in the wake of Donald Trump’s election.

The Plot to Scapegoat Russia examines the recent proliferation of stories, usually sourced from American state actors, blaming and manipulating the threat of Russia, and the long history of which this episode is but the latest chapter. It will show readers two key things: (1) the ways in which the United States has needlessly provoked Russia, especially after the collapse of the USSR, thereby squandering hopes for peace and cooperation; and (2) how Americans have lost out from this missed opportunity, and from decades of conflicts based upon false premises. These revelations, amongst other, make The Plot to Scapegoat Russia one of the timeliest reads of 2017.

Author: Dan Kovalik

Print ISBN:  978-1-5107-3032-8

Ebook ISBN: 978-1-5107-3033-5

Year: 2017

Click to order

Posted in USA, Education, Russia0 Comments

Organisational failure of the Socialist movement and its interventional impotence

NOVANEWS
DSM

As in many post-colonies, the Socialist movement in Nigeria has failed due to the organic divorce of the movement from the struggles of the oppressed. Revolution is no longer seen as a practical necessity, largely because of the movement’s petty bourgeoisie class origins. To revive the movement, this class needs a deep and radicalising experience of privation and oppression out of which it can find no escape but revolution.

By organisational failure of the Nigerian Socialist movement we mean its inability to sustain itself as a body of independent, more or less stable and coherent organisations capable of effective effort to connect with, learn from and influence the oppressed social forces in their struggles against the bourgeoisie and imperialism in pursuit of Socialist aims. Quite a few groupings of Socialists exist, some of which self-delusionally describe themselves as “the Socialist Party” or “the Communist Party” of Nigeria. However, the brutal truth is that all of them fail by the crucial criterion of possessing sufficient interventional capacity for sustained and broad-based influence over the agenda, course, pace, and outcomes of the social conflict between the oppressed and the oppressors.

There is certainly no more eloquent testimony of this than the extremely odd phenomenon of the social conflict in Nigeria being at this time primarily of a system-safe and system-reproductive character despite the devastating attacks on the interests of the oppressed occasioned by the bourgeoisie’s programme of neoliberal restructuring of the economy. That an otherwise objectively radicalising material situation has not resulted in a subjectively radicalised mass of the oppressed is, of course, primarily a function of the ideological hegemony of the bourgeoisie. That this hegemony itself has remained unchallenged, however, is in significant part a function of the organisational failure and impotence of the Nigerian Socialist movement.

Nigerian Socialists have sought to explain this failure and impotence by one or a combination of the following: the repression of the Socialist movement by the bourgeois state; the outbreak and consolidation of opportunism within the movement; and the movement’s ideological collapse following the fall of existing Socialism in the late 1980s and early 1990s.

It is indubitable that these factors have indeed featured in the organisational failure of the Nigerian Socialist movement and in its impotence in the social conflict since at least 1966. [1] Repression by the bourgeois state – under colonialism as well as under the military dictatorships of Olusegun Obasanjo and Ibrahim Babangida – repeatedly decimated the movement as an organised structure by degrading its capacity to reproduce itself. Employing measures including the detention of activists and leaders without trial, the outright banning of Socialist organisations, and the suppression of public activities by these organisations, these campaigns of decimation have sought to prevent the process of organic interaction and interchanges between the movement as an organised social force and the oppressed social forces, the very process that builds them into a unified social force in the class struggle against the bourgeoisie and its own allied forces.

For the Socialist movement – the possessor and material embodiment of the most advanced and best-organised consciousness of the proletariat in its pursuit of its immanent and transcendent interests – is effectual in the social conflict only to the extent that it transforms in its own image the consciousness and practice of the class and its allies. This transformation cannot take place except by this organic interaction between the movement and the oppressed; theory cannot grip the masses and become a material force in the social conflict except by the two-way interaction of the two. By preventing this interaction, the bourgeois state sought to prevent the establishment of the organic relationship between the movement and the oppressed, which is necessary for the interventional capacity of the former; it sought to prevent theory from becoming a material force. The effectiveness of this campaign of repression is certainly a key factor in the impotence of the Nigerian Socialist movement.

The cancer of opportunism in the movement is similarly a key factor. If state repression aimed to incapacitate the socialist movement by preventing its interaction with the oppressed masses, opportunism functioned objectively – i.e. irrespective of the intentions or rationalisations by its agents in the movement – to subject the extent and terms of that interaction to the accumulation and career interests of these agents.

Sacrificing the interests of the whole working class and other oppressed groups for their own sectional interests, these agents built a Socialist movement whose organisation, operation and intervention in the social conflict was governed not by the dictates of the struggle of the oppressed but by those of their personal interests. Thus, “the struggle” meant for these agents and the Socialist movement they created not really the engagement of the oppressed with the oppressor but the conflict with rival groups (of other opportunists in some cases but also of genuine revolutionaries in others) over control of power and the resources of the movement’s organisations.

In other words, the dynamics of conflict in the Socialist movement found its basis, just like those of conflict in the bourgeois polity, in the contradictions of the process of accumulation of power and wealth. This, rather than any serious ideological, programmatic, or strategy differences, has been the principal source of the long and pernicious history of factionalism and splits within the movement, even to this day. Driven by the imperatives of personal accumulation, a leader (and the group built around him or her) who cannot gain control or adequate access to the resources of the organisation would rather destroy it or split off to create another that would be under his or her own control.

Similarly, as the demise of the 1964 Joint Action Committee demonstrates, these leaders prefer to lead tiny organisations over which they have personal control – although such organisations have little capacity to intervene in and influence the social conflict – than to merge them into a larger and more effective organisation over which, however, they would have no personal control or over whose resources they would not have unrestricted access. This has been a key factor in the organisational failure of the Nigerian Socialist movement.

Finally, there is the ideological collapse of the Nigerian Socialist movement, by which we mean the more or less complete disintegration of its organic body of premises, methodological principles, theories, concepts, practical goals, ethics, and strategies that receive their logical coherence and social rationale from the transcendent interests of the proletariat and that constitute the movement’s instruments of ideological intervention in the social conflict as an organised social force. This collapse involved any one or combination of the following in the political practice of the organisations or individuals that previously constituted the Socialist movement and many of which still considered themselves socialists:

1.  Rejection of a proletariat-led Socialist revolution in Nigeria as a socio-historical necessity whose realisation should be the goal of immediate political practice;

2.  Abandonment of the perspective of the proletariat in the analysis of social reality;

3.  Abandonment of Socialist propaganda among the oppressed classes in the practical social conflict.

Crisis of existing Socialism

Babangida’s war on the Socialist movement left its organisational structure in tatters and severely degraded its interventional capacity. However, the movement would probably have recovered subsequently and begun to rebuild its organisations and capacity, especially in the less repressive environment that came with the demise of General Sani Abacha in 1998 and the advent of bourgeois civilian rule in 1999. That it did not do so was due primarily to its ideological collapse following the fall of existing Socialism in the last years of the 1980s and the early ones of the 1990s.

This ideological collapse of the socialist movement resulted directly from the crisis and collapse of the formations of existing Socialism and of the ideology of their ruling classes. In its history having attained a generally high degree of theoretical development, Socialist thought in Nigeria – especially in its dominant tendencies – always was susceptible to a sterile dogmatism that equated existing Socialism with the only socialism possible in existing world conditions and took the ideology of its ruling classes to be the true Marxism of the epoch. Thus, for the dominant sections of the Nigerian Socialist movement, the crisis of the countries of existing Socialism translated more or less directly into the crisis of Socialism and of Marxism, and the eventual collapse of those countries meant for these sections the collapse of Socialism as a historical project and of Marxism as a worldview and a science of society.

The ideological collapse paralysed much of the movement and threw it into disarray. Having lost its own ideological bearings, the movement could not provide enlightenment and ideological leadership as an organised body representing a viable alternative to the variety of bourgeois ideologies present in the mass of the oppressed. Indeed, in many a case, the Socialist organisation simply collapsed and expired, or, what amounts to the same thing, lost itself in bourgeois ideologies in the self-delusion of radicalising them.

These are the principal explanations socialists have offered of the organisational failure of the Nigeria socialist movement. However, deeper thought reveals these to be only immediate and contingent factors in a mediated causation with deeper and in fact structural roots. This becomes obvious as soon as we consider the fact that many Socialist movements across the world and particularly in the capitalist periphery have experienced these same conditions without then suffering organisational failure in such a sustained and apparently intractable manner as has the Nigerian movement.

The socialist movements in Brazil and other South American countries in the 1960s and 1970s and in South Africa and other Southern African countries all through the 1960s to the late 1980s suffered repression of such brutality, intensity, duration, and totality as the Nigerian socialist movement has never experienced. Yet they were able to sustain themselves in most cases and for most of these periods and after as a body of more or less coherent and effective organisations with the capacity to intervene in the social conflict on a class-wide basis. Even granting for a moment that the Nigerian movement has experienced repression with similar features and that this has played a key role in the persistency of its organisational failure, it still remains to explain this failure in periods relatively devoid of such repression. The movement has experienced the sort of repression capable of incapacitating it and decimating its organisational structure only under the Babangida regime (and to a much lesser extent under the military regime of Obasanjo). Before, between, and after these episodes of repression–which in all cases were relatively brief–the political conditions were relatively benign (even if not conducive) and the Socialist movement could have reconstituted itself organisationally, even if only operating illegally. Why could it not do this?

The problem of opportunism does not answer this question satisfactorily. Many Nigerian Marxists have given a correct explanation of opportunism in the movement. The question is why it has produced organisational failure in the Nigerian movement when it has not in many others. For opportunism has been a global problem in the world Socialist movement since the rise of imperialism in the later decades of the 19th century. It has not, however, had the same organisational result in all the national Socialist movements: some have disintegrated under its influence but others have not. What differentiates the first group from the second? Why has opportunism resulted specifically in organisational failure in the Nigerian Socialist movement when it has not in many others?

Similarly, the ideological collapse of the movement cannot be taken as given datum but must itself be problematised. This collapse only took place in the late 1980s and early 1990s; yet the problem of organisational failure has been with the movement since its inception in the 1940s. While it is certainly a factor in explaining the current organisational state of the movement, this collapse itself still needs explanation. For not all national Socialist movements experienced ideological collapse due to the fall of existing Socialism. Why was the Nigerian socialist movement so ideologically susceptible to the fall?

This indeed is the crux of the matter: why has the Nigerian movement been so susceptible to the organisationally destructive effects of repression, opportunism, and ideological collapse when other socialist movements have not? Why have these important but nonetheless contingent and immediate factors resulted in its organisational failure when they have not in other movements?

Organic divorce from the oppressed

As we already said above, the causation of this problem is mediated and has structural roots. These consist in the organic divorce of the Nigerian Socialist movement from the oppressed and their struggle, i.e., the fact that its organisations have functioned not as organic instruments of the struggle of the oppressed, but either as interventional instruments in that struggle by an affinitive but nonetheless extraneous social force or as instruments for the internalisation of alien conflicts. [2]

As an organic instrument of the struggle of the oppressed, the Socialist organisation is called up by the objective necessities of the domestic struggle of the oppressed and is given both its purpose and reason by those necessities. As we have said above, the organic interaction and interchanges between the Socialist organisation and these oppressed social forces build both into a unified social force in the class struggle. On the one hand, this makes the organisation not just a necessary product of the struggle but also a necessary instrument for furthering it, which gives the oppressed a stake in its survival and effective operation. [3] On the other, the interests of the oppressed and the demands of the struggle for those interests become the governing imperatives of the organisation’s operation and self-reproduction, defining what practices, attitudes, and beliefs are acceptable and what are not, i.e. defining its organisational morality. Thus, the necessities of the struggle provide not only the being and purpose of the organisation, but also its morality and the enforcer of that morality.

As either interventional instruments of extraneous social forces or instruments for the internalisation of alien conflicts, the Socialist organisation is called up by the necessities of an alien struggle or of the ideological persuasion of an extraneous social force, and it receives both its purpose and reason from those necessities, which become the governing imperatives of its operation and self-reproduction. Unless it somehow transforms into an organic instrument of the domestic struggle, such a Socialist organisation has little need for the organic interaction with the oppressed that we have described above and its interaction with them remains entirely theoretical, perfunctory, and decorative; for its real driving force is external to their struggle. Thus, the oppressed have little stake in it and no reason to take an interest in its survival and proper operation, and the organic interstices created by its divorce from the necessities of the domestic struggle become room for the sprouting and flourishing of practices, attitudes, and moralities other than those disciplined by those necessities.

Thus, the organic socialist organisation is disciplined by the necessities of the struggle of the oppressed of which it is an instrument; those necessities define the mores of the organisation, provide the enforcers of the mores, and furnishes them with a powerful incentive for action to enforce them. The non-organic organisation lacks this disciplining force and the disciplining mechanism it creates. Its discipline is only as strict as the personal discipline and morality of its individual members and no external force exists to control its internal conflicts.

The foregoing provides the basis for understanding the structural susceptibility of the Nigerian socialist movement to the devastating organisational effects of opportunism, repression and ideological collapse.

The dominance of opportunism (as opposed to its mere presence) and its resulting in organisational failure in the Nigerian Socialist movement are a structural function of the absence of an organic relationship between Socialist organisations and the struggle of the oppressed masses. Freedom from the harsh discipline of the necessities of this struggle invites into these organisations persons who cannot bear that discipline and provides liberty for opportunism to flourish in them and to overwhelm them. For, here, the governing principle in every discussion and manoeuvre is not the implications for the interests of the oppressed as a whole but the implications for the personal or factional interests of the leaders and members of the organisation. This freedom from the discipline of the struggle at once also prevents the development of any mechanism that can counter and correct the flourishing of opportunism. Since the organisation is not to the oppressed a necessary instrument in the struggle to achieve their goals, they have no reason to become part of it or, if they are members, to enforce the morality of the struggle in its theory and practice. Either they shun it or themselves become more or less willing instruments of the opportunism of its leaders. Thus, where this opportunism is not only an ideological one but also involves the pillage of the resources of the organisation – as it has often been in Nigeria – there exists no mechanism to control the avarice of the leaders and to subject it to the dictates of the struggle. The conflict over the pillage of the organisation, therefore, knows no bounds and it spirals until it destroys the organisation.

This absence of an organic relationship between the socialist organisations and the struggle of the oppressed masses also explains the absence of organisational tenacity and durability in the Nigerian socialist movement in the face of repression, why repression so easily results in the failure of its organisations. A socialist organisation that functions as an organic instrument of the struggle of the oppressed is a practical necessity, one that drives Socialists who are committed to this struggle: if the organisation does not exist, they must create it; if it exists but is under repression, they must protect it; if it existed but has been destroyed by repression, they must re-create it. Thus, they invest every ingenuity they possess into creating and sustaining the organic socialist organisation. Although repression could be so severe as to cripple such an organisation and to make its open operation impossible, it has hardly ever been so severe anywhere as to make absolutely any operation impossible. Even in the face of the most severe repression many Socialist movements have been able to undertake measures to sustain their organisations and to maintain some level of operation, including going underground, relocating their command and control organs beyond the reach of the repression, etc. That the Nigerian Socialist movement has collapsed under repression in most cases – i.e. dissolved its organisations – is a function of the absence of an organic relationship between those organisations and the struggle of the oppressed masses, a function of their structural superfluity in the struggle.

Ideological dependence

The ideological collapse of the Nigerian socialist movement in the face of the fall of existing Socialism was immediately a function of the ideological dependence of the bulk of the movement on the states of that Socialism, which itself was due to the absence of an organic relationship between Nigerian socialist organisations and the struggle of the oppressed masses. Governed by the necessities and challenges of the struggle of the oppressed, an organic socialist organisation develops its theories, programmes and strategies under the imperative of achieving the goals of that struggle. Although it may borrow ideas, lessons, and insights from another Socialist movement, its perspectives and borrowings are determined in the final analysis by the needs and realities of the struggle in which it is a necessary, organic instrument. [4] This is because its performance – in terms of the correctness of its perspectives, programmes, strategies and tactics, and of their effectiveness in the struggle – determines not only the fate of that struggle but also its own fate as an organisation; for it will quickly lose relevance in the struggle if it keeps failing in it. It, therefore, cannot afford to depend blindly – i.e., uncritically – on a foreign socialist movement for its theories, programmes, and strategies.

This imperative does not exist for the non-organic Socialist organisation, which can therefore afford such ideological dependency. That the bulk of the Nigerian Socialist movement was so ideologically dependent on foreign Socialist movements and for so long is supreme evidence of its organic superfluity in the struggle of the oppressed. That is why with a very few exceptions it has made little contribution of any great significance to Socialist theory but has engaged mostly in wooden and deadbeat academic Marxism, or in merely exhortatory and declamatory popular Marxism. Lacking that organic interaction with the practical struggles of the oppressed that at once grounds theory in concrete reality and yet challenges it to soaring flights of creativity and insight, Nigerian Marxism has mostly just waddled and hopped along the ground after Soviet Marxism like a quacking duckling after Mother Duck.

Now, how do we explain this organic divorce of the Nigerian socialist movement from the struggle of the oppressed? The movement has failed to establish an organic relationship with the oppressed, not simply because of its predominantly petty bourgeois class origins, but because the Nigerian petty bourgeoisie as a class has until the advent of neoliberal structural adjustment generally escaped the extreme privation and oppression that the labouring classes have experienced. It has yet to have a deeply and generally radicalising experience, an experience of privation and oppression out of which it can find no escape but revolution.

The class was generally comfortable and upwardly mobile in the pre-SAP period, receiving a good share of the surplus from the exploitation of the labouring classes and the dispossession of the oil-bearing communities. Although the neoliberal restructuring of the neocolonial formation has occasioned a drastic reduction in state-mediated transfers to the petty bourgeoisie, the class still receives a significant portion of the social surplus through various sources. These include transfers through expanded employment by foreign monopoly capital operating in Nigeria, foreign and domestic grants to non-governmental organisations, and legitimate and illegitimate enrichment through politics and political activities. Occupational emigration (the brain-drain problem, American Visa Lottery, etc.) and the booming music and film industries serve as important options and escape routes for many of those who cannot find accommodation within these other mechanisms. Although unemployment and underemployment are rife within the petty bourgeoisie – as within the proletariat – a large and growing portion of the class staves off complete destitution by entering into the informal sector.

The class has also experienced little political repression. The period of its most intense and extensive repression – Babangida’s and Abacha’s war from 1986 to 1998 to squash anti-SAP and anti-military rule forces – ended in a bourgeois civilian rule that has restored many liberties of the class almost completely. Thus, this general absence of an objectively radicalising situation has enabled the bulk of the petty bourgeoisie to still see options and escape routes from its situation and to continue nursing hopes of actually escaping.

Those who have come to the struggle of the oppressed have, therefore, not done so as of practical necessity but in most cases as an expression of ideological conviction or as the necessary conclusion of their theoretical analysis. Others have come out of occupational necessity (trade union and human rights workers, for instance). In both cases, they have come to the struggle of the oppressed as extraneous social forces and their Socialist organisations have served as interventional instruments without organic links to that struggle. This has also made possible the transformation of these organisations into instruments of the internalisation within it of alien conflicts.

Thus, Socialists who are absolutely committed to the struggle of the oppressed have been few and far between. Their efforts at forging organic links with the oppressed have been generally hindered and frustrated by the majority who cannot or will not make that commitment. That is why they are heroes.

It follows from the foregoing that the structural basis for overcoming the organic divorce between the Nigerian Socialist movement and the struggle of the oppressed – and, therefore, of overcoming the organisational failure of the movement – is that the Nigerian petty bourgeoisie (at least a significant portion of it) must undergo an experience of privation and oppression out of which it can find no escape but revolution. The movement’s history provides strong evidence of this.

It was surely no coincidence that the most successful bottom-up organising effort of the Socialist movement – in which it established a nationwide network of base and intermediate structures with good links with the struggle of the oppressed – occurred during the 1978-1995 structural crisis of Nigeria’s neocolonial formation and during the worst years of the structural adjustment programmes pursued by the bourgeoisie and imperialism to resolve it at the expense of the working people and the middle classes. While the problems of opportunism and infantile schism were abundantly in evidence in the movement in this period, it is a telling fact that it took the brutal campaign of repression by the Babangida regime to break the developing organic links between the movement and the oppressed masses and to decimate the movement itself as an organised force. The privation and oppression suffered specifically by the petty bourgeoisie in the period was such a radicalising experience for the class that it was driven increasingly to revolution and increasingly to make efforts at forging organic links with the urban working masses, in the realisation that it could not make revolution without them. In addition to Babangida’s war against the movement, the momentum toward an organic socialist movement was frustrated by the de-radicalising effects of, on the one hand, the massive infusion of funds from countries of the capitalist centre into the growing civil society movement and, on the other, the corruption-fuelling introduction of “free money” into the economy by the military regime.

Similarly, we find that in South Africa, Guinea-Bissau, Angola, Mozambique, Cuba, Nicaragua, Brazil and many other countries, the radical petty bourgeoisie predominantly formed an organic link with the oppressed masses in the social conflict when and where they suffered such privation and oppression as they could find no escape from but by the revolutionary path. To the extent and as long as they saw or thought they saw a way out of their situation, they tended to pursue a reformist approach and built alliances with the oppressed masses only to harness them to their reformist programme.

More directly relevant to the question we are dealing with, those who in these circumstances nevertheless chose a revolutionary path tended to intervene in the struggles of the oppressed masses as extraneous agents acting on their behalf, as messiahs bringing salvation to the hapless multitudes; and their organisations tended to remain insulated from the masses. In other words, although they intervened in the struggle of the oppressed masses and in many cases made great sacrifices in aid of that struggle, they did not build organic relations with the oppressed masses and their struggle. They did not themselves become one with the oppressed and their organisations did not become the oppressed themselves organised for their struggle against their oppressors; they remained an extraneous, alien social force intervening in the struggle of the oppressed on their behalf.

A radicalizing experience

Any meaningful prospect, therefore, of the Nigerian socialist movement becoming organic, i.e. developing organic links with the oppressed masses on a structural basis, depends on the petty bourgeoisie – or at least significant sections of it – having a radicalising experience of privation and oppression so severe, total, and implacable that it can find no way out but through revolution. It is, of course, in the very nature of historical things that we cannot predict them with exact scientific rigour. It is, therefore, not possible – and in fact not necessary – to fix exactly when and exactly how this radicalising experience will occur. Yet Marxism would not be the revolutionary science that it is of society in both its diachronic and synchronic dimensions if it did not consist in analytical tools enabling thought to grasp the material premises and logic of social dynamics and statics.

We are, therefore, able to offer the prognosis that the current immiseration and pauperisation of the Nigerian petty bourgeoisie will worsen in the course and immediate aftermath of the next structural crisis of the neocolonial formation if it is grave and long enough. As we have said above, we believe the probability of such a crisis to be very good in light of the current structural crisis of global capitalism and given the structural vulnerability of the Nigerian formation to the vicissitudes of the global capitalist system.

Already, the crisis in the countries of the capitalist centre is occasioning deep cuts in development aid for sub-Saharan Africa, with the result that the externally-dependent civil society is experiencing a funding crisis that is causing many CSOs to downsize drastically or even to suspend operations. The crisis is causing a slowdown in the economies of the centre, thus limiting their capacity to absorb migrant labour from the periphery and especially from Africa. If the analyses of Marxists like Samir Amin and Istvan Mészáros are correct, we should expect the crisis to be persistent and to grow worse over time, with any recovery being weak, short-lived, and followed by another long and intractable crisis.[5]

Should the Nigerian neocolonial capitalist formation go into a prolonged and severe structural crisis in these circumstances, the situation will indeed be most dire for the working masses but also for greater sections of the petty bourgeoisie. This will block off the routes of escape for more and more of the latter and almost certainly drive more of their numbers to revolution, creating simultaneously objective and subjective grounds for the forging of organic relations between them and the struggle of the oppressed.

This is not to say, however, that all effort at building a socialist movement with such relations with the struggle of the oppressed must wait until the next structural crisis. That would be to subscribe to the most brutish sort of mechanistic determinism; it would be to reject the Marxist notion of the dialectical determination of the superstructure by the substructure. For such crude determinism is completely alien to Marxism, a scientific worldview that accords full recognition to the creative and thus active role of the subjective factor in the historical labour process both of reproducing the existing social relations and of fashioning a new society.

That is surely the import of the first of Marx’s Theses on Feuerbach: “The chief defect of all hitherto existing materialism – that of Feuerbach included – is that the thing, reality, sensuousness, is conceived only in the form of the object or of contemplation, but not as sensuous human activity, practice, not subjectively…” [6] Thus, all through its history there have been individuals and organisations in the Nigerian socialist movement who have tried to build organic links with the oppressed and their struggles, even in the periods of greatest affluence ever enjoyed by the petty bourgeoisie.

The task of building an organic socialist movement in Nigeria must commence today even as we anticipate the next structural crisis of the neocolonial formation and the infinitely more favourable circumstances it will create for success at the task. The question is how to do that.

End notes

[1] Edwin Madunagu, The Tragedy of the Nigerian Socialist Movement and Other Essays (Calabar, Nigeria: Centaur Press Ltd., 1980), p.2.) dates the impotence of the movement from 1966, but this is tenable only if one accepts his implied conflation of the socialist movement and the workers movement (Ibid.). We insist, however, on differentiating them from each other. We therefore define the socialist movement as that body of organisations and individuals engaged in the struggle to abolish the social relations undergirding Nigeria’s neocolonial capitalist formation and to replace them with socialist ones. This at once differentiates between the two movements. For it is obvious that not all organisations of the workers movement are engaged in the struggle for socialism, some of them limiting their goals only to achieving the immanent (bourgeois) interests of the working class. They reject its transcendent (communist) ones – the latter however being precisely those that demand the abolition of capitalist social relations and their replacement with socialist ones. Based on this distinction, it becomes possible and indeed necessary to reconsider the question of dating the impotence of the socialist movement. For instance, was the 1944 General strike or even that of 1964 evidence of the potency and interventional capacity of the socialist movement as such or of the workers movement under the influence of bourgeois radicalism rather than socialist ideology? This is one of the very few flaws in Madunagu’s otherwise splendid (although too brief) study of the Nigerian socialist movement.

[2] For instance, the global struggle between the USA and the USSR, or between Maoism or Trotskyism and Stalinism.

[3] Fanon said something relevant to this in connection with the nationalist party in the decolonisation struggle. See Frantz Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth (Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, 1982).

[4] We see this clearly in the case of Maoism, for example. See Isaac Deutscher, “Maoism: Its Origins, Background, and Outlook,” The Socialist Register 1, no. 1 (1964): 11–37. The South African Communist Party furnishes an interesting case of a socialist organisation that experienced a measure of ideological dependence on the Soviet Union but survived the collapse of Existing Socialism and struggled to re-establish its own independent ideological bearings. See “Focus on Socialism,” South African Labour Bulletin 15, no. 3 (September 1990); and “Towards a New Internationalism?,” South African Labour Bulletin 15, no. 7 (April 1991). See also the continuation of the debate in the pages of The African Communist.

[5] See the following by Samir Amin: “A New Phase of Capitalism, or Rejuvenating Treatment for Senile Capitalism,” accessed December 4, 2012, http://www.forumtiersmonde.net/fren/index.php?option=com_content&view=ar… of-capitalism-or-rejuvenating-treatment-for-senile-capitalism&catid=54:critical-analysis-of- capitalism&Itemid=116; and Ending the Crisis of Capitalism or Ending Capitalism, trans. Victoria Bawtree (Cape Town, South Africa: Pambazuka Press, 2011). See also the following by Istvan Meszaros: “A Structural Crisis of the System,” interview by Judith Orr and Patrick Ward, Socialist Review, January 2009, http://www.socialistreview.org.uk/article.php?articlenumber=10672; “Structural Crisis Needs Structural Change,” Monthly Review 63, no. 10 (2012), http://monthlyreview.org/2012/03/01/structural-crisis-needs- structural-change; and The Structural Crisis of Capital (New York: Monthly Review Press, 2009), http://www.readingfromtheleft.com/Books/MR/structural%20crisis%20of%20ca…http://monthlyreview.org/press/books/pb2082/.

[6] Karl Marx, Theses on Feuerbach, 1888

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The Violent American Century: War and Terror Since World War II by John W. Dower

NOVANEWS
Author: John Dower
The Violent American Century: War and Terror Since World War II by John W. Dower

World War II marked the apogee of industrialized “total war.” Great powers savaged one another. Hostilities engulfed the globe. Mobilization extended to virtually every sector of every nation. Air war, including the terror bombing of civilians, emerged as a central strategy of the victorious Anglo-American powers. The devastation was catastrophic almost everywhere, with the notable exception of the United States, which exited the strife unscathed and unmatched in power and influence. The death toll of fighting forces plus civilians worldwide was staggering.

The Violent “American Century” addresses the U.S.-led transformations in war conduct and strategizing that followed 1945—beginning with brutal localized hostilities, proxy wars, and the nuclear terror of the Cold War, and ending with the asymmetrical conflicts of the present day. The military playbook now meshes brute force with a focus on non-state terrorism, counterinsurgency, clandestine operations, a vast web of overseas American military bases, and—most touted of all—a revolutionary new era of computerized “precision” warfare. By contrast to World War II, postwar death and destruction has been comparatively small. By any other measure, it has been appalling—and shows no sign of abating.

The winner of numerous national prizes for his historical writings, including the Pulitzer and the National Book Award, Dower draws heavily on hard data and internal U.S. planning and pronouncements in this concise analysis of war and terror in our time. In doing so, he places U.S. policy and practice firmly within the broader context of global mayhem, havoc, and slaughter since World War II—always with bottom-line attentiveness to the human costs of this legacy of unceasing violence.

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The omnipresent pressure to conform

NOVANEWS

Conformity

By Graham Peebles

It was the school holidays and there were lots of teenagers in my local park. I sometimes spot them meandering home, but I rarely see them en masse as it were. Blind to the bluebells, peacocks and glories of nature all around us, they were glued to their palm-sized screens. What were they so engrossed in – some kind of game or trivial video, a map of the park perhaps, unnecessary given the proliferation of signs? Are they texting, emailing, or trawling through the internet, or all of the above? If one did not know what these shiny seductive objects were, one might think that they controlled the person, rather than the other way round. And to a large degree they do.

For parents of teenagers, seeing groups of young people within a smartphone bubble, isolated from and, crucially, with no awareness of the environment around them or other people, is, I expect, commonplace. For me it was shocking. Equally startling and somewhat depressing was the herd-like behaviour. Where was the individuality here? Has the uniformity of the high street or shopping centre, the café or restaurant, hotel or housing development infiltrated the minds of human beings, young and not so young? So it would appear.

We’re no longer persons anymore, of course. We’re vessels of consumption into which stuff, mostly stuff we don’t need, can be endlessly poured.

There is tremendous pressure on everyone to conform to a particular stereotype, to be easily categorised as a certain type of person. The reasons are clear and predictably crude: to allow governments to build a database of who we are and what we think, and to enable advertisers to better target “consumers”. We’re no longer persons anymore, of course. We’re vessels of consumption into which stuff, mostly stuff we don’t need, can be endlessly poured.

The pressure to conform to a constructed ideal is perhaps most acute within youth culture: to look and dress in a particular way, act in a certain manner and want a specific lifestyle. Girls and young women are expected to be slim, beautiful, dressed in the latest high street fashions, which of course change with every season to maintain the consumer frenzy; they should be sexy and sexually active, glossy, as well as achieving high marks at school or university. For men or boys, the predominantly macho image presented on TV, in films, video games, etc. is perhaps even more prescriptive and inhibiting. The pressure is colossal: it is not accidental, and it is making lots of people, young and not so young, ill.

Independent thinking and creative exploration are key enemies of the forces behind this worldwide attack on true individuality, and so an assault on the creative arts is being waged in many developed countries. Under the spurious banner of “austerity” and “fiscal responsibility” – a set of far-right excuses to justify demolishing public services – funding to the creative arts – theatres, dance groups, opera, ballet – is being slashed. The scope of work groups can offer is reduced, admission prices, already too high, increased, further restricting access to a predominantly elitist world.

The problem with creative education from the point of view of those who want a drowsy, frightened population that won’t challenge the status quo too loudly or think of alternative ways of running society, is that it stimulates independent thought, allows for individuality and feeds anarchic discontent.

Education budgets are being attacked in many countries, and art education (together with social science and physical exercise) in schools is the first to be axed or drastically reduced – despite the fact that it improves students’ academic results. According to the National Endowment for the Arts, “students who study art are four times more likely to be recognised for academic achievement and three times more likely to be awarded for school attendance”. The problem with creative education from the point of view of those who want a drowsy, frightened population that won’t challenge the status quo too loudly or think of alternative ways of running society, is that it stimulates independent thought, allows for individuality and feeds anarchic discontent.

Conformity, together with fear, is the cornerstone of control, and the current education system in most developed countries drives both into children from beginning to end. Conformity and competition are built into the system; both are crippling and inhibiting, feeding fear, and conditioning the mind, not just for childhood and early adulthood but often for life. As Krishnamurti made clear in Education and the Significance of Life,

conventional education makes independent thinking extremely difficult. Conformity leads to mediocrity. To be different from the group or to resist [one’s] environment is not easy and is often risky as long as we worship success… the search for inward or outward security, the desire for comfort – this whole process smothers discontent, puts an end to spontaneity and breeds fear; and fear blocks the intelligent understanding of life. With increasing age, dullness of mind and heart sets in.

And whatever fight there was in the man or woman to begin with is drained away.

Add to the inhibiting education environment in which many young people find themselves, a social media blanket of uniformity, mainstream media – TV, radio, crass gossip magazines, trashy tabloids and dishonest advertising selling a hollow materialistic life-style – and the many headed hydra pushing people to think and act in a certain way, begins to raise its ugly head above the sea of stress, self-harm, and suicide. The inability to express oneself’ naturally and freely for fear of being seen to be “different”, inevitably results in stasis of some kind, which may lead to so-called disruptive behaviour, or some form of disease, mental or physiological.

Of course, we all need to live within the moral codes agreed by society, but psychological and sociological conformity has nothing to do with respecting the laws and traditions of a country. They are to do with control and fear, and with the rise of the right that is now taking place throughout the world, such suppressive methods are set to become even more intense.

True individuality – the manifestation of our innate nature, not the distorted individuality that places selfish desire and ambition above the welfare of others, should be encouraged and fostered, and conformity in all its devious, pernicious forms called out and resisted.

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The Looting Machine Called Capitalism

NOVANEWS
 

I have come to the conclusion that capitalism is successful primarily because it can impose the majority of the costs associated with its economic activities on outside parties and on the environment. In other words, capitalists make profits because their costs are externalized and born by others. In the US, society and the environment have to pick up the tab produced by capitalist activity.

In the past when critics raised the question about external costs, that is, costs that are external to the company although produced by the company’s activities, economists answered that it was not really a problem, because those harmed by the activity could be compensated for the damages that they suffered. This statement was intended to reinforce the claim that capitalism served the general welfare. However, the extremely primitive nature of American property rights meant that rarely would those suffering harm be compensated. The apologists for capitalism saved the system in the abstract, but not in reality.

My recent article, “The Destruction of Inlet Beach,” made it clear to me that very little, if any, of the real estate development underway would be profitable if the external costs imposed on existing property holders had to be compensated.

http://www.paulcraigroberts.org/2017/04/17/destruction-inlet-beach/

Consider just a few examples. When a taller house is constructed in front of one of less height, the Gulf view of the latter is preempted. The damage to the property value of the house whose view has been blocked is immense. Would the developer build such a tall structure if the disadvantaged existing property had to be compensated for the decline in its value?

When a house is built that can sleep 20 or 30 people next to a family’s vacation home or residence, the noise and congestion destroys the family’s ability to enjoy their own property. If they had to be compensated for their loss, would the hotel, disquised as a “single family dwelling” have been built?

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Walton County, Florida, is so unconcerned about these vital issues that it has permitted construction of structures that can accommodate 30 people, but provide only three parking spaces. Where do the rental guests park? How many residents will find themselves blocked in their own driveways or with cars parked on their lawns?

As real estate developers build up congestion, travel times are extended. What formerly was a 5 minute drive from Inlet Beach to Seaside along 30-A can now take 45 minutes during summer and holidays, possibly longer. Residents and visitors pay the price of the developers’ profits in lost time. The road is a two-lane road that cannot be widened. Yet Walton County’s planning department took no account of the gridlock that would emerge.

As the state and federal highways serving the area were two lanes, over-development made hurricane evacuation impossible. Florida and US taxpayers had to pay for turning two lane highways into four lane highways in order to provide some semblance of hurricane evacuation. After a decade, the widening of highway 79, which runs North-South is still not completed to its connection to Interstate 10. Luckily, there have been no hurricanes.

If developers had to pay these costs instead of passing them on to taxpayers, would their projects still be profitable?

Now consider the external costs of offshoring the production of goods and services that US corporations, such as Apple and Nike, market to Americans. When production facilities in the US are closed and the jobs are moved to China, for example, the American workers lose their jobs, medical coverage, careers, pension provision, and often their self-respect when they are unable to find comparable employment or any employment. Some fall behind in their mortgage and car payments and lose their homes and cars. The cities, states, and federal governments lose the tax base as personal income and sales taxes decline and as depressed housing and commercial real estate prices in the abandoned communities depress property taxes. Social security and Medicare funding is harmed as payroll tax deposits fall. State and local infrastructure declines. Possibly crime rises. Safety net needs rise, but expenditures are cut as tax revenues decline. Municipal and state workers find their pensions at risk. Education suffers. All of these costs greatly exceed Apple’s and Nike’s profits from substituting cheaper foreign labor for American labor. Contradicting the neoliberal claims, Apple’s and Nike’s prices do not drop despite the collapse in labor costs that the corporations experience.

A country that was intelligently governed would not permit this. As the US is so poorly governed, the executives and shareholders of global corporations are greatly enriched because they can impose the costs associated with their profits on external third parties.

The unambigious fact is that US capitalism is a mechanism for looting the many for the benefit of the few. Neoliberal economics was constructed in order to support this looting. In other words, neoliberal economists are whores just like the Western print and TV media.

Yet, Americans are so insouciant that you will hear those who are being looted praise the merits of “free market capitalism.”

So far we have barely scratched the surface of the external costs that capitalism imposes. Now consider the pollution of the air, soil, waterways, and oceans that result from profit-making activities. Consider the radioactive wastes pouring out of Fukushima since March 2011 into the Pacific Ocean. Consider the dead zones in the Gulf of Mexico from agricultural chemical fertilizer run-off. Consider the destruction of the Apalachicola, Florida, oyster beds from the restricted river water that feeds the bay due to overdevelopment upstream. Examples such as these are endless. The corporations responsible for this destruction bear none of the costs.

Image result for pollutionIf it turns out that global warming and ocean acidification are consequences of capitalism’s carbon-based energy system, the entire world could end up dead from the external costs of capitalism.

Free market advocates love to ridicule economic planning, and Alan Greenspan and Larry Summers actually said that “markets are self-regulating.” There is no sign anywhere of this self-regulation. Instead, there are external costs piled upon external costs. The absence of planning is why over-development has made 30-A dysfunctional, and it is why over-development has made metropolitan areas, such as Atlanta, Georgia, dysfunctional. Planning does not mean the replacement of markets. It means the provision of rules that produce rational results instead of shifting costs of development onto third parties.

If capitalism had to cover the cost of its activities, how many of the activities would pay?

As capitalists do not have to cover their external costs, what limits the costs?

Once the external costs exceed the biosphere’s ability to process the waste products associated with external costs, life ends.

We cannot survive an unregulated capitalism with a system of primitive property rights. Ecological economists such as Herman Daly understand this, but neoliberal economists are apologists for capitalist looting. In days gone by when mankind’s footprint on the planet was light, what Daly calls an “empty world,” productive activities did not produce more wastes than the planet could cleanse. But the heavy foot of our time, what Daly calls a “full world,” requires extensive regulation. The Trump administration’s program of rolling back environmental protection, for example, will multiply external costs. To claim that this will increase economic growth is idiotic. As Daly (and Michael Hudson) emphasize, the measure known as Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is so flawed that we do not know whether the increased output costs more to produce than it is worth. GDP is really a measure of what has been looted without reference to the cost of the looting. Environmental deregulation means that capitalists can treat the environment as a garbage dump. The planet can become so toxic that it cannot recover.

In the United States and generally across the Western world, property rights exist only in a narrow, truncated form. A developer can steal your view forever and your solitude for the period his construction requires. If the Japanese can have property rights in views, in quiet which requires noise abatement, and in sun fall on their property, why can’t Americans? After all, we are alleged to be the “exceptional people.”

But in actual fact, Americans are the least exceptional people in human history. Americans have no rights at all. We hapless insignificant beings have to accept whatever capitalists and their puppet government impose on us. And we are so stupid we call it “Freedom and Democracy America.”

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Historical Origins of the State: Barbarians at the Gate

NOVANEWS
Part III of a Six Part Essay
 

War has indeed become perpetual and peace no longer even a fleeting wish nor a distant memory. We have become habituated to the rumblings of war and the steady drum beat of propaganda about war’s necessity and the noble motives that inspire it. We will close hospitals. We will close schools. We will close libraries and museums. We will sell off our parklands and water supply. People will sleep on the streets and go hungry. The war machine will go on.

What are we to do? The following text is Part III of  a broader analysis entitled War and the State: Business as Usual.

Link to War and the State: Part 1

Link to War and the State: Part 2

The State is a modern invention. It was conceived in violence and has been true to its origins ever since. Rome was in its decline. The barbarians were at the gates. Beginning in the 5th century, Germanic tribes descended from the North, via Scandinavia.  Germanic tribes with names like Franks, Angles, Saxons, Lombards, Burgundians, Visigoths, Ostrogoths, Vandals plundered their way across Europe, destroying and killing at will, lending their names to the plots where they settled. “From these raw, belligerent kingdoms rose the first modern nation-states…”(Simons, 13). Their society was a simple one, “explicitly organized for one activity, the making of war.” (Simons, 16)

These are our ancestors, wantonly laying waste the land, giddy with rapine and the glory of conquest, whooping it up with yelps and war cries, the wandering herds tearing into each other with gusto, as do their modern counterparts. These are our ancestors and it is on their bones that our modern civilization (sic) has been erected. War is not incidental to modern society. It is at its core, inscribed in its DNA.

THE FRANKS

Image result for the franks

The Franks were one of the more civilized tribes, showing signs of Roman influence. However, they were persistent in asserting their power and establishing dominion. To them we owe the birth of the State. In 481, Clovis (of Merovingian lineage) became King of the Franks. “Brutal, ignorant and totally amoral, he stole treasure, split skulls and collected concubines with alarming gusto.” (Simons, 59) Shrewd, nonetheless, he took a Catholic bride and had himself baptized. Joining violence and faith, perhaps for the first time, Clovis succeeded in subduing the Visigoths, guilty of the Arian heresy, 1 driving them out of Gaul (latter day France) and thus endearing himself to the Catholic Church.

The Merovingians slipped into decline, “a dismal catalogue of treachery, murder and mutiliation” (Simons, 60) and were replaced by the Carolingians whose mighty leader, “big, bull-necked and pot-bellied,” (Simons, 101) inherited the throne in 768, expanded the Frankish realm to include much of Western Europe and ruled for forty-six years as Charlemagne (Charles the Great).

Next came the Vikings “who descended upon the continent in a wild orgy of plunder and mayhem” (Simons, 125). The Danes, Swedes and Norwegians were even scarier and more ferocious than the Germanic tribes whom they repeatedly crushed.  With leaders like Eric Bloodax, Harald Bluetooth, Ivar the Boneless, the Norsemen terrorized the population who found no escape and no reprieve. Carolingian rulers proved unequal to the task. In 987, Hugh Capet ascended to the throne. The House of Capet held power until 1328, to be replaced by the House of Valois (1328-1589).

In September of 1494 the French barbarian known to history as Charles VIII got it into his head to invade Italy. Ostensibly this adventure had as its purpose Charles’ wish to lay claim to a throne that he believed was legitimately his. In simpler terms Charles had time on his hands and was looking for some excitement, which, as is often the case, entailed killing off anyone who got in his way. He decimated the countryside and destabilized governments as he went. This is personal whim. It is sport, like hunting fox.

Over the next six decades, under three different kings, France invaded Italy six times. “The violence wreaked on Italy devastated its countryside and destabilized its city-states, which became hapless pawns in a vast chess game beyond their playing abilities (Porter, 41), with major consequences for Italian political development over the following four hundred years.

Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain were incensed about what was going on in Italy and so put their iron in the fire. Eventually England joined the fray. So, in essence, we had our first World War, which is why 1494 is considered to be the birth date of the modern era, the era of incessant warfare.

The modern era of warfare meant longer wars, wars waged at a distance, entailing the mobilization of men and equipment far from home and the killing of a lot of people in a short period of time. At Ravenna in 1512, a single cannon ball felled thirty-three men. In Novara in 1513, cannon fire killed seven hundred men in three minutes (Porter, 41).

The French extended their Statist reach via The House of Bourbon (1589-1792), which found its most thorough going Statist in the person of Louis XIV (1643-1715). Under Louis XIV power was consolidated and centralized in a way that had never been done before in the Western world. When Louis, “the Sun King” said “l’État, c’est moi,” [“I am the State”] he wasn’t kidding. He ruled for seventy-two years and 110 days, the longest of any major monarch in European history. Single handedly he created the modern State with its standing army, taxation and bureaucracy, its unrelenting quest for dominion and fealty.

THE ANGLES AND THE SAXONS

England —initially settled by Britons sometime in the Iron Age — has a similar barbaric ancestry. The Saxon tribe — renowned for their vicious cruelty —began their invasion in the 5th century. They met up with some stiff resistance, resulting in a piecemeal conquest and the formation of “a number of petty, contentious kingdoms rather than a single realm.” (Simons, 35)

Image result for anglo saxons

The German tribes were followed by the Vikings — principally Danes — who at first confined themselves to pillaging and then fleeing with their booty. Around the middle of the 9th century they began to settle down in central and eastern England in a territory that came to be known as “Danelaw,” putting themselves in opposition to the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms to the south and west. The outcome was ongoing warfare that lasted for more than century.

“Edward the Confessor” ascended to the throne in 1043 and established “a political unity which could not be matched elsewhere in Europe.” (Barlow, 3) As in France there was a string of Houses — family lines — one replacing the other without substantially betraying their barbaric roots. Up to 1707, there were ten Houses in Britain, starting with the House of Wessex under Alfred the Great in 871, to be followed by Denmark, Normandy, Blois, Anjou, Plantagenet, Lancaster, York, Tudor and Stuart. And there was a gaggle of Edwards, Henrys and Richards to occupy the throne, often one replacing the other by means of treachery and bloodshed. (See Wikipedia, “List of monarchs of the British Isles by cause of death.”)

In 1296, Edward I invaded Scotland, a civilization that predated England’s and exceeded it in intellectual distinction. When the town of Berwick resisted, the town was sacked and its 8000 inhabitants slaughtered.

In 1327 Edward II was supposedly murdered in Berkeley Castle in Gloucestershire after a metal tube and a red-hot poker were inserted into his anus. Allegedly by Sir John Maltravers of Dorset.

On December 10, 1394 James I was assassinated by a group of Scots led by Sir Robert Graham.

Henry VI was imprisoned in the Tower of London on December 6, 1421 and there  was murdered.

In 1537, Jane was beheaded.

Mary I was executed on December 8, 1542.

Charles I followed a similar fate on November 19, 1600

Richard II died in captivity in 1400 at Pontefract Castle where he was either murdered or starved to death.

In November 1470, Edward V was imprisoned in the Tower of London and died from unknown causes.

June 3 1865, George V was expedited by lethal injection administered by his doctor.

I don’t know about you but for me this all has a whiff of barbarism about it. But of course this is not even the tip of the proverbial iceberg if barbarism is what we are looking for.

The mentality of entitlement and empire building that characterize the British ruling class can be traced to their barbarian ancestors, of whom they are so proud, competing with each other for whose roots go deeper.

It was the barbarians who began the practice of invading other lands at will, ravaging the countryside and villages, making their own what belonged to someone else. The only justification for such actions was the wish to so behave, the blood lust of the barbaric nomad.

The blood lust of the barbaric nomad became the founding ethos of the British ruling class. After all, the British Empire was not a natural occurrence. Scotland, Ireland, India had to be occupied, resistance crushed, economies transformed to satisfy the wishes of the invading host. “What is yours is mine” is the barbarian mantra as it is of the British ruling class.

THE UNITED STATES IN THE MIDDLE EAST

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Not to be outdone by its European ancestors, the United States of America has donned its barbaric mantel with great pride and has become the apotheosis of Statism. The sack of Rome by the Vandals in 410 was civilized when compared with the sack of Baghdad in 2003. (See GPF below) Americans oversaw the destruction and looting of libraries, museums and archaeological sites. About a quarter of the total book collection of the National Library of Baghdad was looted or burned, including rare books and newspapers.  The Central Library of the University of Basra went up in flames, with a loss of at least 70% of its collections.

Thieves looted the National Museum and took 14-15,000 objects altogether, including coins, sculpture, ceramics, metalwork, architectural fragments, cuneiform tablets and most of the Museum’s collection of valuable Sumerian cylindrical seals. Outside Baghdad, looters and thieves attacked the Mosul Museum. They stole hundreds of objects, including sixteen bronze Assyrian door panels from the city gates of Balawat dating back to the 9th century BC. Archaeological sites were destroyed and their contents sold to international dealers who were waiting, prepared for the organized looting that occurred. Some of the greatest Sumerian archaeological sites have disappeared.

The invasion and occupation of Iraq have resulted in the deaths of close to a million and the displacement of as many as four million. Most certainly this would have made Alaric, King of the Vandals quite proud. It is barbarism pure and simple, gratuitous killing, gratuitous destruction of a civilization.

As Patrick Martin observes, “Bush, Rumsfeld and company personify the new barbarians: a ‘leader’ who is himself only semi-literate and wallows in religious backwardness; an administration populated by former corporate CEOs for whom an artifact of ancient Sumer is of more interest as a tax shelter than as a key to the historical and cultural development of mankind.”

Here is another, more recent example of barbarism. In 2011, Presidential aspirant and then Secretary of State, Hillary Rodham Clinton unleashed the savage bombing of Libya destroying the country and leading to the ethnic cleansing of a million and a half of Sub-Sahara workers and Black Libyans of sub-Saharan descent.

Libya, once boasting one of the highest standards of living among Middle East and North African countries, has been reduced to a state of lawlessness and violence where terrorists and warlords compete with each other for local power. Ms. Clinton celebrated the death by anal impalement of popularly elected Libyan President, Muammar Gaddafi and the assassination of five of his grandchildren. (Petras, May 17)  Now that is barbarism for ya, the good old fashioned kind.

We have progressed not one micron in the intervening centuries since our barbarian ancestors roamed the planet at will. We are as gratuitously violent and as greedy for booty. And as proud of our weapons as were the barbarians. And yet we are worse, much worse. We lack the courage and daring of our barbarian ancestors. In our pinstriped suits, we strategize from the comfort of our wooden paneled, air conditioned offices. We are armchair warriors. Self-righteous armchair warriors. And so proud of the lives we have taken by the millions and the civilizations we have laid low.

DESCENT INTO HELL

War is about power, personal power. It is made by men with little self-respect and even less in intellectual integrity, with no sense of the meaning or value of a human life. All the rest is propaganda, the most harmful non-mortal effect of war on society. “We have been kneaded so successfully,” says Bourne, “that we approve of what our society approves, desire what our society desires, and add to the group our own passional inertia against change, against the effort of reason, and the adventure of beauty.” (Bourne, 90)

Speaking of WWI, Bourne observes, “The kind of war we are conducting is an enterprise which the American government does not have to carry on with the hearty cooperation of the American people but only with their acquiescence. And that acquiescence seems sufficient to float an indefinitely protracted war for vague or even largely uncomprehended and unaccepted purposes.” (Bourne, 36)

Personal lust for power has taken the lives of hundreds of millions, has decimated the countryside and obliterated civilizations. In the 20th century alone over 100 million have been lost to war and state genocide. 2

Of course, this does not account for the wounded and maimed, whose number is easily twice as large, nor the destructive impact on the economy, civic life, and psychic existence of those who survive “intact.”

In the United States today, we are ruled by power addicts. They will not be sated. They lie relentlessly. They are criminally inclined. They promote war without end. These warriors have been and will be defeated on the battlefield. It changes nothing.

Bertolt Brecht wrote a play entitled, Mother Courage and her Children (1939). It is the story of a woman who tries to support herself and three children by selling sundries and sweets to soldiers in time of war. She moves from one battle scene to the next with her traveling canteen. She befriends a chaplain who has this to say about war:

Well, there’ve always been people going around saying some day the war will end. I say, you can’t be sure the war will ever end. Of course it may have to pause occasionally — for breath, as it were — it can even meet with an accident —nothing on this earth is perfect — a year of which we could say it left nothing to be desired will probably never exist. A war can come to a sudden halt — from unforeseen causes —you can’t think of everything —a little oversight, and the war’s in the hole and someone’s got to pull it out again! The someone is the Emperor or the King or the Pope. They’re such in need, the war has really nothing to worry about, it can look forward to a prosperous future.

One could argue that history is nothing but a vast battle­field after the battle is over—a mountain of the corpses of men, women, and children from around the world and across time who have been slaughtered to satisfy the warriors in their quest for blood and glory.

Finding the true meaning of war beneath the rubble is a difficult chal­lenge, because that meaning is too often obscured by those who write about it. Instead, we are offered endless volumes extolling the “heroes” who did the killing. We are taught to look up to these “great men” and to embrace a history drenched in blood. Very little is written about the dead or about the connection between the “glory” of conquest and its consequences for those who did survive—about its effects on civil soci­ety. That is, very little is written about the battlefield after the battle is over.

5TH CENTURY B.C.: THE GREEKS

Image result for the greeksWe are indebted to the play­wright Aeschylus, who, in The Persians, described the aftermath of the battle of Salamis in 480 B.C.:

The hulls of our ships rolled over, and it was no longer possible to glimpse the sea, strewn as it was with the wrecks of warships and the debris of what had been men. The shores and the reefs were full of our dead, and every ship that had once been part of the fleet now tried to row its way to safety through flight. But just as if our men were tunny-fish or some sort of netted catch, the enemy kept pound­ing them and hacking them with broken oars and the flotsam from the wrecked ships. And so shrieks together with sobbing echoed over the open sea until the face of black night ended the scene. (Hanson, 30-31)

Here is another example, in which Thucydides, writing in the fifth century B.C., portrays the physical suffering and the pathos of war. He is describing the decimation of the Athenians during the course of their invasion of Sicily:

The dead lay unburied, and each man as he recognized a friend among them shuddered with grief and horror; while the living whom they were leaving behind, wounded or sick, were to the living far more shocking than the dead, and more to be pitied than those who had perished. These fell to entreating and bewailing until their friends knew not what to do, begging them to take them and loudly calling to each individual comrade or relative whom they could see, hanging upon the neck of their tent-fel­lows in the act of departure, and following as far as they could, and when their bodily strength failed them, calling again and again upon heaven and shrieking aloud as they were left behind. (Finley, 371)

The living have been taken prisoner by the enemy. Here is Thucydides’ description of their fate:

Crowded in a narrow hole, without any roof to cover them, the heat of the sun and the stifling closeness of the air tormented them during the day, and then the nights, which came on autumnal and chilly, made them ill by the violence of the change; besides, as they had to do everything in the same place for want of room, and the bodies of those who died of their wounds or from the variation in the temperature, or from similar causes, were left heaped together one upon the other, intolerable stenches arose; while hunger and thirst never cease to afflict them, each man during eight months having only half a pint of water and a pint of grain given him daily. In short, no single suffering to be apprehended by men thrust into such a place was spared them. (Finley, 379)

16TH CENTURY: THE SPANISH

Image result for the spanish

Early in the sixteenth century, Spanish conquistadores, led by Hernán Cortés, decided they wanted gold that wasn’t theirs. To get it, they pro­ceeded to destroy the Aztec culture and annihilate the native popula­tion. The capital of Mexico at that time was Tenochtitlan, and therein lay the Aztec treasure and Montezuma, the emperor of the Aztecs. Pedro de Alvarado, second in command, in Cortés’ absence massacred 8,000 unarmed Aztec nobility and was about to get to work on the women and children when Cortés appeared. Here is how a witness described the event:

They attacked all the celebrants, stabbing them, spearing them from behind, and these fell instantly to the ground with their entrails hanging out. Others they beheaded: they cut off their heads, or split their head to pieces. They struck others in the shoulders, and their arms were torn from the bodies. They wounded some in the thigh and some in the calf. They slashed others in the abdomen, and their entrails all spilled to the ground. Some attempted to run away, but their intestines dragged as they ran; they seemed to tangle their feet in their own entrails. [Ref]

Tenochtitlan was under siege from May through August 1521. Cortés described the carnage in a letter to his king, Charles V:

The people of the city had to walk upon their dead while others swam or drowned in the waters of that wide lake where they had their canoes; indeed, so great was their suffering that it was beyond our understand­ing how they could endure it. Countless numbers of men, women and children came toward us, and in their eagerness to escape many were pushed into the water where they drowned amid the multitude of corpses; and it seemed that more than fifty thousand had perished from the salt water they had drunk, their hunger and the vile stench. (Hanson, 192)

About 100,000 Aztecs perished in the fighting. The tally from the two-year struggle for Tenochtitlan was close to a million. Fifty years later, as a consequence of war and disease—the Europeans had brought with them measles, bubonic plague, flu, whooping cough, and mumps— the population of central Mexico had been reduced from 8 million to less than 1 million. The riches seized by the Spaniards were considerable. Between 1500 and 1650, 150 tons of gold and 16,000 tons of silver were shipped from Mexico and Peru to Spain.

19TH CENTURY: THE FRENCH

Image result for the frenchAs the centuries pass, the carnage continues unabated. In 1809, Napoleon bombarded the city of Vienna. On May 21, he entered the city. A vicious battle with the Austrians ensued, just across the Danube. Napoleon got away with 19,000 in casualties, the Austrians with 24,000. In a subsequent battle on July 6, the Austrians lost 40,000, against 34,000 for the French. Thus, within a period of just six weeks, well over 100,000 men had been killed or wounded. Napo­leon’s disastrous Russian adventure of 1812 resulted in almost a million casualties. The battle of Borodino, alone, cost some 30,000 Frenchmen killed or wounded, some 45,000 Russians killed or wounded.

Inspecting the battlefield at Eylau, after what Napoleon counted as a victory, he wrote:

To visualize the scene one must imagine, within the space of three square miles, nine or ten thousand corpses; four of five thousand dead horses; rows upon rows of Russian field packs; the remnants of muskets and swords; the ground covered with cannon balls, shells, and other ammu­nition; and twenty-four artillery pieces, near which could be seen the corpses of the drivers who were killed while trying to move them—all this sharply outlined against a background of snow. (Herold, 182)

And here is the battlefield at Borodino, six weeks after the battle, as described by Count Phillipe-Paul de Ségur:

We all stared around us and saw a field, trampled, devastated, with every tree shorn off a few feet above the earth.… Everywhere the earth was lit­tered with battered helmets and breastplates, broken drums, fragments of weapons, shreds of uniforms, and blood-stained flags. Lying amid this desolation were thirty thousand half-devoured corpses. The scene was dominated by a number of skeletons lying on the crumbled slope of one of the hills; death seemed to have established its throne up there.  (Herold, 352)

The same Ségur described the French troops in retreat across a frozen Russian landscape, during the first heavy snowfall:

Everything in sight became vague, unrecognizable. Objects changed their shape; we walked without knowing where we were or what lay ahead, and anything became an obstacle.… Yet the poor wretches [the soldiers] dragged themselves along, shivering, with chattering teeth, until the snow packed under the soles of their boots, a bit of debris, a branch, or the body of a fallen comrade tripped them and threw them down. Then their moans for help went unheeded. The snow soon cov­ered them up and only low white mounds showed where they lay. Our road was strewn with these hummocks, like a cemetery. (Herold, 352-352)

To warm themselves, the troops would set a whole house afire. Ségur’s description continues:

The light of these conflagrations attracted some poor wretches whom the intensity of the cold and suffering had made delirious. They dashed for­ward in a fury, and with gnashing teeth and demoniacal laughter threw themselves into those raging furnaces, where they perished in dreadful convulsions. Their starving companions watched them die without appar­ent horror. There were even some who laid hold of the bodies disfigured and roasted by the flames, and—incredible as it may seem—ventured to carry this loathsome food to their mouths. (Herold, 356)

19TH CENTURY: THE AMERICANS

Image result for the americans 19th century

The American War of Secession in 1860, in which Northerners — under the command of the much revered Abraham Lincoln — invaded the South and obliterated its culture, destroying farms, lives and homesteads, creating mass migration and starvation, is as a good measure of what the warrior State is capable doing to its own people.

Here is a description by poet William Gilmore Simms of how things came to pass in Columbia, South Carolina.

Daily did long trains of fugitives line the roads, with wives and children, and horses and stock and cattle, seeking refuge from the pursuers . . . Half naked people cowered from the winter under bush-tents in the thickets, under the eaves of houses, under the railroad sheds, and in old cars left them along the route. . . . Habitation after habitation, village after village—one sending up its signal flames to the other, presaging for it the same fate—lighted the winter and midnight sky with crimson horrors. (Masters, 458)

20TH CENTURY: THE GERMANS

Image result for the germans 20th centuryThanks to modern technology, its advanced weaponry and the advent of two world wars, the 20th century has committed unrivaled barbarie on a grand scale. Erich Maria Remarque (1898-1970) has written a most compelling novel entitled, All Quiet on the Western Front (1928). Remarque takes the reader behind German lines during the First World War. We live out the terror of war and its gruesome horrors. We come to understand how men can be reduced to bestial savagery. Here are some excerpts from Chapter 6.

The waiting:

Night again. We are deadened by the strain–a deadly tension that scrapes along one’s spine like a gapped knife. Our legs refuse to move, our hands tremble, our bodies are a thin skin stretched painfully over repressed madness, over an almost irresistible, bursting roar. We have neither flesh nor muscles any longer, we dare not look at one another for fear of some incalculable thing. So we shut our teeth–it will end–it will end–perhaps we will come through.

The enemy:

We recognize the smooth distorted faces, the helmets: they are French. They have already suffered heavily when they reach the remnants of the barbed wire entanglements. A whole line has gone down before our machine-guns; then we have a lot of stoppages and they come nearer.

I see one of them, his face upturned, fall into a wire cradle. His body collapses, his hands remain suspended as though he were praying. Then his body drops clean away and only his hands with the stumps of his arms, shot off, now hang in the wire.

The moment we are about to retreat three faces rise up from the ground in front of us. Under one of the helmets a dark pointed beard and two eyes that are fastened on me. I raise my hand, but I cannot throw into those strange eyes; for one moment the whole slaughter whirls like a circus round me, and these two eyes alone are motionless; then the head rises up, a hand, a movement, and my hand-grenade flies through the air and into him.

The savagery:

We have become wild beasts. We do not fight, we defend ourselves against annihilation. It is not against men that we fling our bombs, what do we know of men in this moment when Death is hunting us down–now, for the first time in three days we can see his face, now for the first time in three days we can oppose him; we feel a mad anger. No longer do we lie helpless, waiting on the scaffold, we can destroy and kill, to save ourselves, to save ourselves and to be revenged.

We crouch behind every corner, behind every barrier of barbed wire, and hurl heaps of explosives at the feet of the advancing enemy before we run. The blast of the hand-grenades impinges powerfully on our arms and legs; crouching like cats we run on, overwhelmed by this wave that bears us along, that fills us with ferocity, turns us into thugs, into murderers, into God only knows what devils; this wave that multiplies our strength with fear and madness and greed of life, seeking and fighting for nothing but our deliverance. If your own father came over with them you would not hesitate to fling a bomb at him.

The lines behind us stop. They can advance no farther. The attack is crushed by our artillery. We watch. The fire lifts a hundred yards and we break forward. Beside me a lance-corporal has his head torn off. He runs a few steps more while the blood spouts from his neck like a fountain.

We have lost all feeling for one another. We can hardly control ourselves when our glance lights on the form of some other man. We are insensible, dead men, who through some trick, some dreadful magic, are still able to run and to kill.

A young Frenchman lags behind, he is overtaken, he puts up his hands, in one hand he still holds his revolver–does he mean to shoot or to give himself up!–a blow from a spade cleaves through his face. A second sees it and tries to run farther; a bayonet jabs into his back. He leaps in the air, his arms thrown wide, his mouth wide open, yelling; he staggers, in his back the bayonet quivers.

This is the reality of war, not the headlines, or news blurbs, or the propaganda pitches. This is what war is about. Bestiality and slaughter. Men gone mad and insensate. Death and survival reign. There is no purpose or meaning behind the mutilation. We can changes the names and places and the dates, war remains what it always been, senseless killing, i.e. barbarism.

VISIT WITH A FRIEND

While we are down here — i.e. in Hell — I thought I might pay visit to a friend of mine, Madeleine Albright. As Secretary of State, Maddy presided over the siege of Baghdad that began shortly after the United States invaded Iraq in August of 1990. The trade embargo denied foodstuffs and medicine to the people of Iraq, men, women and children. The conservative estimate is that 500,000 children under the age of five died of starvation and disease, as a consequence of the embargo.

For a moment, visualize, if you will, just one small child dying of starvation. Iraqi children — like children everywhere — are sweet, adorable creatures filled with a joy for living. Now imagine what it is like for an Iraqi mother — who has a soul and suffers, just like mothers everywhere — to watch her child wither before her eyes and then die. Now multiply this by 500,000, and this not an accident of nature, but the result of deliberate policy by American policy makers.  When asked in an interview whether the death of half a million Iraqi children was worth it, Ms. Albright replied, “We think the price is worth it.” 

Dante Alighieri is responsible for the design of Hell as we know it. There are nine circles. If I had my way I would add a tenth circle and give Madeleine the privacy she deserves. But Dante gets the last word. It is the seventh circle that is home to Maddy, where she will remain into eternity, immersed in a river of boiling blood and fire.

It is reasonable to ask just what kind of person is Madeleine Albright and her cohorts in the warrior class. We can say with confidence that they are different from us, i.e., those with empathy for human suffering. The word psychopath comes to mind. The psychopath lacks empathy, loves to lie, and is skillful in impersonating what we consider to be a normal human being.

Psychopaths and politicians both have a tendency to be selfish, callous, remorseless users of others, irresponsible, pathological liars, glib, con artists, lacking in remorse and shallow.

Charismatic politicians, like criminal psychopaths, exhibit a failure to accept responsibility for their actions, have a high sense of self-worth, are chronically unstable, have socially deviant lifestyle, need constant stimulation, have parasitic lifestyles and possess unrealistic goals….

Political psychopaths are all largely cut from the same pathological cloth, brimming with seemingly easy charm and boasting, calculating minds. Such leaders eventually create pathocracies—totalitarian societies bent on power, control, and destruction of both freedom in general and those who exercise their freedoms. (Whitehead)

In 1835, the English physician, James Pritchard, wrote a treatise on mental illness in which he used the term “moral insanity,” which he defined as, “madness consisting in a morbid perversion of the natural feelings, affections, inclinations, temper, habits, moral dispositions, and natural impulses, without any remarkable disorder or defect of the interest or knowing and reasoning faculties, and particularly without any insane illusion or hallucinations.”(McPherson,300)

In other words those who suffer from moral insanity appear to be exactly like us. They are charming, likeable and coherent, which is what makes them so dangerous. What is rarely discussed, though obvious, is that those who suffer from moral insanity are filled with rage. And it is the rage that drives them to kill wherever and whenever they are given the opportunity.

“Well,” you say, “this can’t go on forever. There has to be an end in sight.” In Part 4, we consider what the end game possibilities might be.

Above text is part III of a six part essay.

1. War and the health of the State: What causes war

2. Federated governments: The Nation vs. the State

3. Origin of the State: Barbarians at the gate

4. End Game: War goes on

5. Critical Thinking: A bridge to the future

6. Deconstructing the State: Getting small

SOURCES

Benjamin Barber, Strong Democracy: Participatory Politics for a New Age.

Frank Barlow, The Feudal Kingdom on England 1042-1216.

Edward Bernays, Propaganda.

Ellen Brown, The Public Bank Solution: From Austerity to Prosperity.

Smedly Butler, War Is A Racket.

James Carroll, House of War.

Gearoid O Colmain, “The Weaponisation of the Refugee,” Dissident Voice, January 20, 2016.

Rob Cooper, “Iceland’s former Prime Minister found guilty over country’s 2008 financial crisis but will avoid jail,”Daily Mail, April 23, 2012.

C.S., “Constitution Society,” Andrew Jackson, July 10, 1832.

Deborah Davis, Katherine The Great.

Thomas J. DiLorenzo, The Real Lincoln.

M.I. Finley, The Portable Greek Historians. 

F.P.  The Federalist Papers. Ed. Clinton Rossiter.

Mark H. Gaffney: “9/11: The Evidence for Insider Trading,” May 25, 2016: ICH (Information Clearing House).

GPF (Global Policy Forum,) “War and Occupation in Iraq,” Chapter 2.

Ramachandra Guha, India After Gandhi.

Victor David Hanson, Carnage and Culture.

Chris Hedges, “The American Empire: Murder Inc.” Truthdig, January 3, 2016.

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, The Philosophy of History (Dover, 1956).

J. Christopher  Herold, The Age of Napoleon.

Karl Hess, Community.

Peter Hoy, “The World’s Biggest Fuel Consumer,” Forbes, June 5, 2008.

J.H. Huizinga, Dutch Civilization in the 17th Century.

Peter Koenig, “Towards a Foreign Imposed “Political Transition” in Syria?” Global Research, November 3, 2015.

John Macpherson (1899). Mental affections; an introduction to the study of insanity.

Patrick Martin, 16 April 2003, wsws.org.

Edgar Lee Masters, Lincoln The Man.

Gaetano Mosca, The Ruling Class.

Ralph Nader, “Uncontrollable — Pentagon and Corporate Contractors Too Big to Audit,” Dandelionsalad, March 18, 2016.

Thomas Naylor and William H. Willikmon, Downsizing the U.S.A.

Karl Popper, The Open Society And Its Enemies.

Simon Schama, The Embarrassment of Riches: An Interpretation of Dutch Culture in the Golden Age.

John Stauber and Sheldon Rampton, “Lies Damn Lies and the Public Relations Industry.” (Web)

Herbert J. Storing, The Anti-Federalist: Writings by the Opponents of the Constitution, edited by Herbert J. Storing.

Jay Syrmopoulus, October 15, 2015, “Iceland Just Jailed Dozens of Corrupt Bankers for 74 Years, The Opposite of What America Does.” Read more at http://thefreethoughtproject.com/icelands-banksters-sentenced-74-years-prison-prosecution-u-s/#UHP3qHr1WIAuRFSs.99.

“The Economic Value of Peace, 2016” (PDF) Institute for Economics and Peace.

Washington Blog, February 23, 2015 “ICH”(Information
Clearing House) http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article41086.htm

Max Weber, Political Writings.

John W. Whitehead, March 29, 2016, “From Democracy to Pathocracy: The Rise of the Political Psychopath,”Intrepid Report, April 1, 2016.

Wikipedia, “Energy usage of the United States military.”

Wikiquote, Woodrow Wilson, Federal Reserve Act of 1913.

Sheldon Wolin, Democracy Incorporated: Managed Democracy and the Specter of Inverted Totalitarianism.

ENDNOTES

1 Arianism asserts that Jesus Christ is the Son of God distinct from the Father and  therefore subordinate to the Father, but God nonetheless. Arian teachings were first attributed to the Egyptian priest Arius (256–336 ).

2 See “Selected Death Tolls for Wars, Massacres and Atrocities before the 20th Century” Twentieth Century Atlas – Historical Body Count – Necrometrics for some of the details.

Posted in EducationComments Off on Historical Origins of the State: Barbarians at the Gate

Electronic Weapons, Radio Frequency Radiation, Remote Manipulation of the Human Nervous System

NOVANEWS

New World Order Weapon Ban. Open Letter to the European Commission

 
OPEN LETTER TO THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION

We are missing a legislation which would ban the purposeful remote manipulation of the human nervous system and organism including remote killing of people.

Secretariat-General 

European Commission
Rue de la Loi 200/ Wetstraat 200
1049 Bruxelles/Brussel
Belgium

In mid March 2016 the Polish defense minister Antoni Macierewicz visited the University of Father Tadeusz Rydzyk to participate in the discussion on problems of contemporary politics, armed conflicts and terrorism. One of the listeners asked him, whether Poland has got a strategy, how to solve illegal experiments with electromagnetic weapons on unwitting Polish citizens. Antoni Macieriwicz replied that his ministry is conducting an analysis on this subject and that he is going to establish a commission, which will investigate the complaints of Polish citizens.

(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YgVs4-m0lNY#t=33

http://www.dziennikzachodni.pl/polska-i-swiat/a/minister-macierewicz-o-broni-elektromagnetycznej-zdjecia-wideo-raport-juz-wkrotce,9741513/).

In this way the Polish minister of defense admitted that there exist electromagnetic weapons, capable to interfere with the functioning of human organism and that it may be used on Polish citizens.

The fact that the major European media did not report on this event, rose our suspicion that the European Union Member States are bound to keep those weapons secret and even bound not to legislate against their use. This our suspicion was confirmed by the Polish weekly NIE, when its journalists were asking the Polish Defense Ministry why it did not fulfill its promise and did not establish a commission which was supposed to investigate complaints of Polish citizens that they are exposed to electromagnetic attacks and the defense ministry replied that this topic is subjected to national security information connected with  the defense of the nation

(http://nie.com.pl/artykul-str-glowna-12/macierewicz-zdalnie-sterowany/#more-38883).

Evidently this sequence of events connects to the fact stated in the document Crowd Control Technologies, published in 2000 and initiated by the European Parliament, which says that the NATO Member states have accepted the American doctrine of non-lethal weapons, which includes “systems which can directly interact with the human nervous system”

(http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/etudes/stoa/2000/168394/DG-4-STOA_ET%282000%29168394_EN%28PAR02%29.pdf).

Now it seems to be clear that the European Union Member States have in their arsenal a classified military technology, which can be used for electromagnetic attacks on people. Apparent classification of this issue explains as well your evasive replies to our previous letters on this subject.

Water makes up significant portion of the human body – 55 – 70%. Large portions of this water contain particles which have either accepted or lost an electron and therefore, they have either a positive or negative charge. Those particles may be atoms, molecules or clusters of atoms or molecules. They are called ions. Since liquids in the human body are full of those ions, they can be compared to electrolytes or liquids which conduct electrical current. The most important part in the activity of the human nervous system represent  electrical currents, which are occurring as flows of those charged particles in the nerve fibres. While in electrical wires the electrical current is a flow of free electrons, in the human body and the human nervous system it is a flow of charged ions.

The sources of electrical currents in the nerve fibres are neuronal membranes. The electrical currents start to flow in the nervous fibres, as a result of a change of voltage between the inner and outer surface of neuronal membranes. This change of voltage, on the other hand, is principally caused by electrical currents in the electrolyte which is inside nerve fibres.

In 2014, Chinese scientists published the results of an experiment in which they searched for microwave conductivity of electrolyte solutions. In the introduction they stressed that their experiment “plays an important role in investigating the interaction between electromagnetic waves and biological tissues that have high water content and a significant concentration of ions”. They used a solution of salt for their experiment. The chemical formula of salt is NaCl. It means it contains atoms of sodium and chloride. Ions of both of those atoms play an important role in the firing of nerve cells. The experiment proved that this electrolyte is conductive for microwaves up to 20 gigahertz frequency. For the solutions with higher contents of salt the conductivity of electrolytes was higher with microwaves than with direct current

(http://piers.org/piersproceedings/download.php?file=cGllcnMyMDE0R3Vhbmd6aG91fDJBMF8wNjcwLnBkZnwxNDAzMTgwNDU1MDE=).

In other words, the microwaves produced electrical currents in electrolytes, which means that if microwaves penetrate into the electrolyte which is inside the nerve fibres, they will produce electrical currents in there.

The nervous system is controled by neurons called axons. Their membranes react to the electrical currents in the electrolyte which fills their nerve fibres by producing electrical currents. This will then trigger the spreading of the nervous signal in the nervous system.

If a human being is supposed to feel something, do something or think about something, it is necessary that large quantities of neurons start firing at the same frequency. The chance for the effectiveness of the manipulation of the human nervous system with pulsed microwaves is secured by the fact that the variations of the activity of the human nervous system for various perceptions, reactions, emotions, actions and thoughts are expressed in different frequencies or sequels of frequencies. Walter J. Freeman, who studied for decades the electrical activity of the human brain simultaneously introducing multitudes of microelectrodes into different parts of the brain, wrote that in the brain “transmission occurs at some characteristic frequency, and… reception occurs in… sets tuned to that frequency”.

Scientists experimenting with pulsed microwaves reported that electroencephalographic recordings of animal’s brain activities got synchronized with the pulsing of microwaves transmitted into their brains

(http://www.mapcruzin.com/radiofrequency/henry_lai1.htm).

So, if the electrolytes in the nerve fibres are reached by microwaves, which are pulsed in the nervous activity’s frequencies, the membranes of axons which control the nervous system’s activity and react to electrical voltage’s changes by initiating nerve firing, will react to inflow-frequencies of electrical currents. These currents will be produced by frequencies in which microwaves will be pulsed. In this way, the electrolytes in the nervous tissue will function as antennas and the human nervous system will be controlled by pulsed microwaves, targeting the human body.

The American MCS America organisation, which fights against pollution, confirms this conclusion in its study on Electromagnetic Fields Sensitivity. The study states:

“The body can collect the signal and turn it into electric currents just like the antenna of a radio set or a cell phone. These currents are carried by ions… flowing through the living tissues and in the blood vessels (a system of tubes full of an electrically-conducting salty fluid that connect almost every part of the body) when these currents impinge on cell membranes, which are normally electrically charged, they try to vibrate in time with the current” http://mcs-america.org/index_files/EHS.htm

(let us note that a neuron is a cell as well). The study goes on stating:

“The mechanism of demodulation is controversial, but there is no doubt that it occurs. The best explanation is that the multitude of minute ion channels found in cell membranes act as electrically biased point contact diodes… these can rectify and demodulate the signal even at microwave frequencies… A cell phone signal, when demodulated in this way, generates a whole family of low frequency components, some of which are biologically-active and cause membrane leakage. One consequence of this leakage is to make the sensory cells of electrosensitive individuals give a whole range of false sensations”.

The reason why the cell phone radiation produces false sensations in some individuals is that the information transfer in cell phone systems is carried out by low frequency microwave pulses which reach the electrolyte in electrosensitive individuals’ nervous systems. Since the nervous activity takes place in low frequencies, it is triggered or incited by those pulses.

Published experiments dedicated to the effects of microwaves on the human nervous system used microwave frequencies which did not exceed much more than one Gigahertz, thus complying with the findings of Chinese scientists on the conductivity of electrolyte for microwaves. In his experiments, Ross Adey in the  1980’s used the 450 Mhz frequency, pulsed at 16 Hz, thus causing calcium efflux from nerve cells which reduces human beings’ ability to concentrate. The experiment was replicated many times with the same results.

(http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a242515.pdf),

Allen H. Frey – as early in the year 1961! – managed to transmit sound perceptions into the human brain by using pulsed frequencies ranging from 425 to 1310 Megahertz. People described the microwave sound as “buzz, clicking, hiss or knocking, depending on several transmitter parameters, i.e., pulse width and pulse repetition rate”, in other words, on the frequency of pulses. When varying the transmitter parameters, Allen H. Frey was able to produce in human beings “the perception of severe buffeting of the head” or “pins and needles sensation”

(http://jap.physiology.org/content/17/4/689).

His experiment was replicated many times with the same results. It was, therefore, proved that it is possible to repeatedly produce the same delusions in the human brain, when microwaves are pulsed in frequencies which mimic the human brain’s neuronal activity.

In 1975, Don R. Justesen, neuropsychologist and Director of Neuropsychology and Behavioral Radiology Research Laboratories with the Veterans Administration Medical Center, published in “The American Psychologist Journal” an experiment, where recordings of pronounced digits from one to ten were transmitted into the human brain via pulsed microwaves and where the subject of the experiment could hear and recognize the digits.

(https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B3V8FIUj7brsMzJhOTY4ZWItMGI5OC00MzkzLWJjMDQtMDM0OGE1ZDFhOGFm/edit?authkey=CKnE554O&hl=en&pli=1).

This experiment proved not only feasibility of remote manipulation of the human nervous system but as well feasibility of manipulation of human mind.

When encoding human speech into pulsed microwaves – the procedure is similar to radio broadcasting (human speech only needs to be converted to pulsed microwaves) – it is possible to transmit either audible or inaudible (ultrasound) messages into the human brain. A human being cannot hear ultrasound messages, but the brain perceives them and a person’s behaviour can be controlled and manipulated in this way. The density of electromagnetic energy needed to remotely control the activity of the human nervous system does not exceed the standards set by the European Union. Let’s just remember that cellphone signals can penetrate into the human brain.

A skillful radioamateur is capable to produce a transmitter able to remotely control the activity of the human nervous system for criminal groups which could then endanger the mental and physical health of people in their surroundings. They could easily put drivers to sleep by pulsing microwaves into the sleep frequencies or with more sophisticated pulsing, they could stop a person’s heart beat and make him or she die. It is known that Allen H. Frey produced heart attacks in frogs with pulsed microwaves.

At the same time a growing number of people worldwide complain that they are exposed to such harmful radiations, but do not have any means of defense against their use. Among the main symptoms, they claim to have, are burns on their bodies or burning sensations, pins and needles sensations, feelings of being stabbed or squashed, violent vomiting, cramps going as far as reaching temporary paralyses, remotely controlled movements of their body parts, breath shortness sometimes reaching heart arrest, nausea, voice-hearings and manipulations of their thoughts and emotions. They usually end up showing depression and suicidal tendencies. When complaining about the symptoms and claiming that they are caused by electromagnetic radiation, they are frequently sent to psychiatric hospitals, without any expert investigations of their complaints.

This makes plausible the idea that the military and government agencies operators of those weapons are practising their skills in the use of those weapons on unwitting citizens, to be able to use those acquired skills in possible future wars or to use them in the case of massive civil disobedience against citizens of their countries.

Since government agencies, and possibly organized crime, are capable to remotely manipulate the human nervous system and cause physical torture, mental confusion or death of people, without leaving any evidence of the committed crime, it is necessary to introduce a legislation, which would prosecute such activities. Part of the legislation should also be the prohibition of the use of those technologies for the state security agencies, because their possession of such technologies would be in sharp contradiction with the democratic constitutions of European Union Member States. We are willing to participate in the preparation of this legislation.

Any technology, which would produce in the human nervous system the flows of electric currents with the frequencies of its activity, can be used to control remotely the activity of the human brain and  body. At the present time pulsed microwaves are the only technology known to be fit to produce this effect, but easily, with contemporary fast advances of the scientific research, especially in quantum physics, other technologies can be developed or already have been developed. Therefore, the legislation should ban as well the use of so far unknown or unpublished technologies which enable the remote manipulation of electrical currents in the human brain and body.

Because of the fact that at least  the European NATO  member states are apparently bound by an agreement to keep those weapons secret, it is evident, that the legislation we are proposing, can be enacted in the European Union Member states only if it is recommended to them by the European Commission and if the EU member states act together  – or even if the principle of subsidiarity is bypassed and the legislation is passed directly by the European Parliament.

We still have confidence that you will not support the criminal use of electromagnetic or other energetic fields against the citizens of the European Union Member States and that you will recommend  to the European Union Member States and to the European Parliament to enact legislations, which will protect the citizens of the European Union Member States against such attacks establish harsh sentences for the perpetrators of such attacks and which will create agencies specialized in the detection of attacks using the remote manipulation of the functioning of the human nervous system to produce symptoms of mental illness or to torture or kill people without leaving evidence of the committed crime.

We still believe as well that you are aware of the crisis of democracy created by the governments’ secret possession of means enabling them to remotely manipulate the minds of their citizens. This is in frightening conflict with the constitutions of the European Union Member States.

We still hope that you will stick to the values of respect for human dignity, freedom and democracy embedded in the Treaty on European Union and will work for the ban of the use of technologies which make it possible to deprive people of their personal freedom and freedom of thought creating thus totalitarian regimes of a new type.

More scientific information on those weapons of mass destruction, much more dangerous than chemical or biological weapons, which are already subjected to international ban, readers may find in the book “Discovery of Mind Control and History of Psychotronic War” – electronic copy of the book can be ordered at the address babacekbooks@gmail.com for $9.99

The petition to the European Parliament you can sign at the address below:    http://www.ipetitions.com/petition/ben-remote-attacks-on-the-human-nervous-system

Signed by Mojmir Babacek, citizen of the Czech Republic, Chairman of The Citizen’s Association for the Ban of Manipulation of Human Nervous System by Radiofrequency Radiation (Spolek za zákaz manipulace lidské nervové soustavy radiforekvenčním zářením) residing at the address.

Also signed by:

International Coalition Against Electronic Torture and Robotisation of Living Beings (ICATOR)
Chairwoman: Melanie Vritschan

STOPEG Foundation – Stop Electronic Weapons and Gang Stalking – Netherlands
Chairman: Peter Mooring

IGEF – Initiative Gegen Elektromagnetische Folter – Deutschland
Chairman: Harald Brems

STOPZET – Stowarzyszenie, Stop Zorganizowanym Elektronicznym Torturom   –  Poland
Chairwoman: Zofia Filipiak

ADVHER – Association de Défense des Victimes de Harcèlement Electromagnétique et en Réseau – France  
https://rudy2.wordpress.com/

ACOFOINMENEF
Associazione contro ogni forma di controllo ed interferenza mentale e neurofisiologica – Italia
Chairman: Paolo Dorigo

European Coalition against Covert Harassment
Legal advisor: Henning Witte

Globalthaeb – Great Britain
Chairman: David Bromhall

LESAT – London End Stalking Action Group – Great Britain
Chairman: Paolo Fiora, e-mail

Posted in Education, HealthComments Off on Electronic Weapons, Radio Frequency Radiation, Remote Manipulation of the Human Nervous System

Top British universities found producing ‘fake research’

NOVANEWS

Image result for British universities CARTOON

Hundreds of allegations of “fake research” conducted at some of the UK’s top universities were reported between 2011 and 2016, figures show.

According to figures released by 23 of Britain’s 24 Russell Group universities following Freedom of Information (FoI) requests submitted by the BBC, the scale of fraudulent research is much higher than official Research Councils UK (RCUK) statistics suggest.

The figures reveal at least 300 allegations including plagiarism and fabrication.

Official data, however, suggests about 30 cases were reported between 2012 and 2015.

In response, the House of Commons Science and Technology Committee has launched an inquiry to reassure the public that its monitoring system is “robust.”

Committee Chairman Stephen Metcalfe stressed the importance of reassuring people that public funds are being invested in accurate and trustworthy research.

“Where research has been found to be fraudulent at a later point it has a big impact on the public – it leads to mistrust,” he told the BBC.

“What we want to do is to investigate how robust the mechanisms are for ensuring that research is ethical, it is accurate, it is, to a degree, reproducible.”

According to the new data, around a third of allegations for plagiarism, fabrication, piracy and misconduct were upheld, while over 30 papers were withdrawn.

Although Metcalfe said the BBC’s findings must be balanced against the overall number of research papers, he said transparency is essential to build trust.

“We do need to have accurate figures that are available so we can all have confidence that the research is being conducted properly, and when it’s not, there is a system that challenges that,” he said.

It is thought that the inaccuracy and sloppiness in academic papers is due to researchers rushing through their copy in order to get grants to carry on with their work.

A spokesman for the Russell Group, however, said it takes “integrity” into thorough account.

“Our universities take research integrity seriously and work continuously to help staff and students maintain high standards of research,” he said, according to the BBC.

“The UK has a global reputation for the quality of our scientific research.

“This is not least because our members are rigorous in their approach to research integrity.”

Deliberate research fraud seldom occurs, but when it does take place it comes with severe risks, such as undermining public health or losing trust in the eyes of the public which funds it.

There are calls for a UK regulatory body to oversee publicly-funded research. Although Metcalfe said the idea could be looked into, he claimed there is currently “no appetite for that in the wider community.”

Under a concordat, to which UK universities signed up back in 2012 to guarantee transparency in reporting allegations of research misconduct, higher education institutions are still not obliged to release figures on allegations of fraudulent research.

According to an audit by vice-chancellors group Universities UK, only 35 out of 131 universities released figures on research misconduct to the public.

Co-founder of Retraction Watch, Dr. Ivan Oransky, backed the BBC findings and said the number of research misconduct cases being reported falls short of the real extent of the issue.

“We do not have a good handle on how much research misconduct takes place, but it’s become quite clear that universities and funding agencies and oversight bodies are not reporting even a reasonable fraction of the number of cases that they see,” Oransky told the BBC.

Posted in Education, UKComments Off on Top British universities found producing ‘fake research’

“Fake Scholarship” and the Future of America’s University

"Class and Conflict" at  the "Neoliberal" University

Harvard University has established a modern version of the Catholic Church’s Index Librorum Prohibitorum, a list of prohibited online publications which are tagged as “fake” and “false”, broadly following the politically tainted “List” of censored independent and alternative media. As we recall the Catholic Church’s Index was a list of books “deemed heretical, anti-clerical or lascivious”.1 

Ex Cathedra, Harvard has decided in one fell swoop that virtually the entire US based “Alternative Media” pertaining to tens of thousands of authors would be categorized not only as fake news, but fake science, knowledge and analysis.

The Harvard Index however goes far beyond the Catholic Church’s Index which selectively banned books after careful reading, review and evaluation within the Church’s hierarchy. This frivolous decision by Harvard constitutes a violation of the most fundamental principles of  university education which are debate, discussion, critique and analysis.

The Harvard Index acts as a Lynchpin. It establishes a “new normal”, a guideline to colleges and universities across the land, regarding what we can or cannot read, what we can or cannot write. 

Is it a conspiracy? Yes it is.  Harvard’s Index broadly undermines the foundation of University education. It instates academic mediocrity.

In turn, the targeted websites– including Global Research-  are the object of a “wiki-smear” campaign, which has become embedded in online search engines. The latter tend to be increasingly skewed against alternative media content.

The “alternative media” sites are thereby casually tagged as promoting “fake news” and “conspiracy theories”.

Harvard Library lists the “authoritative” “Fact-Checking” sites and Plugins required by both students and professors to detect ‘Fake news”.

The “universus” is the totality of  analysis and conceptualization: debate, discussion, observation, critique, interaction. The University as an institution encompasses the development of knowledge, learning and research in the sciences, humanities, philosophy, history, social sciences, applied sciences, medicine, the study of law and justice, engineering, environmental analysis, policy analysis, management as well as all creative endeavors in the fine arts and music.

The various interrelated disciplines constitute the “universus”, the totality of knowledge, the learning process which characterizes humanity. Collegiality is what unites teachers, researchers (colleagues) within an academic environment in which independence of thought and mutual respect prevail.

Of course there are dominant schools of thought particularly in establishment academic institutions, certainly in the fields of economics and political science; there are vested interests which pervade academia, there is ideology and “politically correct” perspectives which pervade teaching and research.  But there is also plurality of thought and freedom of expression. Students are not discouraged or prevented from reading from an Index of prohibited books and publications.

The university is the place where universal values are debated. The advance of knowledge is humanity’s guiding force.

Harvard established their list without reading or even consulting the contents of the alleged fake online publications.

We’re talking about an extensive archive of hundreds of thousand of articles and authors including award winning scientists, prominent journalists, university professors, Nobel laureates, artists, actors, movie directors, distinguished politicians including  members of the US Congress as well as young and committed authors and bloggers, not to mention university, college and high school students. Ironically, within this extensive archive are numerous university professors, prominent researchers, many of whom coincidentally are graduates of America’s “best” universities (including Harvard).

What are the implications? Is Harvard’s Censorship initiative, as a “leading” Ivy League institution intent upon triggering  a process whereby universities in the US, Canada  and Western Europe establish what is true and what is false, without analysis, dialogue or critique, thereby banning the truth and upholding the lie?

America’s global military agenda, not to mention extensive war crimes is supported by a vast propaganda apparatus which now”officially” includes Harvard University.

What is the endgame?

The filtering out and the eventual closing down of the alternative online media?

The systematic smearing of critical thought?

The transformation of the university into a de facto instrument of indoctrination, where science and knowledge are used to justify police state surveillance and America’s hegemonic wars?

Within America’s universities, the learning process is to be revamped. Alternative views are to be discarded. Critical debate on the geopolitics of war are to be foreclosed.  The criminalization of US politics is not an object of debate within the nation’s colleges and universities.

How is this carried out.

Students –who unduly refer or quote independent or dissident scholars and scientist–  will not be allowed to graduate.

In turn, the universities will not recruit professors and researchers who do not conform to establishment scholarship.

Critical debate and plurality are gradually phased out. It’s a reproductive process which consists in eliminating dissident views within academia.

The American Inquisition

An inquisitorial system is unfolding in some regards similar to the Spanish inquisition. A consensus building process is established within the nation’s institutions of higher learning.  It requires social subordination in areas of analysis and scientific research.

The political consensus cannot be questioned. In its contemporary version, the inquisition requires and demands submission to the notion that war is a means to spreading Western values and democracy. And the university is part of a consensus building process, whereby concepts and realities are turned upside down.

War is peace. The ‘big lie’ becomes the truth … and the real truth becomes a ‘conspiracy theory’.

And a witch hunt against the independent media is launched.

Those who are committed to the Truth are categorized as “Terrorists”. War is upheld as a peace-making endeavor. When war becomes peace, the Lie becomes the truth. There is no turning backwards.

When war is upheld as a humanitarian endeavor,  the judicial system is criminalized, the entire international legal system is turned upside down: pacifism and the antiwar movement are criminalized.

Has Harvard joined the bandwagon, with precise guidelines to its professors and students? Has academia joined the corporate media in obfuscating the unspoken truth, namely that America’s hegemonic wars destroy humanity?

The compliance of intellectuals within “leading”universities and research institutions is crucial to sustaining the “Big Lie”. Opposing the war is taboo within colleges and universities.

The Lie prevails. A world of fantasy permeates the mainstream media. The Universus is fractured and destroyed. Concepts are turned upside down.  Political insanity prevails.

We are at a dangerous crossroads in our history. No more scientific analysis, no more critique: Tactical nuclear weapons (B61-11) “are harmless to the surrounding civilian population because the explosion is underground” (according to co-opted “scientists” on contract the Pentagon). Those who decide on waging nuclear war believe their own propaganda. They are totally ignorant as to the broader consequences of using nuclear weapons.

The danger of a third world war is obfuscated by both the media and academia. University scholarship conforms.

When Propaganda becomes knowledge

Analysis and debate on the impacts of global warfare and the future humanity are foreclosed.  The University now tells us: you have a responsibility to support “humanitarian wars”.

The Big Lie must be exposed for what it is and what it does.

It sanctions the indiscriminate killing of men, women and children.

It destroys families and people. It destroys the commitment of people towards their fellow human beings.

It prevents people from expressing their solidarity for those who suffer. It upholds war and the police state as the sole avenue.

It destroys both nationalism and internationalism.

When the lie becomes the truth there is no turning backwards. (Michel Chossudovsky, When the Lie Becomes the Truth

Action

Break the propaganda and media disinformation nexus.

Rebuild the anti-war movement,

Initiate a broad movement in colleges, universities against “Fake Scholarship”.

Note

1. See Grendler, Paul F. “Printing and censorship” in The Cambridge History of Renaissance PhilosophyCharles B. Schmitt, ed, Cambridge University Press, 1988, pp. 45–46. Quoted by Wikipedia.

Posted in USA, EducationComments Off on “Fake Scholarship” and the Future of America’s University

The Birth of AI-Wahabi Movement And it’s Historic Roots

NOVANEWS

By: John Phoenix

Image result for AI-Wahhabi Movement CARTOON

The Birth of AI-Wahabi Movement and it’s Historic Roots

Preface

1. The purpose ofthis study is to learn about the history of AI-Wahabi Movement and the harmful elements it contains.

AI-Wahabi movement claims that; it strives to recant all kinds of polytheism, but such allegations at the time of practice have transformed into the killing of Muslims, destructing, demolishing, and promoting the turmoil. So we can say that such behaviour with its pure superficial and discriminating teachings is nothing but a deadly weapon in the hand of the occupation and the enemies of Islam who use AI-Wahabi Movement in the political arena to prevent the unity of Muslims.

We have to frankly say that; AI-Wahabi’s superficial and false teachings, and grasping on to the shell is the main obstacle standing in the way of Muslims’ goal to unit, and the biggest cause ofthe killing, dispersing, and breaking up of Muslims.

This kind of hostility towards Muslims, antagonising them, considering them disbelievers, hitting them, insulting them, and hurting them reveals an ugly and dangerous face of AI-Wahabi features which depicts it as a destructive and chaotic group raising the slogan of destruction, savageness and harshness. 1

The classification markings are original to the Iraqi documents and do not reflect current US classification.

2. AI-Wahabi today is subconsciously working in all its power on promoting occupation in all its power in order to achieve its despicable desires. The Wahabis have worn the Muslim robe inside out therefore; they couldn’t apprehend any of the Muslim goals, because how is it possible for someone who seeks the help of infidels to speak of unity? They sign treaties of peace and friendship with the criminals, surrender and bow in front of the masters of rotten politics.

3. Therefore; I wanted in my study to focus on the history of this movement from the stand point ofits relation with the British government and how Britain had employed all its spies in Muslim countries in order to establish and spread this movement to destroy Muslim religion and create heterodoxies in Islam.

I also wanted to touch on the creator of this movement; Muhammad Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab, his meetings with Muhammad Bin Su’ud and their agreement to support each other, and in conclusion show opinions of historians and writers who discussed this movement, and the history of the Su’ud Family which many have agreed that it is on of the destructive religious movements that is conceived, extreme and aiming to destroy Islam through Jews and British.

The Purpose:

4. To find the connection between this movement and the British government and how they found the so called; Muhammad Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab, and his meetings with the leaders of Sa’ud Family to facilitate their suspicious plans which aim at striking at Islam and create division among Muslim.

First Topic:

Britain and its animosity towards Islam

Britain and fabrication ofbeliefs to serve dispersion

Britain’s goals to weaken the Muslim religion

The British plans to dominate the Muslim countries

How Britain deployed its spies and created differences among Muslims.

 

Britain and making up of beliefs to serve dispersion:

5. Colonialism continues to look for ways to force its power, and still uses its old slogan (divide and rule), and one of the most important methods of achieve that is to create a decadent environment of disbelieving and immoral society therefore; colonialism tops the list ofimportant and major factors which create the environment of disbelieve and immorality in a Muslim society, and in creating a sense of distrust among Muslim groups and false accusations. We will not be exaggerating if we say that the most successful methods used by colonialism to weaken the strength of Muslims and demolish Islam; are the methods of dividing, discriminating and fabricating believes and creating profits.

In order to reveal the reasons which made the colonialism go this rout and the goals desired from it, and the methods used to achieve such goals; we have to mention few things before we go into our main topic.

Britain’s objectives from the weakening of the Muslim religion:

6. Colonialism countries face so many obstacles among each other when attempting to dominate powerless countries, for the purpose of plundering the material and immaterial wealth ofthese countries. It was never as simple as to occupy a country and have its people welcome them with open arms. At minimum, at the very beginning they are faced with many problems and obstacles. There were so many factors that made people oppose the colonialism such as; nationalism, language, culture, and religion. Some of these factors had temporary effects on the fight against colonialism, and lost their effectiveness gradually until they lost their impact eventually. The only factor remained as a well fortified barrier against the goals of colonialism is; the influence of religion on people, with Islam in the forefront. Since the day when the representative of colonialism stood in the British House of Commons holding the Koran in his hand saying: ( Europe has to know that; as long as this book is the guide to all Muslims, we will not be able to establish the foundations for our colonialism policy in these countries) and up to this day, Islam is considered the largest barrier facing colonialism, and the biggest threat to its interests because; Islam has distinguished characteristics each alone stands as a mountain in the way of achieving the goals colonialism the thing that all other religions lack.

The teachings of colonialism [I think that this is a misprint and the correct sentence should be the teachings ofIslam] and its political worship rituals, have always been a danger to colonialism and its objectives because; Islam refuses all forms of colonialism and exploitation in any shape or form 4 , condemn, motivate Muslims to fight injustice and tyrants, calls for struggle to bring social fairness in all areas on the face of earth, and to free the weak from slavery and occupation. And it goes without saying that this struggle is not only to free Muslims alone, but it is for saving all weak nations in the world and free them.

7. Therefore; Islam finds itself obligated to extend a helping hand to all liberation movements as much as possible “0 ye who believe! Take not my enemies and yours as friends (or protectors) – offering them your love”l, “These are the ones who wait and watch about you” 2, “Let not the Believers take for protectors Unbelievers, rather than Believers”3 then it puts forth the motto of adhering to God for he is the ultimate master “And hold fast all together, by the Rope which Allah stretched out for you, and be not divided among yourselves”4  “A Believer is a brother of another Believer, they are like one body if one part is in pain the rest of the body parts suffer the same way”. “Muhammad is the messenger of Allah; and those who are with him are strong against unbelievers, but compassionate amongst each other.” 5.  Muslims are responsible one to another and get angry at infidels and don’t get into compromises with them, “Truly Allah loves those who fight in his cause in battle array, as if they were a solid cemented structure”6. This meaning has always been the source of inspiration and strength for all Muslims in their struggle against tyrants and arrogant throughout history. Such content of Islam has created in the heart of Islam, all this movement, enthusiasm, creativity, change, and steadiness in fighting injustice. If we were to study all uprisings which took place in the recent century; we would have more dearly found the role of Islamic teaching in stirring those people against injustice, arrogance and oppression. Friend and enemy admit, for example, admit to the dynamics prompted by Islam in the liberation revolution of the Algerian people which threw the French occupation outside the 10 of 56 172 The classification markings are original to the Iraqi documents and do not reflect current US classification. -11- country. About this wrote two well known writers; (Collette) and (Francis Johnson)7 (No doubt that Islam had a great influence on the Algerians, demand for freedom, and the Algerians have become aware since day one of the French occupation’s objective to destroy Islam, and based on this they come to realise that Islam is their way to liberation, and they all have to hold on to Islam in order to be liberated). And when colonialism found it hard to penetrate Islam, it started to look for a successful way to fight it and started to use all its power and capabilities to remove this obstacle, and tried all kinds of methods to achieve its objective. Such methods are the following:

A. Direct confrontation First, by direct military confrontation such as the Crusaders war, and military occupation ofIslamic countries as in the case of Libya, Iraq, Afghanistan, Algeria and others. Second, by attacking Islamic teachings by means of; twisting and reversing their principles, accusing Islam, and slandering its sanctuaries.

B. Indirect confrontation First, promote immoralities and corruption among Muslims to weaken their adherence to religion. Second, promote feelings of nationalist and patriotism to divide individuals as well as groups into different parties in Islamic countries. Third, create division and dissimilarities by spreading accusations, mistrust, and suspension among Muslims.

————————————————————————

Foot Notes:
1 Al-Mumtahinah: 1 [CL: verse 1 from the Koran Chapter Al-Mumtahinah]
2 Al-Nisa’: 141 [CL: verse 141 from the Koran Chapter Al-Nisa’]
3 Al ‘Urnran: 28 [CL: verse 28 from Koran Chapter Al-‘Urnran]
4 Al ‘Urnran: 103 [CL: verse 103 from Koran Chapter Al-‘Urnran]
5 AI-Fath: 29 [CL: verse 29 from Koran Chapter Al-Fath]
6 Al-Saff: 4 [CL: verse 4 from Koran Chapter Al-Saff]
7 “2 schools” cited from Propagation and Colonialism in Arabic Countries by Dr. Mustafa Khalid; page 64. 5

 

The British Plans to Dominate Islamic Countries

8.In 1973, the autobiography of the British spy Humfer in regards to his work in Iraq and Istanbul was translated, and it included the British plans to dominate the Muslim countries. Great Britain has been, since long time ago, thinking about keeping its influence on its many colonies in India, China, the Middle East and others. It is true that it wasn’t actually controlling big parts of these countries because; it was in the hands of its own people, but its policy was a successful and effective policy, and it used to think twice. 1

a. Once to continue controlling what has been practically controlled.

b. And once to add to its properties what hasn’t been practically controlled. And based on this, the British government had allocated special committees in every part of these countries particularly to study the task:

First: India

Through the “Eastern Company of India”, whose apparent role was strictly commercial, yet deep inside was to strengthen the means to control India and the roads leading to these huge lands extending to the end of the continent. The British government was so sure ofIndia where the nationalities are different; religions are scattered, dissimilar languages, and conflicting interests. And this way the government was sure of China where; the Buddhism and the Confucianism, which is the most prominent in that country, both were not a threat for they are dead religions focusing on the spiritual side and have no connection with the living side therefore; it was far fetched to see a feeling of patriotism among people of these two areas. And that is why the British government had no concern when it came to these two countries, and it worked out long term plans to create division, ignorance, poverty, and sometimes keep these countries in sickness. They were applying an old Buddhist proverb (Let the patient crave his medicine even ifit tastes severely bitter).

 

Second: The Muslim Caliphs State:

What concerned the British government was the Muslim countries and they used to call them; the Sick Man. Many treaties were signed and all were for the advantage of the British government, and the outlook ofthe British Colonies’ Ministry is that the Man will breathe his last in less than a century.

 

Third: The Governments in the Persian States:

The British government had secretly signed many treaties with the Persian government and they set out spies and agents in it and resulted in bribery and corrupted administration and the engagement ofits kings in corruption and clotted the body of this country

Reasons for Britain’s fear of the Islamic countries:

9. In spite of planting spies and agents in the Islamic countries, and despite the spreading ofbribery and corrupted administration the British government was un-confident of the results due to the following reasons:

a. The strength ofIslam in the souls ofits followers against all schemes the thing that make Muslim Men different than men of other religions.Due to the fact that the Islamic features and characteristics are planted in the Muslim Man and the make him stand steadfast

b. Islam as a religion Whereas Islam is a religion of life and control, it is hard to tell the masters that you are slaves. The arrogance of supremacy pushes the human being to superiority no matter how weak or low he is. Therefore, the British government was unable to forge the history of Islam.

c. The awakening ofthe Islamic awareness The British government feared that Muslims in their hearts will become aware; the thing that if happens; will result in the failure of all its plans aiming to control. It is true that the Islamic country had reached a great deal of weakness but the existence of a centralized government which the people support and its aspiration is supremacy, money and arms makes the people unsafe.

d. Apprehensiveness of Muslim scholars The government was extremely apprehensive ofMuslim scholars, because AI-Azhar scholars, Iraq scholars and Persia scholars were the toughest barrier in facing the ambitions of the British government; they were extremely ignorant about the modem life principles. They made heaven, which the Koran had promised them of their number one priority so they would not compromise their principles and the people followed them and the sultan feared them.

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Footnotes:

I Humfer’s Autobiography

 

How Britain deployed its spies and created its different parties among Muslims

10. The British government held many conferences to remove all reasons for fear and to establish sufficient solutions for all these uneasy problems, but they have not reached a good solution yet and all the reports that they received from their agents and spies were disappointing as well as the results of all these conferences were not good. One time they held a conference in the Ministry that was attended by representatives from each of Britain, France, and Russia. It was discussed at the highest level and the attendees were diplomats and religious men. In this conference they mentioned ways to rip Muslims apart and strip them of their belief, but the results were not at the required level and(it is hard to pull the roots of a tree that had grown to the east and to the west of the Land, but man has to overcome difficulties at any cost)!

In 1710 A.D. the British Colonies Ministry sent its spies to each of Egypt, Iraq, Tehran, AI-Hijaz, and Estonia to gather information that will help tear apart Muslims and dominate Muslim countries. The ministry had already provided them with sufficient money, sufficient information, possible maps, names of governors, scholars, tribes and family chiefs.

Footnotes
1Taken with liberty from the autobiography ofHumfer

These spies started to learn the Turkish language and the language ofthe Arabs (The language of Koran) and the Persian language. Some of them pretended to be Muslims and attended the Muslim mosques and met with men of religion to learn all the Islamic rules, and they learned the holy Koran, the practice of ablution and prayer; they were taught by Muslim scholars. After they stayed for a period oftwo years spying in the Islamic countries they received orders from the Ministry to go back to London. There were ten spies assigned with the espionage duty, but only six of them returned and as for the other four, one of them became a Muslim and stayed in Egypt, one went to Russia where he was originally from, the third died in the outskirts of the city of Balad near by Baghdad because of a disease spread all over the country, as for the fourth, his whereabouts are unknown. The ministry had followed him until he got to Sanaa in Yemen and his reports were sent regularly to the ministry for a period of a year but was interrupted after that and the ministry has no information about him. The ministry considered the loss off our out often a catastrophe because they precisely accounted for each one of them.

11. The ministry had met with the six spies and listened to their reports, evaluated them, and advised them. After six months, the British Colonies’ Ministry sent the trained spy Mr. Humfer to the city ofBaghdad in Iraq in order to creat~ disorder between the Sunni and Shiites and find the weak point ofMuslims so he can penetrate his body to defuse the unity ofIslam. Also, his mission in this trip was to identify the conflicts among Muslims and create an atmosphere ofdisagreement, expiation, and mistrust among them as well as make up different faiths and form fake colonial religions to enable the colonizer to reach its objectives in creating division and spread disperse among Muslims instead of eliminating Islam and Muslims religious beliefs. the orders given by the British colonizer to its spies in the Islamic countries were in the following fashion (spread fake and made up faiths and beliefs in Islamic regions within fully considered, matured and organized plans where they preach after they evaluate upon suitable, intellectual background among the different classes ofpeople. There should be no rush…and should spread these beliefs and preach them, they should not be limited to only popular areas, rather they should be spread among the four groups of Sunni in order to create extreme differences and disputes among these groups hence each group would claim that they represent the true Islam and the others are renegades and infidels and must be killed)].

and according to these orders, the spies started carefully to study and to get familiar with the social and political sites in the Islamic societies and their extreme trends; they also started to create the necessary groups to achieve the objectives of their colonial masters. It is obvious that the colonizers didn’t do this first hand; yet to achieve their goals, they were looking for individuals who do not relish strength in faith and fear of God and possess different trends. The colonizer used to excessively offer these individuals financial and moral aids and urge them to establish the various groups. As an example to these, here we point to two groups that fit the subject we are discussing….

a. AI-Shaykhiyyah Group:

An extremist Shiite group which is active in Iraq, and was later called by the name of(AI-Shaykhiyyah), founded by a person called Sheikh Ahmad AI-Ihsani and his student Mr. Kazim AI-Rashti. This group started to praise the virtuous 15 of 56 177 The classification markings are original to the Iraqi documents and do not reflect current US classification. -16- imams to the level of God and presented many overstated notions at this level, and to pave the way for the other extremist group (Al-Wahabi) so they can direct accusations and expiation at each other.

b. Al-Wahabi Group:

Next to Al- Shaykhiyyah, the colonizer created another extreme Sunni group called (Al-Wahabiyyah). The British found in Muhammad ‘Abd-al-Wahab many attributes such as the love of glory, immorality, and extreme views so; they came to realize that he is the right person to establish the group they wanted. Thus they started following him step by step until they found the right opportunity; hence they pointed out to him, the birth of the new faith. Afterwards, they ordered him to concur with another well known agent ofthe seasoned British colonizer that is; Su’ud Bin ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz, and they provided them with the required means to attract followers. Within a given period of fulfilling the duty assigned to them, they killed Al-Hajjaj and everyone who wouldn’t accept their new faith whether he is Shiite or Sunni, was destined to death and plundering, and everyone who thought ofvisiting the holy tomb of profit Muhammad (God’s blessing and peace be upon him) and the holy sites was treated as if he was (infidel) (polytheist).

12. Al-Wahabi principles are based on the expiation ofIslamic faiths and promoting division among Muslims and eliminating the traces ofthe spiritual Islamic message. Al-Hijaz is the homeland ofthis group, and recently the activities ofthis group have increased; everyday they issue a book or an article attacking the Islamic sanctuaries. The Su’ud family spends lots ofmoney in compliance with their masters’ orders to prevent the unity of Muslims, create division among them, expiate them, and to stray each other from the right path. Both groups; Al-Wahabi and Al-Shaykhiyyah are established on wrong views therefore they brought about disorder, blood shedding, and killing 10 of Muslims. Hence, Muhammad Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab established his mission based on visions of(Ibn Timiah)and his intentions. The later was a fan of(Ibn Tawmart) who claimed to be Al-Mihdi [CL: translates the Guide] in North Africa, and his ideas dominated parts of Spain, Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco for two centuries; he was nicknamed Mihdi Al-Muwahadin [CL: The guide of those who are united] Then he worked together with Muhammad Su’ud and both their swords and the swords of their followers trickled with blood, and wherever they went, blood was flowing, and they called the Muslims infidels; they killed everyone who didn’t support them and obeyed them. The Wahabis ordeal was big and truly strange to the extent that the Muslim world up to date couldn’t cover up its damages.

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Footnotes: ] Humfer’s autobiography.

 

Second Topic:

AI-Wahabi Movement’s Missionary

Najd in History

AI-Wahabi movement and it’s founder Muhammad’Abd-al-Wahab

Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab’s trips before the missionary

His encounter with Muhammad Bin Su’ud in AI-Dar’iyyah

Najd in History

13. Najd means the elevated land; it is the name designated for the middle part ofthe Arabic Peninsula which is the largest part of the middle of the island. When the Ottoman State emerged on the political scene in the Arabic Peninsula in 1517, it became satisfied with the nominal authority of this area, and the tribalism was in full swing in Najd; every tribe had its own state, and every group had its own sheikhdom which; takes pride in its authority and praises its name.

Every governor had his own possessions and had no ties to his neighbour, and the Ottoman policy has been mobilised for that purpose. In the twelfth century of Hegira, disorder had dominated Najd, division prevailed, the gap had widened, and emirates had multiplied; the family of Mu’ammar in Al-‘Ayniyyah, the family ofSu’ud in Al-Dar’iyyah, and the Family of Dawwas in Riyadh; Al-Ahsa’ was the emirate of Bani Khalid, Najdan the family of Hazal, Ha’il the family of ‘Ali, Al-Qasyim and the Northern borders of Najd the family ofHajaylan, and in Southern Iraq the emirate was for the family of Shabib.

All ofthe families and the sheikhdoms were in a state ofinstability and confusion with disturbance spread throughout. These groups had no identified political order or a civilization that is worth mentioning, plus the ruling system was in a tribal form l .

Furthermore; there were very little documentation for the history ofthe area by its own people; ‘Uthman Bin Bishir Al-Najdi stated that: (The origin ofNajd and its ancient and modem scholars was not to the extent where they paid attention to the history oftheir land, who built it, what happened in it, who came to it, and who left it; except for very little that was written by few of their scholars) in addition he said: (Then I wanted to gather a collection offacts about the family of Su’ud, their news and their stories, but was unable to find someone who would tell me true information)2

As for the religious situation of Najd; during the era of Tasam and Jiryis, they use to worship AlTiyl which are houses shaped like cubes looking like cells made of clay rise from 200 to 300 yards in height. Paganism was founded afterwards; the tribes ofTaghlib and Bakr Bin wa’il had an idol called ( Dha Al-Ka’bayin) and Magianism grew out ofit and was joined by Bani Tamim in the sixth century A.D. Then Christianity got about and became widespread among the tribes ofTaghlib and Bakr bin Wa’il; also the religion ofAl-Sabi’ah which worships the stars and was adopted by the tribes of Dayran of Bani Tamim, while the people of Najd took up Islam, but after the death of profit Muhammad (God’s blessing and peace be upon him) some tribes have recanted and were engaged in a war that ended with the victory of Muslims. After Islam entered its dark ages; Najd became the breeding ground for myths and heresies and its scholars became divided between introverted and men who carried Islam only by name 13

After the Ottoman nation engaged in wars in Eastern Europe and the defeat that followed; the Arabic nation became under clear confusion and a state offorfeiture; consequently the control over Najd and Hijaz which is owned by the Hashemite became nominal.

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Footnotes:
1 Husayn Khalaf Al-Shaykh Khaz’al, The biography of Sheikh Muhammad Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab, Dar Al-Kitab Press, Beirut 1968 A.D.
2 The Scholar ‘Uthman Bin Bishr Al-Najdi, The Glory in the History ofNajd; part one, Al-Riyad Library, Riyadh, page 4.

Al-Wahabi Movement and its Founder Muhammad ‘Abd-al-Wahab

14. The Wahabi Movement is ascribed to Muhammad Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab Bin Sulayman who traces back to Wahib Al-Tamimi. Sheikh Khaz’al traces back the ancestry of Muhammad Bin’Abd-al-Wahab Bin Sulayman Bin’Ali Bin Ahmad Bin Rashid Bin Yazid Bin Muhammad Bin Yazid to the family of Musharraf who belongs to Bani Tamim tribe which goes back in its descent to ‘Adnan1.Whereas Mustafa Tawran states that; Muhammad Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab is a descent of a family from the Jews ofAI-Dunamah in Turkey. Al-Dunmah refers to the Jews who declared their embracement of Islam in an effort to insult Islam and to escape the pursuit by the Ottoman sultans. Subsequently; Tawran confinns that Sulayman; the grandfather ofthe sheikh, is (Shulman); he is Jew from the merchants ofthe city ofBurstah in Turkey, he had left it and settled in Damascus, grew his beard, and wore the Muslim turban, but was thrown out for being voodoo. Then he fled to Egypt and he faced by strong objection so; he left to Hijaz and settled in Al-‘Ayniyyah where he got married and had child whom he called ‘Abd-al-Wahab and claimed to be from the descent of Rabi’iyyah, and that he was born in Morocco. This has also been supported by sheikh Rifat Salim Kabar in his book, the Jews ofAl-Dunmah and the Origin of the Saudi Wahabis 3

Muhammad Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab was born in Al-‘Ayniyyah in Najd in 1703 from a father who wiped out the faith ofImam Hanbal; he taught jurisprudence and Hadith at Al-‘Ayniyyah mosque. Muhammad was taught in Al-Madinah by sheikh’Abdallah Bin Ibrahim Bin Sina’, and became a student at sixteen years old under Sheikh Hassan Al-Tamimi in Al-Mu’tasim. He was a fan ofIbn Timyah and received his education at the hand ofSheikh Hasan AI-Islambuli; Judge of AI-Basra, and Sheikh Zayn-al-Din Al-Mughrabi and Sulayman Al-Kurdi, ‘Abd-al-Karim AlKurdi, and Sheikh ‘Ali Al-Daghistani. ‘Abd-al-Wahab got married about twenty times, the first time

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Footnotes:
1Sheikh Khaz’aI, Biography ofSheikh Muhammad, Previous reference – page 42 2 Sheikh Khaz’al, previous reference – page 49, also scholar Al-Najdi, the Histori ofNajd, previous reference – page 89
3 Turan, Dr. Mustafa, the Jews ofAl-Dunamah, Translation ofKamal Al-Khawjah, Cairo 1989 – page 14.

in AI-‘Ayniyyah and also in Baghdad, she died immediately and he took a spouse the daughter of prince ‘Abdallah Bin Mu’ammar and she gave birth to six boys and six girls. He died after he suffered from a disease that took his life shortly afterwards on June 2, 1792 and was buried in AI-Dar’iyyah graveyard that was designated to Su’ud family and his grave is known there till this day!.

At the very beginning, Muhammad Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab learned from many ofthe scholars of Mecca and AI-Madinah; his father ‘Abda-al-Wahab was a good scholar and used to insult him and warn people about him. His brother Sulayman bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab wrote a book to answer him; in his early days, he was fond ofreading about those who claim prophecy like; Musaylamah, Sajah, AI-Aswad AI-‘Ansi, and Talihat AI-Asadi and such. He has four children; ‘Abdallah, Hasan, Husayn, and ‘Ali.

The supporter of Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab and the one who spread his faith was Muhammad bin Su’ud, after that his sons; ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz and Su’ud and then Su’ud bin ‘Abd-al- ,Aziz who humiliated Iraq and prevented Muslims from going to Hajj; thus Hajj was interrupted in his time for years.

15. The origin ofthe Wahabi movement is that the Arabs, especially those masters ofthe demons said that; a poor herdsman by the name of Sulayman had a dream that a flame emerged from him, spread throughout the land, and started to bum everyone that had an encounter with it. He told of his dream to someone who interpreted it as; a son of his will establish a strong land. So his dream came true in the ideology of Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab. Thus when Muhammad grew up, he became respected [CL: The study has a typo that reads Muhtarifan instead of Muhtaraman] by the people of his town because of that dream which he didn’t know of. In the beginning, he secretly revealed his faith and a group ofpeople followed him; then he traveled to Great Syria, but no one there followed him so; he returned to the Land of the Arabs after he left it for three years, he came to Najd and revealed this faith or (the Movement). Su’ud followed him and they both had strength in each other; Su’ud strengthened his emirate through religion by following Muhammad bin ‘Abdai-Wahab in his faith, yet bin’Abd-al-Wahab promoted his missionary by means ofsword. With Su’ud following him and becoming victorious through him, Su’ud became the ruling prince and bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab the religious leader and their children thereafter took over the rank oftheir predecessors.

After Su’ud became the ruler ofhis tribe, he conquered two tribes from Yemen and a large number ofArab tribes became subjected to this faith and so did all the Arabs of Najd; they picked the city of AI-Dar’iyyah to be the capital oftheir country which is situated in the south east of AI-Basra. Fifteen years later, the Su’ud emirate expanded; he had aspiration to grow, and used to take one ten ofthe livestock, money, honor, even souls. He takes one ten from people by lottery so; he collected enormous amounts ofmoney and his army exceeded hundred.

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Footnotes:
! Sheikh Khaz’al, previous reference – page 333, The History ofNajd, previous reference – page 88

and twenty thousand fighters. Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab started to emerge in the year of 1143 of Hegira and became famous after he turned fifty where he revealed the false faith in Najd and its dependant territories; starting off with the support ofMuhammad bin Su’ud, prince of Al-Dar’iyyah he prompted its people to follow him so they did. Many Arabs obeyed him, until he became strong and the desert feared him. He used to tell them: I am calling upon you to unite and leave polytheism.

Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab, according to the “History ofNajd” book by Mahmud Shukri AI-Alusi; grew up in the town ofAl-‘Ayniyyah, the land ofNajd, he read religion to his father in accordance with the school of Ahmad bin Hanbal, and ever since he was a little child; he spoke words which Muslims didn’t know and furthermore he was denying them what they have agreed to do. Yet no one helped him in that respect so; he traveled from AI-‘Ayniyyah to Mecca, then to AI-Medina where he learned from sheikh ‘Abdallah bin Ibrahim bin Sayf, and he emphasized AI-Tankir [CL: That is to deny something be it the profit or practices in Islam etc…] over appealing to the profit Muhammad (God’s blessing and peace be upon him) by his tomb. Later on he moved to Najd then to Basra; when he arrived in Basra, he stayed there for a period oftime where he learned from Sheikh Muhammad AI-Majmu’i, and lied to its people about many things so they threw him out. He fled there, and after many moves he arrived in a town called Huraymulah in Najd, the town where his father came from; he stayed with him and read to him and showed disapproval of Muslim beliefs in Najd; his father reprimanded him but Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab wouldn’t stop until they got into a big dispute. Furthermore, he engaged into many arguments with the Muslims of Huraymulah that lasted for two years until his father passed away in 1153 of Hegira and he became bold enough to bring out his beliefs and disapprove of what Muslim have concurred. The scum of people have joined him until the people of the town became fed up with his articles and were determined to kill him so; he moved from Huraymulah to Al-‘Ayniyyah which was governed by ‘Uthman bin Ahmad bin Mu’ammar. Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab allured him ofbecoming the king of Najd so; ‘Uthman helped him and he told the people ofhis disapproval ofMuslims and was followed by few ofthe people of Al-‘Ayniyyah. He demolished the dome of Zayd bin AI-Khattab by AI-Jubaylah which made him important and his news reached Sulayman bin Muhammad bin ‘Aziz AI-Hamidi owner of AI-Ihsa’, as well as Alqatif and its dependant territories so; Sulayman sent a letter to ‘Uthman ordering him to kill bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab and warning him of violating his order. ‘Uthman didn’t care and violated the order so, Sulayman ordered him to leave his kingdom, bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab told him then: ifyou support me you will rule Najd, but Sulayman didn’t listen to him therefore; he left to AI-Dar’iyyah in 1160 ofHegira (which is the land of Musaylimah the Liar) and its ruler at the time was; Muhammad bin Su’ud, from the tribe of’ Anayzah. He begged him and allured him of ruling the land of Najd so he followed him and supported him in killing Muslims. Thus he wrote to the people of Najd, their Rulers, and their judges requesting their allegiance. Few ofthem submitted to him and few didn’t pay him attention so; he ordered the people of AI-Dar’iyyah to fight, so they complied and fought with him the people of Najd and AIhsa’ many times, until some ofthem submitted to him willingly or unwillingly, and the emirate ofNajd became the property of the family ofSu’ud helplessly and by force.

Sheikh Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab was known among his relatives by his shrewdness and brightness and portrayed as active, polite and extremely hard working. He used to give his followers everything he had; he was taught 22 of 56 184 The classification markings are original to the Iraqi documents and do not reflect current US classification. – 23- 16 by great teachers, wise men, and scholars and he became the herald ofthis nation. He conformed to A1- Hanafiyyah method, mimicking Imam Aba Hanifah in the fundamentals, but following his personal views when it comes to ramifications. Afterwards he went on giving legal opinions independently based on his own discretion, and he called people upon this. Such these discretions are considered all Muslim denominations, Jews, Christians, and all types ofpeople are infidels, polytheists, and same as idol worshipers; his proof ofthat is that the glorification and reverence ofMuslims for profit Muhammad’s tomb (God’s blessing and peace be upon him), his holy garden, and the tombs ofthe virtuous, is nothing but worshipping idols. That is the same for the case of Christians and Jews who set up statues of Musa and Christ (Peace and prayer be upon him) in their churches and temples. However; devotion to God is to kneel to the very incumbent of existence and worship him, might and majesty belongs to him, and have no partners with him.

A crowd of his own tribe and the public followed him in that, and he become to have circles that have voice and can come to results. Yet he is still threatening to demolish the dome of God’s messenger Muhammad (God’s blessing and peace be upon him) and all holy tombs. He is putting before his eyes that once he takes over the power, he will make them even with ground and abolish any trace to them. Although this movement or faith emerged and spread during the era of Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab in the eighteenth century; yet the very first seed was since the days ofAhmad bin Tamimah in the seventeenth century and his student, bin Maytham AI-Jawziyyah.

Muhammad Bin ‘Abd-AI-Wahab’s Trips Before The Missionary

16. Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab’s trip to Mecca was for acquiring education and Hajj, then he went to AI-Medina AI-Munawwarah where he learned religion from narrator; AI-Sayyd Hayat AI Sundi and the scholar AI-Majdi ‘Abdallah bin Ibrahim Al Sayifin 1723 A.D. Then he returned to his home town afterwards and started to deny openly the acts of obsession with the profit, the guardians, and the holy men, and considered that polytheism. He was opposed with sarcasm for saying that which made him leave AI-‘Ayniyyah in 1724 A.D. passing thru AI-Ihsa and stayed with sheikh ‘Abdallah bin Muhammad AI-Shafi’i AI-Ihsa’i, then he entered Iraq and went to Basra and stayed at the school of sheikh Muhammad bin AI-Majmu’i located in the famous district ofAI-Mujamma’a in Basra. Because of his missionary, the people ofAI-Basra started to harass him so he left it walking on foot, and almost died ofheat and tiresome. He arrived at AI-Zubayr and returned to his family in Huraymulah after his family moved to it as a result oftheir dispute with its prince. Then Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab left to Baghdad and stayed in AI-Wazir mosque (AI-Malik bin Husayn). He worked in teaching theology to Sheikh ‘Abd-al-Karim AI-Kurdi AI-Shafi’i and Sheikh Sabghatallah AI-Haydari. He was elected Imam to one ofthe mosques in Baghdad, and there he met sheikh ‘Abd-al-Rahman AI-Suwaydi; one of Baghdad’s senior scholars. He married a rich woman there, after she died, he inherited lots money from her and stayed in Baghdad three years. After his wife’s death, Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab left to Kurdistan and stayed for one year there; he moved from there to Iran and lived in Al-‘Abbasi School in Asfahan and was educated by Mirza Khan AI-Asfahani. He stayed for a year then moved to Tehran accompanied by his student from Baghdad; ‘Ali AI-Ghazar.

Afterwards he moved to Turkey teaching people the faith of Hanbal although their faith was Hanafi. He left there and returned to Syria where he stayed six months in Aleppo studying Arabic language; then he moved to Damascus where the school ofHanbali teachings is and the home of Timiyyah and AI-Jawziyyah. There he condemned acts of Sufis, Darawish, and Naqshbandies, and their glorifying to the tomb oftheir sheikh; Muhi-al-Din bin’Arabi.

Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab left Damascus heading to Jerusalem which he then left to Cairo and lived in AI-Azhar and was the student of Sheikh Muhammad Zain-al-Din, he stayed there for two years, and returned to his family in 1738 A.D. This trip enabled him to learn about the common people, and what they do; it also gave him abundant knowledge of the Muslim schools offaith until he announced his calling and was opposed by his father. He remained isolated for two years until the death ofhis father late 1739 A.D. He was appointed a judge after his father, but because of his calling, the people of the town attempted to assassin him so; he escaped to Al-‘Ayniyyah and was received by its prince; he married AI-Jawharh bint ‘Abdallah bin AI-Mu’ammar from the prince and started his calling from there. He worked in teaching the tribes and together with the prince, they demolished the dome of the tomb of Zain bin AI-Kattab, removed the embellishments, and threw stones at a prostitute. In addition to that, he wrote the book (Al-Tawhid) which made the prince of AI-Hisa order the prince ofAl-‘Ayniyyah to throw him out so; he left to AI-Dar’iyyah in the year 1745 A.D.l

His Encounter with Muhammad Bin Su’ud in AI-Dar’iyyah

17. After leaving Al-‘Ayniyyah, Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab headed to AI-Dar’iyyah. He arrived there in the year 1745 A.D. There he met Muhammad bin Su’ud who was nicknamed AlSheikh, but he was given the title Prince and the name sheikh was restricted to men of religion. The first meeting between the prince and the sheikh was in the home of Sheikh Ahmad bin Suwaylim Al- ‘Arrifi, they both agreed to support each other and to give the religious power to Muhammad bin ‘AbdaI-Wahab while the family of Su’ud will be in charge ofthe secular power (government). They agreed and shook hands saying (Blood for blood and destruction for destruction)2

For the close relation between the Family of Su’ud and AI-Wahabi Movement, we will have a brief introduction to Muhammad bin Su’ud.

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Footnotes:
I Cited with liberty from the book ofSheikh Khaz’al and Sheikh Al-Najdi, reference previously mentioned. 2 Sheikh Khaz’al, reference previously mentioned, page 159 -160, also Al-‘Allamah Al-Najdi is a previous reference, page 49.

Muhammad bin Su’ud was born in Al-Dar’iyyah in 1687 AD. He is Muhammad bin Su’ud bin Miqrin bin Markhan bin Ibrahim bin Musa bin Rabi’ah bin Mani’. His ancestors trace back to the tribe of ‘Anzah, one ofthe Arabic tribes. Books which support the family ofSu’ud, agree thatl ; he took the sheikdom of Al-Dar’iyyah for forty years, he spent half of them, before the arrival of the Sheik, and married one ofthe sheikh’s daughters and had four boys; Su’ud and Faysal were killed in his life time, whereas ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz and ‘Abdallah ere left. He died while he was in AI-Dar’iyyah and was buried there in the year 1765 AD.

As for the books that do not support his calling; they mention something different. Yusif Hatatah states that (Bin Su’ud is not related to one of the famous Arabic homes, neither pre Islamic times, nor during Islamic times Y. Yet ‘Abd-al-Wahab Al-Shammari says (Muhammad Bin Su’ud is ofa Jewish descent also, and traces back to the Jewish Mardakhai bin Ibrahim bin Mushi; who was a merchant in AlBasra, he was approached by a group from the tribe of’Anza, and Al-Masalikh subdivision to buy from him; he claimed to be one of them and was extremely generous with them and traveled with them to Najd and his name became Markhan bin Ibrahim bin Musa, men gathered around him because of his money and wealth?

Yet Nasir Al-Su’ud; he says in his book (The History ofthe Su’ud Family) that the Saudi ambassador in Cairo, ‘Abdallah bin Ibrahim Al-Mufaddal, had paid Muhammad Al-Tamimi thirty five thousand Jinee in the year 1943 AD. to place a fake tree for the family of Su’ud and the family of ‘Abd-al Wahab and merge them together in one tree claiming that they are from the origin of profit Muhammad (God’s blessing and peace be upon him). The Saudis have rewarded him by appointing him a manager for all Saudi libraries 4. Then Al-Shammari goes back to mention that the ancestors of the family of Su’ud is Jewish because; the name Muhammad bin Su’ud bin Muqrin bin Makun bin Mardakhai bin Ibrahim bin Mushi, is not Arabic and Arabs do not use names such as (Mardakhai), (Mushi or Makwan) which were changed later to (Markhan, Musa, and Muqrin).

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Footnotes:
I Same previous reference, page 50.
2 YusifKamil Hatatah, a book by the name; Al-Mas’alah Al-Hijaziyyah [CL: translates; Al-Hijaz Affair]
3 Al-Shammari, Al-Wahabi Movement, preiously mentioned reference, page 21.
4 Al-Sa’id Nasir, The History ofthe Su’ud Family, Part 1, page 17.

Third Topic:

Invasions and the Wahabi connections; and the views ofwriters and historians

.:. The Wahabi invasions in Najd

. •:. The Wahabis and AI-Hijaz.

•:. AI-Wahabi movement and Iraq.

•:. The Wahabi – British relations.

•:. Different views ofthe Wahabi Movement

.:. Conclusion

The Wahabi Invasions in Najd

18. Sheikh Khaz’al states in his book (Bin Su’ud and Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab were in full agreement in all oftheir behaviors as ifthey were one personality with two functions in life. Thus the prince never took an important decision or started a project without the approval of the Sheikh)l. After two years of his stay in Al-Dar’iyyah, Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab ordered its people to fight other tribes and call upon them to his ideology. His first invasion was on Al-‘Arab [CL: The Bedouins]; they killed them and took their money. In 1746 and 1755 the people ofHuraymulah lead by their judge Sheikh Sulayman, brother of Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab, threw out the prince of the Su’ud family, consequently; ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz bin Su’ud along with 800 fighters marched towards Huraymulah, killed its people and took possession ofit. In 1757 A.D. ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz prepared an army in which he seized (Manfluhah) and wrecked its dam (Al-Rasha) and the fighting went on between them until’Abd-al- ‘Aziz killed its chiefs, conquered it in 1761, and demolished its homes and domes. In 1747 the emirate of the Su’ud family directed an army which conquered Shadiq, seized its livestock, and killed many of its people. In 1756 Ashiqar was seized and conquered after few invasions. In 1761, they invaded AlSadir in Northern Najd. The Su’ud Family forces killed people, burnt houses, seized livestock and money during their invasions.

In Muhammad bin Su’ud’s era, his army engaged in wars and invaded the areas of Riyadh, Najdan, and Ihsa’ in which; Su’ud and Faysal the sons ofthe Prince were killed upon the attack by Daham bin Daras, owner of Riyadh in 1747 and Riyadh was subjugated to the rule ofthe Su’ud family following many battles in 1764. In 1765 Prince Muhammad bin Su’ud died leaving ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz behind; who seized AI-Zulfa in 1780 A.D. and Al-Mujamma’a, that was famous for its hostility towards the Wahabi Movement, in 1779 A.D. And with that, the whole region was conquered; with the leadership of Su’ud bin Muhammad. In the year 1774 A.D. Al-Dulm was seized and its owner Zayd bin Zamil and its people were killed. In 1782 A.D. Al-‘Aqim was seized, and 1785 A.D. ‘Antarah was seized, and over there Prince Su’ud bin’Abd-al-‘Aziz was acknowledged as crown prince, and Muhammad bin’AbdaI-Wahab secluded himselffrom politics, stayed put at home, and referred matters to Prince ‘Abd-al- ‘Aziz bin Su’ud.

In 1790 A.D., AI-Ihsa’ was completely conquered and the Su’ud family reigned over Najd; and stirred its direction to Hijaz where Mecca, Medina, Jedda, Al-Ta’if, and Yanbu’ are; and the reign there was for the Nobles of Mecca, The Hashemite who had absolute power under nominal rule of the Ottoman State!.

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Sheikh Khaz’al, previously mentioned reference, page 265.

The Wahabis and AI-Hijaz

19. AI-Hijaz is the dividing mountains between the high Najd and the low coast line ofthe Red Sea; its most popular cities are Mecca, Medina, Al-Ta’if, and Yanbu’. It was successively ruled by the Nobles ofMecca, but when Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab declared his missionary in Najd; the people ofAI-Hijaz started to follow the course of that missionary. After the Sheikh [CL: That is Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab] stopped in AI-Dar’iyyah and began to fight his opponents and destroy domes, and the practices that are related to this missionary; the nobles ofMecca joined his opposition and declared their war against the missionary, and decided to do away with it. The first one to confront the Wahabi Movement was the Noble Mas’ud bin Sa’id who submitted reports to the Sublime Port [CL: Ottoman authority] explaining the threat of the missionary to the Islamic Caliphate in Turkey; he gained the blessing from the Sublime Port in which the people ofNajd were prohibited from making the pilgrimage and entering Mecca. After his death, his brother (Musa’id) took over the matters of Mecca and kept his brother’s position until he died leaving behind, ‘Abdallah bin Sa’id; who ruled for few days, and his brother (Ahmad) took over. His nephews; the family ofMusa’id, arouse against him and forced him out. The emirate was turned over to Surur bin Musa’id who permitted the Wahabis to fulfill the religious obligation of pilgrimage after they pay levy just like foreigners. When the power was turned over to Noble Ghalib; he deployed ten thousand fighters from Arabs, Turks, Egyptians, and Moroccans; with the leadership of his brother ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz and the nobles ofMecca he attacked Najd however; they were faced with strong resistance and noble Ghalib was forced to enter into peace agreement.
After long battles, the Su’ud family with the leadership of ‘Uthman AI-Mudaiqi were able to conquer Al-Ta’if, and Prince Ghalib was forced to leave it in 1803 A.D., two hundred men of its people were killed, its wealth and weapons were seized, and ‘Uthman was appointed its prince2 • The Su’ud family then was able to rein Mecca after it was turned over by noble’Abd-al-Mu’in in exchange for him continuing to be its prince. In the year 1804 A.D., Medina surrendered after the forces of the Su’ud family have laid a strong and strict siege, imposed tax upon its people, seized the treasures located in the grave of profit Muhammad (God’s blessing and peace be upon him), and tried to wreck the dome of the profit’s grave but they were faced with strong resistance so they left it
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Footnotes:

1 Cited and summarised with liberty from the book of The Biography of Sheikh Muhammad bin ‘Abd al-Wahab, and the books of The History ofNajd and The History of the Su’ud Family.

2 Sheikh Khaz’al, previously mentioned reference, page 375.

3 Al-Sammari, The Wahabi Movement, previously mentioned reference, page 75.

Thus were the Wahabis able to control Al-Hijaz and make its people believe in the missionary Furthermore; they were able to impose the ambitious-al-‘Aziz bin ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz so he became wealthy and began to communicate with the kings and princes of the Arabic and Islamic countries, explain the objectives ofthe missionary and its substance and call upon them to accept it. The Ottoman State was skeptical about the movement and saw a dangerous threat to setting forth its power on the Arabic countries and the establishing of the emirates which will succeed it. Therefore; it authorized Muhammad’Ali, the governor ofEgypt, to stifle it, and appointed him governor ofAlHijaz in addition to Egypt. Muhammad’Ali sent a military expedition yet it came to nothing so; he sent another expedition lead by his son; Ibrahim Pasha who gained victory over the Su’ud family and inflicted enormous losses upon them, seized Al-Hijaz, destroyed Al-Dar’iyyah which is the centre of the Wahabi leadership, and arrested ‘Abdallah bin Su’ud and sent him to Astana where he was executed.
After that; Turki bin ‘Abdallah bin Muhammad bin Su’ud came into sight in the year 1888. He was able to bring back the authority over Najd. He started actively uniting his state and spreading his missionary; he was able to stretch out his rule to reach Al-Ihsa’, assumed AI-Riyadh his capital, and began communicating with countries in the East and the West to call upon them to accept his missionary. He described himself as guardian of all Muslims and was called Imam. His son Faysal succeeded him, he was more eager which scared the Ottomans. Thus; they sent an expedition during Muhammad ‘Ali’s time and was destined to make triumph over Faysal who managed to escape and recaptured his power over Najd, and edges of Al-Hijaz and ‘Asir in 1260 of Hegira; He forced the princes ofMasqat, Bahrain, and the coasts of the Arab Gulfto pay annual levy . After his death, his son ‘Abd-al-Rahman succeeded him in 1288 of Hegira, where the fighting among the Su’ud family over the reign had started which helped the coming out ofthe prince of Shamar; Muhammad bin ‘AbdaI-Rashid. He came to be of widespread authority covered Najd, Al-Ihsa’ up to the Arab Gulf east, and the mountains of Hawran, Wadi Al-Dawasir, and Wadi Al-Rumman West. He made Ha’il the center of his state; and was caught in many big conflicts with the Su’ud family, conquered AI-Riyadh, defeated the Wahabis, and forced ‘Abd-al-Rahman to escape and go to the Kuwaiti sheikhs.
In the year 1900 A.D. ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz bin ‘Abd-al-Rahman, managed to attack AI-Rashid family and reclaimed AI-Riyadh, the conflict between them lasted for twenty years, where the Ottoman government supported the Rashid family which made the Su’ud family get in touch with the British and sign a treaty with them in 1914 A.D. thus England acknowledged the emirate ofthe Su’ud family over Najd, Al-Ihsa’, Al-Qatif, and AI-Jabal; and promised to help them against any attacks provided that, they do not deal with anyone else but them also; they shall not interfere in the affairs of Kuwait and the Gulf States which; were under the protection of Britain. Also Britain dedicated a financial aid that amounts to forty thousand golden sterling pounds

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Footnotes:
1 Darwazah, Muhammad ‘Izzah, The Birth ofthe Modem Arabic Movement. The Modem Library Beirut 1949 A.D., page 70.
and through this alliance; the Sa’ud family was able to remove the emirate ofAI-Rashid family and subjugate them to the authority of the family of Sa’ud Al-Wahab
After that, a conflict erupted between the Nobles of Mecca and the Su’ud family and the reason was that SharifHusayn bin ‘Ali; noble of Mecca, had signed with Britain his famous agreement in which he teamed up with the British and declared a revolution against the Ottoman State and became king in the year 1916 and considered Najd included in his area of reign. ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz refused that, and the conflict between them began with’Abdul-‘Aziz coming out victorious when he attached Al-Ta’if and seized it in 1924 A.D. then he proceeded to Mecca then Rabi’ and Medina and seized them. Thereupon; SharifHusayn pulled back to Jeddah where he transferred the monarchy to his son ‘Ali who receded for his inability so; it was ascended by ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz and Al-‘Asir in 1930 where he negotiated with the British and signed an agreement with them in which they acknowledged his reign over Najd and Hijaz. In the year 1932 A.D. and his kingdom was called; (The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia).
The Wahabi Movement and Iraq
20. The power in Southern Iraq was in the hand ofthe Shabib family and the princes ofAlMuttafaq at that time and Thawini bin ‘Abdalah Al-Mutawlli was ruling Al-Muttafaq, and carried out many expeditions over Al-Qasim gaining many victories. He also launched an attack on AI-Dar’iyyah, but before he got to it, the prince of Su’ud took them by surprise and marched an army to meet Thawini and his tribes, a fight erupted among them ended with the defeat of Thawini’s army and his forces, leaving plunder and money and heading towards Safwan where he was chased by the army of Su’ud whom he had defeated and returned victorious to Al-Dar’iyyah. In 1789 A.D. Thawini returned with another expedition on Al-Qasim, and with the direction and the support of the Ottoman State in 179 A.D. Similar to that, the Su’ud family prepared three armies; entrusted the first one to Muhammad bin Mu’ayqil which camped in the village ofAl-Ma’ Al-Ma’rufin Al-Ta’iff, the other one was under  the command of Imishari bin Su’ud which camped in AI-Ihsa’, and the third one lead by prince Su’ud, planned to be a cover for the other two armies. Met after the arrival of Thawini in AI-Ihsa’, and Hasan bin Imsahri assumed the general command, and was able to intercept Thawini’s forces who was killed in his tent, in the hands of a slave who was authorized by prince Su’ud in the year 1797; the thing which prompted the army’s anger, destroyed it, and helped the Su’ud family to defeat them, kill them, and chase them until they arrived at The Kuwaiti Sheikhdom.
In retaliation for the attack of AI-Muttafaq tribes; the Su’ud family, the Wababis, set out an expedition on Iraq led by Su’ud. He penetrated the Iraqi border until he went deeply into Suq AI-Shuyukh, killed its people, and violated its sanctuaries which made its escape

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I Darwazah, previously mentioned reference, page 71 24
and they died drowning in the Euphrates river in the year 1798 A.D. He left it afterwards to go to Samawah, attacked the tribes of Shammar, tribes ofAI-Zafir, the family of Ba’iyj and Zaqarit, killed the chiefof Shammar (Matlaq), and seized the money and the prizes I. In the year 18 01 A.D. Prince Su’ud attacked Iraq’s Southern border and proceeded into the Middle Euphrates, (Shattatah Tribes) in ‘Ayn AI-Tamr in Karbala’ and camped out there; he entered the city climbing up its walls in March 23, 1802. There was no army in it so; its people rushed to resist them, but they were not able to face such barbaric attacks, many ofthem were killed and the Su’ud forces took hold oftheir money goods, and looted everything inside the dome of Imam AI-Husayn’s (peace be upon him) tomb from valuable statues and precious gems. Furthermore; they took the monument located on the bed ofthe Imam, sabotaged the bed and ruined it2 • The forces of the Wahabi family of Su’ud carried out killing, looting, and destroying all Shiite sights in Karbala’3.
Darwazah stated that the forces of the Su’ud family attacked all shrines glorified by the Shiite in Iraq; such as the toms of ‘Ali and Husayn (peace be upon them) and others. They destroyed them, and looted their relics, alleging that these shrines; are violations with all their embellishments, the celebrations that take place on their ground 6554 s, sacrifices that are offered to them and the prayers and appeals which are cited for them. Furthermore; these forces have murdered all Shiite who opposed them 4.
In the beginning ofthe seventeenth century, the Wahabis attacked convoys ofpilgrims from the tribes of(AI-Khaza’il) ofthe people of Iraq near Najd. The threat ofthe Wahabis increased and they raided the town of(‘Annah) in the year 1800 A.D., they killed its people, and looted their wealth. Also; they raided the village of(Kabisah) but its people resisted them with all their power 5.
In the year 1810 A.D. a Gang of Wahabis led by ‘Abdallah bin Mas’ud reached a place near by Baghdad and proceeded robbing people and killing them. As a result of all these atrocities and others, a man from Northern Iraq by the name of’Uthman AI-Kurdi, travelled to AI-Dar’iyyah and stayed there claiming that he is seeking education and religion killed prince’ Abd-al-Amir bin Su’ud in AI-Ta’ifmosque, which is known in AI-Dar’iyyah; in October 3,1803 A.D. As a revenge for his family, Su’ud was inaugurated their prince!. Himli comments by saying:”The new ideology found very little popularity in Iraq; the alleged Wahabi armies were received just like deserters and thieves because; the tribes of Iraq, Sunni and Shiite, were not able to change their faith with one paved by fire and invasion of livestock)2. He adds about the invasion of Karbala’ (The rough Wahabis have worked up their way to the holy shrines and started to destroy them…. and on top ofthese acts, they killed about fifty people near the shrine and 500 others outside the shrine in AI-Sahn… They mercilessly killed everyone they encountered and robbed every house) 3.

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1 Sheikh Khaz’al, previously mentioned reference, page 386
2 AI-Wa’ili, ‘Uthman bin Sanad AI-Wa’ili AI-Basari, Study of the Su’ud family, Dar AI-Hikmah press/ Baghdad, 1991 A.D.
3 AI-Khafni ‘Abd-al-Mun’im, Encyclopedia of Difference, Groups, schools, and Islamic Movements, second edition, Madbuli N. book store, Egypt 1999 A.D., page 681
4 Darwazah, The Birth of The Modem Arabic Movement, previously mentioned reference, page 71.
5 AI-Shammari, The Wahabi Movement, previously mentioned reference, page 70.

The British-Wahabi Relation

21. Humfer mentioned in his biography his relation with Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab when he met him in AI-Basra, and how he befriended him and their relationship became very strong to the extent that Humfer was able to stir ‘Abd-al-Wahab in the way that serves the British intelligence without him knowing. In Isfahan, ‘Abd-al-Wahab was approached to fulfil a British plan provided that Britain will protect him, provide him with money and arms, and to give him a small emirate in the outskirts ofNajd under the following conditions:
a. Expiation of Muslims and justify killing them and robbing their money.
b. Demolish the Kaaba and the tombs of the pioneer Muslims, consider them idols, and disrespect the Profit and the Caliphates.
Humfer listed the complete details which led him to this result since its beginning in 1710 A.D. when Britain delegated him to collect information for bracing the ways to break Muslims and control their land in Turkey, Iraq, Egypt, Iran, and AI-Hijaz. He called himself Muhammad and learned Persian, Turkish, and Arabic languages in London; until he reached Turkey and stayed in a mosque for the purpose of learning. He mastered the Turkish and Arabic languages and learned Islamic science for two years; then he moved to Basra and worked as a carpenter claiming to be from Azerbaijan. People believed him because of his looks and his Turkish language. He met Bin Abd-al-Wahab there, the ambitious young man irritable and resentful of the Turkish rule. Humfer says that: (The ambitious young man Muhammad, used to think of himself as wise as the Koran and Sunna, and stipulated the views of the scholars, not just the scholars ofhis own time and the four Islamic schools of thought yet; the views ofAbi Bakr and ‘Vmar [CL: Muslim Caliphates] too, as he understood the Koran in a way different from them, and he used to say: “I am leaving you with the Koran and the Sunna and didn’t say, I am leaving you with Koran, Sunna, AI-Sahaba [CL: the companions ofthe profit] and the schools ofthought” Humfer found his long sought goal in Muhammad who used to look down upon the Caliphates and Imams such as Abi Hanifah, and said: (I am more discerning than Abi Hanifah). This Spy mentions that ‘Abd-al-Wahab started to explain Koran in light of the views they present to him, not according to the understanding ofthe profit’s companions and the sheikhdoms, and this is where he became under control, poison his thoughts, cause him to fall into mistakes, and commit sins. He started permitting himself what God had prohibited him from doing. Afterwards; ‘Abd-al-Wahab was approached to work for the interest ofBritain, and he agreed; and they gave him their big plan to destroy Islam. Following that; ‘Abd-al-Wahab went to see his family along with Humfer whom he claimed to be a slave that he bought from the market; he stayed with him for two years during which the plan to emerge the missionary was concluded. Humfer had gathered the men around him, gave them arms and money, and years after according to Humfer, the British ministry was able to bring Muhammad bin Su’ud to ‘Abd-al-Wahab’s side and together they assumed Al-Dar’iyyah, the capital of the new religion!.

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I Same previous reference, page 72
2 Loncaric, Mr Steven Homily, Four Centuries ofIraq’s Modern History, Translated by Ja’far Al-Khayyat, third edition, Baghdad 1963 A.D., page 211
3 Same previous reference, page 265.
22. The relationship between the Wahabis and Britain didn’t end after Humfer (or Muhammad), as he called himself, completed his mission. Thus Britain worked on emerging the so called Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab, and arranged for his meeting with Muhammad bin Su’ud to destroy the Arabic Islamic State, and for the sake of the British interests; the British! Wahabi relations lasted from the eighteenth century till this date. In the early twentieth century, the British began developing these relationships in a form of treaties, and to fulfill their plans; the Indian government appointed a Jewish British officer by the name (David Shakespeare) and sent him to Riyadh, upon the breakout of the First World War, to represent the British interests. This British officer led one ofthe Wahabi invasions in 1915 A.D. with ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz bin Su’ud to seize Ha’il along with five thousand individuals who started out from Kuwait to kill the family ofRashid who was against Britain; the family of Shammar was able to defeat them and kill (Shakespeare)2. Thus the leadership was tended to (Johan Philippi) to coordinate between the Wahabis and Britain, and due to the fact, he changed his name to (Muhammad Philippi) and changed later to Hajj (‘Abdallah Philippi), he grew his beard, gave a monthly salary equal to 500 sterling pounds to ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz and to his father ‘Abd-al-Rahman and 25 sterling pounds to each of his brothers. Also; he brought 30,000 rifles with their ammunition and formed a religious army that abide by the image of the sheikhs completely, and was called (the Brotherhood Army) their distinctive mark is a (turban) over the head and their motto is (The smell of Paradise is approaching, who wants to be first?) 1 .
Philippi led the first meeting between Bracey Cocas, the British envoy to the Arab Gulf, and’Abd-al- ‘Aziz bin Su’ud in Al-Qasir Camp in 1915; by virtue ofwhich he granted ‘Abd-a1-‘Aziz the medal of the British Sultanate for his service to Britain, Bracey Cocas, in that meeting, called on the problem of the Palestinians and the Jews and asked for ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz’s help by giving the Palestinian land to the Jews as a collateral for the endurance of his power, hence he said: (I think this is a guarantee for your endurance as it is in the interest of Britain that the Jews have a homeland and existence, and Britain’s interests are, by all means, in your interest) ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz replied: (Yes; if my acknowledgement means so much to you, I acknowledge thousand times granting a homeland to the Jews in Palestine or other than Palestine) 2

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Footnotes:
1 Summarized with liberty from Humfer’s autobiography, page 31-49.
2 J.D. Discove, Kuwait and its Neighbors, translated by Jasim Al-Mubarak, first edition, part one, Kuwait, 1964 A.D., page 146.

Various views in the Wahabi Movement

23. Historians and writers who have discussed the Wahabi movement and the History of the Su’ud family have differed in their views, some of them consider it a corrective movement, some have ranked it among the destructive religious movements that are he research extreme, some considered it a foreign movement that has slipped in to destroy Islam by means of the Jews, Britain, the western, and America, others considered it a religious movement at the beginning, but has been made for the purpose of the Su’ud family that is eager to control the Arabic Peninsula in Najd and AL-Hijaz. I deemed it appropriate to list most of the views I have read:
In that respect, Darwazah stated that: (This movement ia ascribed to a scholar from Najd bt the name of Sheikh Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab, originally from a town by the name of’Ayniyyah in Najd. He was educated by AI-Hanbali school of Islamic thought. He was in Iraq and other Arabic countries and witnessed what the Arab Muslims were up to from heresies, religiously and morally forbidden acts, and bad habits which contradict Islam. He began to disapprove that and condemn that, and to call upon them to return to Islam and its attributes in the book of God and his Profit)3.
Another view states that (During the days of Sultan Salim, injustice grew on the hands of every wicked giant, and so did the mighty power of’Abd-al-‘Aziz bin Sa’ud; he made roads scary, by filling them with bombs, and soldiers calling for the heresy of Muhammad Bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab flaring up fires every where there is population and structure and calling everyone who believed in one God and spent his day and night praying; infidel. He permitted shedding blood of Muslims and called them by the names which are attributed to infidels)! As for Father Karmaly he says ofthe Wahabi calling that (they are Sunnis from Ahmad bin Hanbal’s school ofthought, or AI- Wahabi because the Wahabis are Hanbalis[ CL: ascribed Ahmad bin Hanbal]. Yet the reformists who are enemies from Najd called them that because they want to ascribe to a new faith and accuse them of being infidels, yet that is not the case, the Hanbalis are Wahabis and the Wahabis are Hanbalis in their faith although the name is new but the religion of the people of AI-Khumaysiyyah (a City in Najd) is the religion of the forefathers CL: That is the religion of Profit Muhammad and his Companions] and the religion of the Islamic Sheikh Bin Taymiya the religion of its student sheikh Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab)2.
Whereas ‘Abd- aI-Wahab AI-Shammari mentions in his introducing ofAI-Wahabi Movement (The Wahabi is the movement ofAI-Tunisi in Tunis and a friend of Hasan Khan in Mubal and Amir’Ali in Kalkalta) 3

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! Nasar AI-Sah’id, the history Sa’ud, previously mentioned reference, part 1 page 58-59
2 Same previous reference, page 156-159
3Darwazah, the Birth ofthe Modem Religious Movement, previous reference page 70
Al-Shammari goes back to say: (The Jewish origins had reflected on the attitude of the Wahabies and the Su’ud family who have used Terrorism, Killing, Slaughtering, and destruction against the Arab Muslims. Through their alliance with the British, the foreigners, and some of Jewish Masonic leaders)4 And Khahni justifies this as follow (when the followers of; Abd al-Wahab set out destroying domes and removing what was on the grave ofthe profit( God’s blessing and peace be upon him) from ornaments and Jewels; He and his friends were accused of infidelity and atheism. As a matter offact; There was no need for this annoyance because the base of the Wahabi actions is connected to Sunnaitself because it was the recommendations of the profit (God-, blessing and peace be upon him)s And so does Darwazah to drop charges of the Wahabis when he says (The Ottoman state & Muhammad ‘Ali, have collaborated on spreading a propaganda against the Wahabi missionary and depict it as a distorted faith, or movement, from the book ofGod and the Sunna of his profit, So in order to make their Muslim soldiers fight them because of their faith and prompt all the skins to approve that just like what Al- Zaydiyyah did with their war on the Zaydi Imams. Although there is no deviation from the book of God and the Sunna of his profit especially in The Wahabi movement there is a calling to return to the book of God and the Sunna of his profit) 6

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Footnotes: lAl- Wa’ili, Study ofthe Su’ud family, previously mentioned reference, page 177.
2 Father Karmily (AI- Khamisiyyah), Lughat Al Arab magazine [CL: The language ofthe Arabs] 1911 A.D. Page 18
3 AI- Khafni, The Encyclopedia AI- Farq, previous mentioned reform page 68.
4 AI- Shammari, Roots on the Wahabi movement & previousely mentioned reference, page 30
5 AI- Khafui, the encyclopedia AI-Farq previous mentioned reforms
6 Darwazah, The Birth ofthe Arabic Movement previously reference page 72-73
However; the professor attorney Mr. Faryid mentions in his book (The Wahabis are people who followed the method of Muhammad bin ‘Abd- al- Wahab; a man who was born in AI- Dar’iyyah, Arab land form of Najd and AI-Hijaz Ever since he was little he displayed signs of noble descent and, determination, he was also known for his noble deeds among all who resort to him. After he studied AI- Hanfi school ofthought in his home land, he traveled to Isfahan, Seeking its scholars and learned from them until his religious information became vast especially in the area or interpreting the Koran. He Returned to his homeland in 1171 Hegira and adopted the faith of Aba Hanifah and used religion as means to achieve the intentions ofhis prejudice faith or political goals, and used the method of force, adventure and war as means of expanding and attacking. Thus, the Wahabis considered all Muslims infedals and their land is the land of atheism, and should be conquered as long as they don’t believe in the Wahabi missionary that denied all Islamic schools of thought).1
Yet Muhammad Jawad Maghniyyah describes the Wahabi movement saying; (Since the Wahabi movement had emerged in the Arabic Peninsula during the eighteenth century hostility, killing women, children, and elderly of Arab Muslims in the Arabic Peninsula and what surrounded him from the land ofIraq and of Great Syria. It is not strange that the final goal of Wahabis is to destroy Islam, and create division between Sunnis and Shiite)2 Darwazah then returns to remind that (No matter how the Wahabi movement originally possessed corrective religious feature, yet the inclusion of Su’ud family in it, the mixing with politics, and the end conclusion which was led by this Great Kingdom; all of that can be considered from the features of the Arabic Renaissance and the modem Arabic movement)3
Dr. Al- Khafni describes them in his encyclopedia by saying (Al- Wahabi movement is an elapsed movement driven by Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab 1115-1206 ofHegira spread out by many. It was said that is a corrective religious notion which transformed the theroical thoughts of Bin Timiyyah into application. It was also said of Muhammad bin Abd-al-wahab that, he is the chiefofthe modem corrective religious movement in the Arab Peninsula and he followed the righteous method ofthe ancestors calling for pure unity and condemning heresies and destroying what had gotten stuck to Islam from delusions. His missionary which he declared in 1143 of Hegira was the first flare for the Arabic renaissance in the whole world and the reform in India, Egypt, Iraq, Great Syria and Morocco and others. Who were affected so; AI-Alusi emerged in Iraq, Al- Afghani in Afghanistan, Muhammad’Abbduh in Egypt, Jamal-ai-Din Al-Tunisi in Tunisia Sadiq Hasan Khan in Mubal, and Amir Ali in Kalkata then his company made him become diligent and independent, thus he established an independent faith which was acknowledged by his followers who attended to him, and many people accepted the faith)!. But Dr. Maymunah Khalifah stated that (Its is imperative that we judge the Wahabi movement by the standards ofits era in order to admit that; it brought on good deed to the region ofNajd and rescued it from the state of ciaos and division that prevailed)2
Then she goes back to say (The Wahabi movement is distinguished by a violent and strong feature; at the time in which it maintained its religious appearance, it became an extreme national political movement in essence aiming for unity and the establishment of an Arabic empire and threw out the Persian and Turkish foreign influence from the region. For that reason, the Wahabis got in conflict with most oftheir neighbors; everyone who was not a Wahabi was accused of atheism and deviation from what is right)3.

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1 AI-Shammari, the Wahabi Movement, previously reference, page 7
2 Maghliyyah, Muhammad Jawad, This is the Wahabi, AI-Jabal press, Beirut 1964 A.D., page 6-7
3 Darwazah, The History of the Arabic Movement, previously reference, page 75
Lonkirk describes the Wahabi movement by saying: (Since then, the Najdi Empire ofBin Su’ud was known by the Wahabi faith. Thus the believers of this narrow minded, anti-existence, and deserters faith have expanded their tiny state by fighting Muslims whose faith became spoiled in their dealing with their neighbors; each invasion had its religious Fatwah. Their hatred to prosperous deserters surrounding Najd from every direction made them, not just, use extreme violence yet; they committed acts that made many people believe that their intention is to attack Islam itself. As a matter offact; their toughest citizens or their most savage tribes and fighters knew very little ofthe Koran and Suuna)4.

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Footnotes
1 AI-Khafni, AI-Farq encyclopedia, previously mentioned reference, page 681.
2 AI-Sabah, The Kuwait Relations, previously mentioned reference, page 96.
3 Same reference, page 97
4 Lonkirk, Four Centuries, previously mentioned reference, page 111 and page 210.

The Conclusion

24. The many trips of’Abd-al-Wahab, his interaction with Muslim Scholars all over the world, and what he had learned and seen have affected his ideological structure. First; he studied AI-Hanbali school of thought, then AI-Hanafi school of thought in Iraq and Turkey, and the Shiite faith in Iran; all of these studies had equipped him with more information about religion and interpretation which made him conceded so; he picked up a new school of thought in which he denied Muslims, many of their traditions and worship principles, and accused them of atheism, the thing that made Muslims hate him more. His father, who was mentioned in the books they wrote, was among the first to oppose he prevented him from going too far with his missionary. Soon after his father parted with life, he declared his missionary again until his brother Sulayman; judge ofHuraymulah, confronted him and accused him of being atheist and heresy, and that is proved in the publications of Sheikh Khaz’al who is close to the Wahabis, and in all issuances of the Islamic world that consider the Wahabi movement destructive.
After ‘Abd-al-Wahab met with Muhammad bin Su’ud and combined their efforts, this religious movement became political with dimensions and goals set for power and religion, in which the movement have tried to control the Arabic Peninsula and its outer skirts and subjugate it to the power of the Saudi Wahabis, by using hostile practices such as killing, captivity, robbing wealth and properties from their opponents in addition to destroying cities, burning them down, demolishing the domes ofits holy men, and stealing their treasures as to what happened to the dome ofZayd bin AI-Khattab’s grave in AI-‘Ayniyyah, and what they did to the shrines of ‘Ali and AI-Husayn (peace be upon him) in the cities of Najaf, Karbala’, and others.
The common interests between the Wahabis and the British have agreed in aggression and expansion. They have agreed by means of secret and open treaties, the first have imposed expansion in the Arabic Peninsula and eliminate their opponent from Arabic tribes, and the second goal was to control the countries of the Arab Gulf, rob their wealth and subjugate them to the power ofthe Su’ud family. In addition to that; they passed the Jewish-British scheme to find a home land for the Jews in Palestine. The Wahabis were able to pass few heresies by mixing them with the Islamic teachings in order to enable weakness of the mind and belief in their calling. However; these myths had surfaces and were cleared up by the efforts of Muslims who have worked hard to expose the hidden evil intentions which the Wahabis were aiming at.
Finally, I ask God almighty and all powerful that I was successful in this modest work ofmine, and God is the guardian of success.

References

1. Hatatah, YusifKamil, The book of The Hijazi Matter, 1st edition, Baghdad 1926 A.D.
2. AI-Khafni, Dr. ‘Abd-al-Mun’im, The Encyclopedia of Denominations, Groups, Schools of Thought, Parties and Islamic Movements, 2nd edition, Madbuli, Egypt, 1999
3. Sheikh Khaz’al, Husay Khalaf, Biography of Sheikh Muhammad bin ‘Abd-al-Wahab, Dar AlKutub Press, 1st edition, Beiruth 1968 A.D.
4. Darwazah, Muhammad ‘Izzah, The Birth of the Modem Arabic Movement, The Modem Library, 2nd edition, Beirut 1949 A.D.
5. Dixon, 1. D. Kuwait and its Neighbors, Traslation of Qasim Al-Mubarak, 1st edition, Part one, Kuwait 1964 A.D.
6. Al-Sa’id, Nasir, History of the Su’ud Family, 1 st edition, Part one.
7. Al-Shammari, Abd-al-Wahab, The True Wahabi Movement and The Roots, Dar Al-‘Urubah, Beirut 1992 A.D.
8. TAwran, Mustafa, The Jews ofAl-Dawnamah, Translation of Kamal Al-Khawjah, Dar AlKutub Al-Masriyyah, Cairo 1989 A.D.
9. ‘Abd-al-Wahab, AI-Sheikh Muhammad, Publication of Sheikh Muhammad bin’Abd-alWahab, Compiled by ‘Abd-al-‘Aziz Al-Rumi and others, Islamic University of Muhammad bin Su’ud, Riyadh 1398 of Hegira.
10. Attorney Professor; Muhammad Farid Beh, History of the High Ottoman State, Dar AI-Jabal, Beirut 1977 A.D.
11. Maghniyyah, Muhammad Wahab, This is the Wahabi, 1st edition, AI-Jabal Press, Beirut 1964 A.D.
12. Al-Najdi, Scholar ‘Uthman bin Bishr Al-Najdi, The Title of Glory in the History of Najd, Parts one and two, Riyadh.
13. Loankrik, Four Centuries ofThe Modem History of Iraq, Translation ofJa’far Al-Khayyat, 3rd edition, Baghdad 1968 A.D.
14. Al-Wa’ili, ‘Uthman bin Sa’d Al-Basari, Study of the Su’ud Family, Report ofDr. ‘Imad ‘AbdaI-Salam, Dar Al-Kitab Press, Baghdad 1991 A.D.
15. The Language ofthe Arabs Magazine, Issue no. 1, year 1911 A.D., Al-Adab Press, Baghdad 1911 A.D.
16. The Arabic Historian Magazine, Issue no. 34, year 1988 A.D., Baghdad.

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